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ASTAGRAF XL

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Overview

What is ASTAGRAF XL?

ASTAGRAF XL, a calcineurin-inhibitor immunosuppressant, is available for oral administration as hard gelatin capsules (tacrolimus extended-release capsules) containing the equivalent of 0.5 mg, 1 mg or 5 mg of anhydrous tacrolimus USP. Inactive ingredients include ethylcellulose NF, hypromellose USP, magnesium stearate NF and lactose monohydrate NF. The ingredients are directly proportional across all capsule strengths. The capsule shell contains gelatin NF, titanium dioxide USP, ferric oxide NF, and sodium lauryl sulfate.

Tacrolimus is the active ingredient in ASTAGRAF XL. Tacrolimus is a macrolide immunosuppressant produced by . Chemically, tacrolimus is designated as [3– [3*[(1*, 3*, 4*)], 4*, 5*, 8*, 9, 12*, 14*, 15*, 16*, 18*, 19*, 26a*]] – 5, 6, 8, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 24, 25, 26, 26a – hexadecahydro – 5, 19 – dihydroxy – 3 – [2 – (4 – hydroxy – 3 – methoxycyclo – hexyl) – 1 – methylethenyl] – 14, 16 – dimethoxy – 4, 10, 12, 18 – tetramethyl – 8 – (2 – propenyl) – 15, 19 – epoxy – 3H – pyrido[2, 1 – ][1, 4]oxaazacyclotricosine – 1, 7, 20, 21(4H, 23H) – tetrone, monohydrate.

The chemical structure of tacrolimus is:

Tacrolimus has an empirical formula of CHNO•HO and a formula weight of 822.03. Tacrolimus appears as white crystals or crystalline powder. It is practically insoluble in water, freely soluble in ethanol, and very soluble in methanol and chloroform.



What does ASTAGRAF XL look like?



What are the available doses of ASTAGRAF XL?

Capsules: 0.5 mg, 1 mg, 5 mg ()

What should I talk to my health care provider before I take ASTAGRAF XL?

How should I use ASTAGRAF XL?

ASTAGRAF XL is indicated for the prophylaxis of organ rejection in kidney transplant patients in combination with other immunosuppressants.

Limitation of Use

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What interacts with ASTAGRAF XL?

Sorry No Records found


What are the warnings of ASTAGRAF XL?

Sorry No Records found


What are the precautions of ASTAGRAF XL?

Sorry No Records found


What are the side effects of ASTAGRAF XL?

Sorry No records found


What should I look out for while using ASTAGRAF XL?

ASTAGRAF XL is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to tacrolimus .


What might happen if I take too much ASTAGRAF XL?

Postmarketing cases of overdose with tacrolimus have been reported. Overdosage adverse reactions included:

Based on the poor aqueous solubility and extensive erythrocyte and plasma protein binding, it is anticipated that tacrolimus is not dialyzable to any significant extent; there is no experience with charcoal hemoperfusion. The oral use of activated charcoal has been reported in treating acute overdoses, but experience has not been sufficient to warrant recommending its use. General supportive measures and treatment of specific symptoms should be followed in all cases of overdosage.


How should I store and handle ASTAGRAF XL?

Store at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted to 15° to 30°C (59° to 86°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature]. ASTAGRAF XL (tacrolimus) extended-release capsules are supplied in short, square bottles as well as in blister cartons (see ).Store and DispenseStore at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted to 15°C-30°C (59°F-86°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature].ASTAGRAF XL (tacrolimus) extended-release capsules are supplied in short, square bottles as well as in blister cartons (see ).Store and DispenseStore at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted to 15°C-30°C (59°F-86°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature].ASTAGRAF XL (tacrolimus) extended-release capsules are supplied in short, square bottles as well as in blister cartons (see ).Store and DispenseStore at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted to 15°C-30°C (59°F-86°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature].


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Clinical Information

Chemical Structure

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Clinical Pharmacology

Tacrolimus binds to an intracellular protein, FKBP-12. A complex of tacrolimus-FKBP-12, calcium, calmodulin, and calcineurin (an ubiquitous mammalian intracellular enzyme) is then formed and the phosphatase activity of calcineurin inhibited. Such inhibition prevents the dephosphorylation and translocation of various factors such as the nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NF-AT), and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B-cells (NF-κB).

Tacrolimus inhibits the expression and/or production of several cytokines that include interleukin (IL)-1 beta, IL‑2, IL-3, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, gamma interferon, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor. Tacrolimus also inhibits IL-2 receptor expression and nitric oxide release, induces apoptosis and production of transforming growth factor-beta that can lead to immunosuppressive activity. The net result is the inhibition of T-lymphocyte activation and proliferation as well as T-helper-cell-dependent B-cell response (i.e., immunosuppression).

Non-Clinical Toxicology
ASTAGRAF XL is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to tacrolimus .

Disulfiram

Psychotic reactions have been reported in alcoholic patients who are using metronidazole and disulfiram concurrently. Metronidazole should not be given to patients who have taken disulfiram within the last two weeks (see ).

Alcoholic Beverages

Abdominal cramps, nausea, vomiting, headaches, and flushing may occur if alcoholic beverages or products containing propylene glycol are consumed during or following metronidazole therapy (see ).

Warfarin and other Oral Anticoagulants

Metronidazole has been reported to potentiate the anticoagulant effect of warfarin and other oral coumarin anticoagulants, resulting in a prolongation of prothrombin time. When metronidazole is prescribed for patients on this type of anticoagulant therapy, prothrombin time and INR should be carefully monitored.

Lithium

In patients stabilized on relatively high doses of lithium, short-term metronidazole therapy has been associated with elevation of serum lithium and, in a few cases, signs of lithium toxicity. Serum lithium and serum creatinine levels should be obtained several days after beginning metronidazole to detect any increase that may precede clinical symptoms of lithium intoxication.

Busulfan

Metronidazole has been reported to increase plasma concentrations of busulfan, which can result in an increased risk for serious busulfan toxicity. Metronidazole should not be administered concomitantly with busulfan unless the benefit outweighs the risk. If no therapeutic alternatives to metronidazole are available, and concomitant administration with busulfan is medically needed, frequent monitoring of busulfan plasma concentration should be performed and the busulfan dose should be adjusted accordingly.

Drugs that Inhibit CYP450 Enzymes

The simultaneous administration of drugs that decrease microsomal liver enzyme activity, such as cimetidine, may prolong the half-life and decrease plasma clearance of metronidazole.

Drugs that Induce CYP450 Enzymes

The simultaneous administration of drugs that induce microsomal liver enzymes, such as phenytoin or phenobarbital, may accelerate the elimination of metronidazole, resulting in reduced plasma levels; impaired clearance of phenytoin has also been reported.

Drug/Laboratory Test Interactions

Metronidazole may interfere with certain types of determinations of serum chemistry values, such as aspartate aminotransferase (AST, SGOT), alanine aminotransferase (ALT, SGPT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), triglycerides, and glucose hexokinase. Values of zero may be observed. All of the assays in which interference has been reported involve enzymatic coupling of the assay to oxidation-reduction of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD ↔ NADH). Interference is due to the similarity in absorbance peaks of NADH (340 nm) and metronidazole (322 nm) at pH 7.

Immunosuppressants, including ASTAGRAF XL, increase the risk of developing lymphomas and other malignancies, particularly of the skin. The risk appears to be related to the intensity and duration of immunosuppression rather than to the use of any specific agent. Examine patients for skin changes and advise to avoid or limit exposure to sunlight and UV light.

Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD), associated with Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV), has been reported in immunosuppressed organ transplant patients. The risk of PTLD appears greatest in patients who are EBV seronegative. Monitor EBV serology during treatment.

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Reference

This information is obtained from the National Institute of Health's Standard Packaging Label drug database.
"https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/"

While we update our database periodically, we cannot guarantee it is always updated to the latest version.

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Professional

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Tips

Tips

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Interactions

Interactions

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