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Morphine Sulfate

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Overview

What is Morphine Sulfate?

Morphine Sulfate Extended-Release Tablets are supplied in tablet form for oral administration



What does Morphine Sulfate look like?



What are the available doses of Morphine Sulfate?

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What should I talk to my health care provider before I take Morphine Sulfate?

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How should I use Morphine Sulfate?

Morphine sulfate extended-release tablets are an extended-release oral formulation of morphine sulfate indicated for the management of moderate to severe pain when a continuous, around-the-clock opioid analgesic is needed for an extended period of time.

Morphine sulfate extended-release tablets are NOT intended for use as a prn analgesic.

The morphine sulfate extended-release tablets 100 mg and 200 mg strengths are high dose, extended-release, oral morphine formulations indicated for the relief of pain in opioid-tolerant patients only.

Morphine sulfate extended-release tablets are not indicated for pain in the immediate postoperative period (the first 12 to 24 hours following surgery) for patients not previously taking the drug, because its safety in this setting has not been established.

Morphine sulfate extended-release tablets are not indicated for pain in the postoperative period if the pain is mild, or not expected to persist for an extended period of time.

Morphine sulfate extended-release tablets are only indicated for postoperative use if the patient is already receiving the drug prior to surgery or if the postoperative pain is expected to be moderate to severe and persist for an extended period of time. Physicians should individualize treatment, moving from parenteral to oral analgesics as appropriate. (See American Pain Society guidelines.)

DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION (see and sections) Morphine sulfate extended-release tablets are an extended-release oral formulation of morphine sulfate indicated for the management of moderate to severe pain when a continuous, around-the-clock opioid analgesic is needed for an extended period of time. The extended-release nature of the formulation allows it to be administered on a more convenient schedule than conventional immediate-release oral morphine products (see and ). However, morphine sulfate extended-release tablets do not release morphine continuously over the course of a dosing interval. The administration of single doses of morphine sulfate extended-release tablets on a q12h dosing schedule will result in higher peak and lower trough plasma levels than those that occur when an identical daily dose of morphine is administered using conventional oral formulations on a q4h regimen. The clinical significance of greater fluctuations in morphine plasma level has not been systematically evaluated. During periods of changing analgesic requirements including initial titration, frequent contact is recommended between physician, other members of the healthcare team, the patient, and the caregiver/family. Conversion from Conventional Oral Morphine to Morphine Sulfate Extended-Release Tablets A patient’s daily morphine requirement is established using immediate-release oral morphine (dosing every 4 to 6 hours). The patient is then converted to morphine sulfate extended-release tablets in either of two ways: 1) by administering one-half of the patient’s 24-hour requirement as morphine sulfate extended-release tablets on an every 12-hour schedule; or, 2) by administering one-third of the patient’s daily requirement as morphine sulfate extended-release tablets on an every eight hour schedule. With either method, dose and dosing interval is then adjusted as needed (see discussion below). The 15 mg tablet should be used for initial conversion for patients whose total daily requirement is expected to be less than 60 mg. The 30 mg tablet strength is recommended for patients with a daily morphine requirement of 60 to 120 mg. When the total daily dose is expected to be greater than 120 mg, the appropriate combination of tablet strengths should be employed. Conversion from Parenteral Morphine or Other Opioids (Parenteral or Oral) to Morphine Sulfate Extended-Release Tablets Use of Morphine Sulfate Extended-Release Tablets as the First Opioid Analgesic Considerations in the Adjustment of Dosing Regimens Special Instructions for Morphine Sulfate Extended-Release 100 mg and 200 mg Tablets (For use in opioid-tolerant patients only.) Supplemental Analgesia Continuation of Therapy Cessation of Therapy Conversion from Morphine Sulfate Extended-Release Tablets to Parenteral Opioids


What interacts with Morphine Sulfate?

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What are the warnings of Morphine Sulfate?

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What are the precautions of Morphine Sulfate?

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What are the side effects of Morphine Sulfate?

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What should I look out for while using Morphine Sulfate?

Morphine sulfate extended-release tablets are contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to morphine or in any situation where opioids are contraindicated. This includes patients with respiratory depression (in the absence of resuscitative equipment or in unmonitored settings), and in patients with acute or severe bronchial asthma or hypercarbia.

Morphine sulfate extended-release tablets are contraindicated in any patient who has or is suspected of having a paralytic ileus.

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What might happen if I take too much Morphine Sulfate?

OVERDOSAGE

Acute overdosage with morphine can be manifested by respiratory depression, somnolence progressing to stupor or coma, skeletal muscle flaccidity, cold and clammy skin, constricted pupils, rhabdomyolysis progressing to renal failure, and sometimes, bradycardia, hypotension and death.

The nature of the extended-release morphine should also be taken into account when treating the overdose. Even in the face of improvement, continued medical monitoring is required because of the possibility of extended effects. Deaths due to overdose may occur with abuse and misuse of morphine sulfate extended-release tablets.

The pure opioid antagonists, such as naloxone, are specific antidotes against respiratory depression which results from opioid overdose. Naloxone should be administered intravenously; however, because its duration of action is relatively short, the patient must be carefully monitored until spontaneous respiration is reliably re-established. If the response to naloxone is suboptimal or not sustained, additional naloxone may be administered, as needed, or given by continuous infusion to maintain alertness and respiratory function; however, there is no information available about the cumulative dose of naloxone that may be safely administered.

Opioid antagonists should not be administered in the absence of clinically significant respiratory or circulatory depression secondary to morphine overdose. Such agents should be administered cautiously to persons who are known, or suspected to be physically dependent on morphine sulfate extended-release tablets. In such cases, an abrupt or complete reversal of opioid effects may precipitate an acute abstinence syndrome.


How should I store and handle Morphine Sulfate?

Store at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted to 15°C-30°C (59°F-86°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature].


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Clinical Information

Chemical Structure

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Clinical Pharmacology

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Non-Clinical Toxicology
Morphine sulfate extended-release tablets are contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to morphine or in any situation where opioids are contraindicated. This includes patients with respiratory depression (in the absence of resuscitative equipment or in unmonitored settings), and in patients with acute or severe bronchial asthma or hypercarbia.

Morphine sulfate extended-release tablets are contraindicated in any patient who has or is suspected of having a paralytic ileus.

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Drug interactions:

PRECAUTIONS

Special Precautions Regarding Morphine Sulfate Extended-Release 100 mg and 200 mg Tablets

Morphine sulfate extended-release 100 mg and 200 mg tablets are for use only in opioid-tolerant patients requiring daily morphine equivalent dosages of 200 mg or more for the 100 mg tablet and 400 mg or more for the 200 mg tablet. Care should be taken in its prescription and patients should be instructed against use by individuals other than the patient for whom it was prescribed, as this may have severe medical consequences for that individual.

The administration of morphine, like all opioid analgesics, may obscure the diagnosis or clinical course in patients with acute abdominal conditions.

Morphine may aggravate convulsions in patients with convulsive disorders, and all opioids may induce or aggravate seizures in some clinical settings.

Agonist/antagonist analgesics (i.e., pentazocine, nalbuphine, and butorphanol) should be administered with caution to a patient who has received or is receiving a course of therapy with a pure opioid agonist analgesic such as morphine sulfate. In this situation, mixed agonist/antagonist analgesics may reduce the analgesic effect of morphine sulfate and/or may precipitate withdrawal symptoms in these patients.

Morphine should be used with caution in patients about to undergo surgery of the biliary tract since it may cause spasm of the sphincter of Oddi. Similarly, morphine should be used with caution in patients with acute pancreatitis secondary to biliary tract disease.

Tolerance is a state of adaptation in which exposure to a drug induces changes that result in a diminution of one or more of the drug’s effects over time. Tolerance may occur to both the desired and undesired effects of drugs, and may develop at different rates for different effects.

Physical dependence is a state of adaptation that is manifested by an opioid specific withdrawal syndrome that can be produced by abrupt cessation, rapid dose reduction, decreasing blood level of the drug, and/or administration of an antagonist.

The opioid abstinence or withdrawal syndrome is characterized by some or all of the following: restlessness, lacrimation, rhinorrhea, yawning, perspiration, chills, piloerection, myalgia, mydriasis, irritability, anxiety, backache, joint pain, weakness, abdominal cramps, insomnia, nausea, anorexia, vomiting, diarrhea, or increased blood pressure, respiratory rate, or heart rate.

In general, opioids should not be abruptly discontinued (see ).

If clinically advisable, patients receiving morphine sulfate extended-release tablets or their caregivers should be given the following information by the physician, nurse, or pharmacist:

Morphine sulfate extended-release tablets are opioids with no approved use in the management of addiction disorders. Its proper usage in individuals with drug or alcohol dependence, either active or in remission, is for the management of pain requiring opioid analgesia.

(see )

The concomitant use of other central nervous system depressants including sedatives or hypnotics, general anesthetics, phenothiazines, tranquilizers, and alcohol may produce additive depressant effects. Respiratory depression, hypotension, and profound sedation or coma may occur. When such combined therapy is contemplated, the dose of one or both agents should be reduced. Opioid analgesics, including morphine sulfate extended-release tablets, may enhance the neuromuscular blocking action of skeletal muscle relaxants and produce an increased degree of respiratory depression.

Studies of morphine sulfate in animals to evaluate the drug’s carcinogenic and mutagenic potential or the effect on fertility have not been conducted.

Adequate animal studies on reproduction have not been performed to determine whether morphine affects fertility in males or females. There are no well-controlled studies in women, but marketing experience does not include any evidence of adverse effects on the fetus following routine (short-term) clinical use of morphine sulfate products. Although there is no clearly defined risk, such experience cannot exclude the possibility of infrequent or subtle damage to the human fetus.

Morphine sulfate extended-release tablets should be used in pregnant women only if the need for strong opioid analgesia clearly outweighs the potential risk to the fetus (see and ).

Morphine sulfate extended-release tablets are not recommended for use in women during and immediately prior to labor. Occasionally, opioid analgesics may prolong labor through actions which temporarily reduce the strength, duration, and frequency of uterine contractions. However, this effect is not consistent and may be offset by an increased rate of cervical dilatation which tends to shorten labor.

Neonates whose mothers received opioid analgesics during labor should be observed closely for signs of respiratory depression. A specific narcotic antagonist, naloxone, should be available for reversal of narcotic-induced respiratory depression in the neonate.

Chronic maternal use of opioids during pregnancy can affect the fetus with subsequent withdrawal symptoms. Neonatal withdrawal syndrome presents as irritability, hyperactivity and abnormal sleep pattern, abnormal crying, tremor, vomiting, diarrhea and subsequent weight loss or failure to gain weight, and may result in death. The onset, duration and severity of neonatal withdrawal syndrome varies based on the drug used, duration of use, and the dose of last maternal use, and rate of elimination by the newborn. Use standard care as medically appropriate.

Low levels of morphine have been detected in the breast milk. Withdrawal symptoms can occur in breast-feeding infants when maternal administration of morphine sulfate is stopped. Ordinarily, nursing should not be undertaken while a patient is receiving morphine sulfate extended-release tablets since morphine may be excreted in the milk.

Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established.Morphine sulfate extended-release tablets are not to be chewed, crushed, dissolved, or divided for administration.

Clinical studies of morphine sulfate extended-release tablets did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.

The adverse reactions caused by morphine are essentially those observed with other opioid analgesics. They include the following major hazards: respiratory depression, apnea, and to a lesser degree, circulatory depression, respiratory arrest, shock, and cardiac arrest.

Constipation, lightheadedness, dizziness, sedation, nausea, vomiting, sweating, dysphoria, and euphoria.

Some of these effects seem to be more prominent in ambulatory patients and in those not experiencing severe pain. Some adverse reactions in ambulatory patients may be alleviated if the patient lies down.

Central Nervous System

Gastrointestinal

Cardiovascular

Genitourinary

Dermatologic

Other

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Reference

This information is obtained from the National Institute of Health's Standard Packaging Label drug database.
"https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/"

While we update our database periodically, we cannot guarantee it is always updated to the latest version.

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Professional

Clonazepam Description Each single-scored tablet, for oral administration, contains 0.5 mg, 1 mg, or 2 mg Clonazepam, USP, a benzodiazepine. Each tablet also contains corn starch, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, and povidone. Clonazepam tablets USP 0.5 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake. Clonazepam tablets USP 1 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake, as well as FD&C Blue No. 1 Aluminum Lake. Chemically, Clonazepam, USP is 5-(o-chlorophenyl)-1,3-dihydro-7-nitro-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one. It is a light yellow crystalline powder. It has the following structural formula: C15H10ClN3O3 M.W. 315.72
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Tips

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Interactions

Interactions

A total of 440 drugs (1549 brand and generic names) are known to interact with Imbruvica (ibrutinib). 228 major drug interactions (854 brand and generic names) 210 moderate drug interactions (691 brand and generic names) 2 minor drug interactions (4 brand and generic names) Show all medications in the database that may interact with Imbruvica (ibrutinib).