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Sulfamethoxazole and Trimethoprim DS

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Overview

What is Sulfamethoxazole and Trimethoprim DS?

Sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim is a synthetic antibacterial combination product available in DS (double strength) tablets, each containing 800 mg sulfamethoxazole and 160 mg trimethoprim; in tablets, each containing400 mg sulfamethoxazole and 80 mg trimethoprim for oral administration.

Sulfamethoxazole is -(5-methyl-3-isoxazolyl) sulfanilamide; the molecular formula is CHNOS. It is almost white, odorless, tasteless compound with a molecular weight of 253.28 and the following structural formula:

Trimethoprim is 2,4-diamino-5-(3,4,5-trimethoxybenzyl) pyrimidine; the molecular formula is CHNO. It is a white to light yellow, odorless, bitter compound with a molecular weight of 290.3. It has the following structural formula:

Inactive Ingredients: Magnesium Stearate, povidone, pregelatinized starch and sodium starch glycolate.



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How should I use Sulfamethoxazole and Trimethoprim DS?

To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim tablets and other antibacterial drugs, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim tablets should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to empiric selection of therapy.

Urinary Tract Infections

For the treatment of urinary tract infections due to susceptible strains of the following organisms: , species, species, , and . It is recommended that initial episodes of uncomplicated urinary tract infections be treated with a single effective antibacterial agent rather than the combination.

Acute Otitis Media

For the treatment of acute otitis media in pediatric patients due to susceptible strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae or Haemophilus influenzae when in the judgment of the physician sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim offers some advantage over the use of other antimicrobial agents. To date, there are limited data on the safety of repeated use of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim in pediatric patients under two years of age. Sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim is not indicated for prophylactic or prolonged administration in otitis media at any age.

Acute Exacerbations of Chronic Bronchitis in Adults

For the treatment of acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis due to susceptible strains of or when in the judgment of the physician sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim offers some advantage over the use of a single antimicrobial agent.

Shigellosis

For the treatment of enteritis caused by susceptible strains of and when antibacterial therapy is indicated.

Pneumocystis Carinii Pneumonia

For the treatment of documented pneumonia and for prophylaxis against pneumonia in individuals who are immunosuppressed and considered to be at an increased risk of developing pneumonia.

Travelers’ Diarrhea In Adults

For the treatment of traveler’s diarrhea due to susceptible strains of enterotoxigenic .

Not recommended for use in pediatric patients less than 2 months of age.

Urinary Tract Infections and Shigellosis in Adults and Pediatric Patients, and Acute Otitis Media in Children

Adults: The usual adult dosage in the treatment of urinary tract infections is 1 sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim DS tablet every 12 hours for 10 to 14 days. An identical daily dosage is used for 5 days in the treatment of shigellosis.

Children: The recommended dose for children with urinary tract infections or acute otitis media is 40 mg/kg sulfamethoxazole and 8 mg/kg trimethoprim per 24 hours, given in two divided doses every 12 hours for 10 days. An identical daily dosage is used for 5 days in the treatment of shigellosis. The following table is a guideline for the attainment of this dosage:

For Patients With Impaired Renal Function

When renal function is impaired, a reduced dosage should be employed using the following table:

Acute Exacerbations of Chronic Bronchitis in Adults

The usual adult dosage in the treatment of acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis is 1 sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim double strength tablet every 12 hours for 14 days.

Pneumocystis Carinii Pneumonia

Treatment Adults and Children:

The recommended dosage for patients with documented pneumonia is 75 to 100 mg/kg sulfamethoxazole and 15 to 20 mg/kg trimethoprim per 24 hours given in equally divided doses every 6 hours for 14 to 21 days. The following table is a guideline for the upper limit of this dosage.

For the lower limit dose (75 mg/kg sulfamethoxazole and 15 mg/kg trimethoprim per 24 hours) administer 75% of the dose in the above table.

Prophylaxis

Adults

The recommended dosage for prophylaxis in adults is 1 sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim DS (double strength) tablet daily.

Children

For children, the recommended dose is 750 mg/m/day sulfamethoxazole with 150 mg/m/day trimethoprim given orally in equally divided doses twice a day, on 3 consecutive days per week.

The total daily dose should not exceed 1600 mg sulfamethoxazole and 320 mg trimethoprim. The following table is a guideline for the attainment of this dosage in children:

Travelers’ Diarrhea in Adults

For the treatment of traveler’s diarrhea, the usual adult dosage is 1 sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim DS (double strength) tablet or 2 sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim tablets every 12 hours for 5 days.


What interacts with Sulfamethoxazole and Trimethoprim DS?

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What are the warnings of Sulfamethoxazole and Trimethoprim DS?

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What are the precautions of Sulfamethoxazole and Trimethoprim DS?

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What are the side effects of Sulfamethoxazole and Trimethoprim DS?

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What should I look out for while using Sulfamethoxazole and Trimethoprim DS?

Sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim is contraindicated in patients with a known hypersensitivity to trimethoprim or sulfonamides and in patients with documented megaloblastic anemia due to folate deficiency. Sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim is also contraindicated in pregnant patients and nursing mothers, because sulfonamides pass the placenta and are excreted in the milk and may cause kernicterus. Sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim is contraindicated in pediatric patients less than 2 months of age. Sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim is also contraindicated in patients with marked hepatic damage or with severe renal insufficiency when renal function status cannot be monitored.

FATALITIES ASSOCIATED WITH THE ADMINISTRATION OF SULFONAMIDES, ALTHOUGH RARE, HAVE OCCURRED DUE TO SEVERE REACTIONS, INCLUDING STEVENS-JOHNSON SYNDROME, TOXIC EPIDERMAL NECROLYSIS, FULMINANT HEPATIC NECROSIS, AGRANULOCYTOSIS, APLASTIC ANEMIA AND OTHER BLOOD DYSCRASIAS.

SULFONAMIDES, INCLUDING SULFONAMIDE-CONTAINING PRODUCTS SUCH AS SULFAMETHOXAZOLE/TRIMETHOPRIM, SHOULD BE DISCONTINUED AT THE FIRST APPEARANCE OF SKIN RASH OR ANY SIGN OF ADVERSE REACTION.

disorders Clinical signs, such as rash, sore throat, fever, arthralgia, pallor, purpura or jaundice may be early indications of serious reactions.

Cough, shortness of breath, and pulmonary infiltrates are hypersensitivity reactions of the respiratory tract that have been reported in association with sulfonamide treatment.

The sulfonamides should not be used for treatment of group A β-hemolytic streptococcal infections. In an established infection, they will not eradicate the streptococcus and, therefore, will not prevent sequelae such as rheumatic fever.

Clostridium difficile

C. difficile

C. difficile

C. difficile

If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibiotic use not directed against may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibiotic treatment of , and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.


What might happen if I take too much Sulfamethoxazole and Trimethoprim DS?

Acute

The amount of a single dose of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim that is either associated with symptoms of overdosage or is likely to be life-threatening has not been reported. Signs and symptoms of overdosage reported with sulfonamides include anorexia, colic, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, headache, drowsiness and unconsciousness. Pyrexia, hematuria and crystalluria may be noted. Blood dyscrasias and jaundice are potential late manifestations of overdosage.

Signs of acute overdosage with trimethoprim include nausea, vomiting, dizziness, headache, mental depression, confusion and bone marrow depression.

General principles of treatment include the institution of gastric lavage or emesis, forcing oral fluids, and the administration of intravenous fluids if urine output is low and renal function is normal. Acidification of the urine will increase renal elimination of trimethoprim. The patient should be monitored with blood counts and appropriate blood chemistries, including electrolytes. If a significant blood dyscrasia or jaundice occurs, specific therapy should be instituted for these complications. Peritoneal dialysis is not effective and hemodialysis is only moderately effective in eliminating sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim.

Chronic

Use of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim at high doses and/or for extended periods of time may cause bone marrow depression manifested as thrombocytopenia, leukopenia and/or megaloblastic anemia. If signs of bone marrow depression occur, the patient should be given leucovorin 5 to 15 mg daily until normal hematopoiesis is restored.


How should I store and handle Sulfamethoxazole and Trimethoprim DS?

Store at 20°-25°C (68°-77°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature].Dispense in a tight, light-resistant container as defined in the USP/NF with a child-resistant closure.A Schedule CIII Narcotic.Store at 20°-25°C (68°-77°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature].Dispense in a tight, light-resistant container as defined in the USP/NF with a child-resistant closure.A Schedule CIII Narcotic.Store at 20°-25°C (68°-77°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature].Dispense in a tight, light-resistant container as defined in the USP/NF with a child-resistant closure.A Schedule CIII Narcotic.Sulfamethoxazole and Trimethoprim Tablets are supplied as follows:Sulfamethoxazole and Trimethoprim DS (double strength) Tablets 800 mg/160 mg are available as:White, oval, bisected tablets debossed “IP 272” on one side.[See USP Controlled Room Temperature].DISPENSE IN TIGHT, LIGHT-RESISTANT CONTAINERSulfamethoxazole and Trimethoprim Tablets are supplied as follows:Sulfamethoxazole and Trimethoprim DS (double strength) Tablets 800 mg/160 mg are available as:White, oval, bisected tablets debossed “IP 272” on one side.[See USP Controlled Room Temperature].DISPENSE IN TIGHT, LIGHT-RESISTANT CONTAINERSulfamethoxazole and Trimethoprim Tablets are supplied as follows:Sulfamethoxazole and Trimethoprim DS (double strength) Tablets 800 mg/160 mg are available as:White, oval, bisected tablets debossed “IP 272” on one side.[See USP Controlled Room Temperature].DISPENSE IN TIGHT, LIGHT-RESISTANT CONTAINERSulfamethoxazole and Trimethoprim Tablets are supplied as follows:Sulfamethoxazole and Trimethoprim DS (double strength) Tablets 800 mg/160 mg are available as:White, oval, bisected tablets debossed “IP 272” on one side.[See USP Controlled Room Temperature].DISPENSE IN TIGHT, LIGHT-RESISTANT CONTAINERSulfamethoxazole and Trimethoprim Tablets are supplied as follows:Sulfamethoxazole and Trimethoprim DS (double strength) Tablets 800 mg/160 mg are available as:White, oval, bisected tablets debossed “IP 272” on one side.[See USP Controlled Room Temperature].DISPENSE IN TIGHT, LIGHT-RESISTANT CONTAINER


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Clinical Information

Chemical Structure

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Clinical Pharmacology

Sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim oral suspension is rapidly absorbed by following oral administration. Both sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim exist in the blood as unbound, protein-bound, and metabolized forms; sulfamethoxazole also exists as the conjugated form. The metabolism of sulfamethoxazole occurs predominantly by N4-acetylation, although the glucuronide conjugate has been identified. The principal metabolites of trimethoprim are the 1- and 3-oxides and the 3’- and 4’-hydroxy derivatives. The free forms of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim are considered to be the therapeutically active forms. Approximately 44% of trimethoprim and 70% of sulfamethoxazole are bound to plasma proteins. The presence of 10 mg percent sulfamethoxazole in plasma decreases the protein binding of trimethoprim by an insignificant degree; trimethoprim does not influence the protein binding of sulfamethoxazole. Peak blood levels for the individual components occur 1 to 4 hours after oral administration. The mean serum half-lives of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim are 10 and 8 to 10 hours, respectively. However, patients with severely impaired renal function exhibit an increase in the half-lives of both components, requiring dosage regimen adjustment Detectable amounts of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole are present in the blood 24 hours after drug administration. During administration of 160 mg trimethoprim and 800 mg sulfamethoxazole b.i.d., the mean steady-state plasma concentration of trimethoprim was 1.72 mcg/mL. The steady-state minimal plasma levels of free and total sulfamethoxazole were 57.4 mcg/mL and 68.0 mcg/mL, respectively. These steady-state levels were achieved after 3 days of drug administration.

Excretion of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim is primarily by the kidneys through both glomerular filtration and tubular secretion. Urine concentrations of both sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim are considerably higher than are the concentrations in the blood. The average percentage of the dose recovered in urine from 0 to 72 hours after a single oral dose is 84.5% for total sulfonamide and 66.8% for free trimethoprim. Thirty percent of the total sulfonamide is excreted as free sulfamethoxazole, with the remaining as -acetylated metabolite.2 When administered together, neither sulfamethoxazole nor trimethoprim affects the urinary excretion pattern of the other.

Both sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim distribute to sputum, vaginal fluid, and middle ear fluid; trimethoprim also distributes to bronchial secretions, and both pass the placental barrier and are excreted in human milk.

Geriatric Pharmacokinetics

The pharmacokinetics of sulfamethoxazole 800 mg and trimethoprim 160 mg were studied in 6 geriatric subjects (mean age: 78.6 years) and 6 young healthy subjects (mean age: 29.3 years) using a non-US approved formulation. Pharmacokinetic values for sulfamethoxazole in geriatric subjects were similar to those observed in young adult subjects. The mean renal clearance of trimethoprim was significantly lower in geriatric subjects compared with young adult subjects (19 mL/h/kg vs. 55 mL/h/kg). However, after normalizing by body weight, the apparent total body clearance of trimethoprim was on average 19% lower in geriatric subjects compared with young adult subjects.

MicrobiologySulfamethoxazole inhibits bacterial synthesis of dihydrofolic acid by competing with -aminobenzoic acid (PABA). Trimethoprim blocks the production of tetrahydrofolic acid from dihydrofolic acid by binding to and reversibly inhibiting the required enzyme,

dihydrofolate reductase. Thus, this combination blocks two consecutive steps in the biosynthesis of nucleic acids and proteins essential to many bacteria.

In vitro

In vitro

Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Escherichia coli

Klebsiella

Enterobacter

Morganella morganii

Proteus mirabilis

Proteus

Proteus vulgaris

Haemophilus influenzae

Streptococcus pneumoniae

Shigella flexneri

Shigella sonnei

Escherichia coli

Non-Clinical Toxicology
Sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim is contraindicated in patients with a known hypersensitivity to trimethoprim or sulfonamides and in patients with documented megaloblastic anemia due to folate deficiency. Sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim is also contraindicated in pregnant patients and nursing mothers, because sulfonamides pass the placenta and are excreted in the milk and may cause kernicterus. Sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim is contraindicated in pediatric patients less than 2 months of age. Sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim is also contraindicated in patients with marked hepatic damage or with severe renal insufficiency when renal function status cannot be monitored.

FATALITIES ASSOCIATED WITH THE ADMINISTRATION OF SULFONAMIDES, ALTHOUGH RARE, HAVE OCCURRED DUE TO SEVERE REACTIONS, INCLUDING STEVENS-JOHNSON SYNDROME, TOXIC EPIDERMAL NECROLYSIS, FULMINANT HEPATIC NECROSIS, AGRANULOCYTOSIS, APLASTIC ANEMIA AND OTHER BLOOD DYSCRASIAS.

SULFONAMIDES, INCLUDING SULFONAMIDE-CONTAINING PRODUCTS SUCH AS SULFAMETHOXAZOLE/TRIMETHOPRIM, SHOULD BE DISCONTINUED AT THE FIRST APPEARANCE OF SKIN RASH OR ANY SIGN OF ADVERSE REACTION.

disorders Clinical signs, such as rash, sore throat, fever, arthralgia, pallor, purpura or jaundice may be early indications of serious reactions.

Cough, shortness of breath, and pulmonary infiltrates are hypersensitivity reactions of the respiratory tract that have been reported in association with sulfonamide treatment.

The sulfonamides should not be used for treatment of group A β-hemolytic streptococcal infections. In an established infection, they will not eradicate the streptococcus and, therefore, will not prevent sequelae such as rheumatic fever.

Clostridium difficile

C. difficile

C. difficile

C. difficile

If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibiotic use not directed against may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibiotic treatment of , and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.

In elderly patients concurrently receiving certain diuretics, primarily thiazides, an increased incidence of thrombocytopenia with purpura has been reported.

It has been reported that sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim may prolong the prothrombin time in patients who are receiving the anticoagulant warfarin. This interaction should be kept in mind when sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim is given to patients already on anticoagulant therapy, and the coagulation time should be reassessed.

Sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim may inhibit the hepatic metabolism of phenytoin. Sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim, given at a common clinical dosage, increased the phenytoin half-life by 39% and decreased the phenytoin metabolic clearance rate by 27%. When administering these drugs concurrently, one should be alert for possible excessive phenytoin effect.

Sulfonamides can also displace methotrexate from plasma protein binding sites and can compete with therenal transport of methotrexate, thus increasing free methotrexate concentrations. There have been reports of marked but reversible nephrotoxicity with coadministration of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim andcyclosporine in renal transplant recipients.

Increased digoxin blood levels can occur with concomitant sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim therapy, especially in elderly patients. Serum digoxin levels should be monitored.

Increased sulfamethoxazole blood levels may occur in patients who are receiving indomethacin. Occasional reports suggest that patients receiving pyrimethamine as malaria prophylaxis in doses exceeding 25 mg weekly may develop megaloblastic anemia if sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim is prescribed.

The efficacy of tricyclic antidepressants can decrease when co-administered with sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim. Like other sulfonamide-containing drugs, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim potentiates the effect of oral hypoglycemics. In the literature, a single case of toxic delirium has been reported after concomitant intake of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and amantadine.

In the literature, three cases of hyperkalemia in elderly patients have been reported after concomitant intake of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor.

General

Prescribing sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim tablets in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria. Sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim should be given with caution to patients with impaired renal or hepatic function, to those with possible folate deficiency (e.g., the elderly, chronic alcoholics, patients receiving anticonvulsant therapy, patients with malabsorption syndrome, and patients in malnutrition states) and to those with severe allergies or bronchial asthma. In glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficient individuals, hemolysis may occur. This reaction is frequently dose-related. (see CLINICAL

Cases of hypoglycemia in non-diabetic patients treated with sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim are seen rarely, usually occurring after a few days of therapy. Patients with renal dysfunction, liver disease, malnutrition or those receiving high doses of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim are particularly at risk.

Hematological changes indicative of folic acid deficiency may occur in elderly patients or in patients with preexisting folic acid deficiency or kidney failure. These effects are reversible by folinic acid therapy.

Trimethoprim has been noted to impair phenylalanine metabolism but this is of no significance in phenylketonuric patients on appropriate dietary restriction.

As with all drugs containing sulfonamides, caution is advisable in patients with porphyria or thyroid dysfunction.

Use in the Treatment of and Prophylaxis for Pneumocystis Carinii Pneumonia in Patients with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)

AIDS patients may not tolerate or respond to sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim in the same manner as non-AIDS patients. The incidence of side effects, particularly rash, fever, leukopenia and elevated aminotransferase (transaminase) values, with sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim therapy in AIDS patients who are being treated for pneumonia has been reported to be greatly increased compared with the incidence normally associated with the use of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim in non-AIDS patients. The incidence of hyperkalemia appears to be increased in AIDS patients receiving sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim. Adverse effects are generally less severe in patients receiving sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim for prophylaxis. A history of mild intolerance to sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim in AIDS patients does not appear to predict intolerance of subsequent secondary prophylaxis. However, if a patient develops skin rash or any sign of adverse reaction, therapy with sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim should be reevaluated

High dosage of trimethoprim, as used in patients with i pneumonia, induces aprogressive but reversible increase of serum potassium concentrations in a substantial number of patients. Even treatment with recommended doses may cause hyperkalemia when trimethoprim is administered topatients with underlying disorders of potassium metabolism, with renal insufficiency, or if drugs known to induce hyperkalemia are given concomitantly. Close monitoring of serum potassium is warranted in these patients.

During treatment, adequate fluid intake and urinary output should be ensured to prevent crystalluria. Patients who are “slow acetylators” may be more prone to idiosyncratic reactions to sulfonamides.

The most common adverse effects are gastrointestinal disturbances (nausea, vomiting, anorexia) and allergic skin reactions (such as rash and urticaria). (SEE WARNINGSSECTION).

Hematologic

Allergic Reactions

Gastrointestinal

Genitourinary

Metabolic and Nutritional

(see PRECAUTIONS: Use in the Treatment of and Prophylaxis for Pneumocystis Carinii Pneumonia in Patients with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrom

Neurologic

Psychiatric

Endocrine

Musculoskeletal

Respiratory

(see WARNINGS).

Miscellaneous

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Reference

This information is obtained from the National Institute of Health's Standard Packaging Label drug database.
"https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/"

While we update our database periodically, we cannot guarantee it is always updated to the latest version.

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Clonazepam Description Each single-scored tablet, for oral administration, contains 0.5 mg, 1 mg, or 2 mg Clonazepam, USP, a benzodiazepine. Each tablet also contains corn starch, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, and povidone. Clonazepam tablets USP 0.5 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake. Clonazepam tablets USP 1 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake, as well as FD&C Blue No. 1 Aluminum Lake. Chemically, Clonazepam, USP is 5-(o-chlorophenyl)-1,3-dihydro-7-nitro-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one. It is a light yellow crystalline powder. It has the following structural formula: C15H10ClN3O3 M.W. 315.72
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Tips

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Interactions

Interactions

A total of 440 drugs (1549 brand and generic names) are known to interact with Imbruvica (ibrutinib). 228 major drug interactions (854 brand and generic names) 210 moderate drug interactions (691 brand and generic names) 2 minor drug interactions (4 brand and generic names) Show all medications in the database that may interact with Imbruvica (ibrutinib).