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Netupitant and Palonosetron

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Overview

What is AKYNZEO?

AKYNZEO (300 mg netupitant/0.5 mg palonosetron) is an oral fixed combination product of netupitant, a substance P/neurokinin 1 (NK) receptor antagonist, and palonosetron hydrochloride, a serotonin-3 (5-HT) receptor antagonist. Both netupitant and palonosetron hydrochloride are anti-nausea and anti-emetic agents.

Netupitant is chemically described: 2-[3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-N, 2 dimethyl-N-[4-(2-methylphenyl)-6-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)pyridin-3-yl] propanamide. The empirical formula is CHFNO, with a molecular weight of 578.61. Netupitant exists as a single isomer and has the following structural formula:

Palonosetron hydrochloride is chemically described: (3aS)-2-[(S)-1-Azabicyclo [2.2.2]oct-3-yl]-2,3,3a,4,5,6-hexahydro-1-oxo-1H-benz[de]isoquinoline hydrochloride. The empirical formula is CHNO.HCl, with a molecular weight of 332.87. Palonosetron hydrochloride exists as a single isomer and has the following structural formula:

Netupitant is white to off-white crystalline powder. It is freely soluble in toluene and acetone, soluble in isopropanol and ethanol, and very slightly soluble in water.

Palonosetron hydrochloride is a white to off-white crystalline powder. It is freely soluble in water, soluble in propylene glycol, and slightly soluble in ethanol and 2-propanol.

Each AKYNZEO (300 mg netupitant/0.5 mg palonosetron) capsule is composed of one white-caramel hard gelatin capsule which contains three tablets each containing 100 mg netupitant and one gelatin capsule containing 0.56 mg palonosetron hydrochloride (equivalent to 0.50 mg palonosetron). The inactive ingredients are microcrystalline cellulose, sucrose fatty acid esters, povidone K-30, croscarmellose sodium, purified water, silicon dioxide, sodium stearyl fumarate, magnesium stearate, mono- and di-glycerides of capryl/capric acid, glycerin, polyglyeryl dioleate, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), gelatin, sorbitol, titanium dioxide, yellow iron oxide, and red iron oxide. It may contain traces of medium-chain triglycerides, lecithin, and denatured ethanol.



What does AKYNZEO look like?



What are the available doses of AKYNZEO?

Capsule: 300 mg netupitant/0.5 mg palonosetron ()

What should I talk to my health care provider before I take AKYNZEO?

How should I use AKYNZEO?

AKYNZEO is indicated for the prevention of acute and delayed nausea and vomiting associated with initial and repeat courses of cancer chemotherapy, including, but not limited to, highly emetogenic chemotherapy. AKYNZEO is an oral fixed combination of palonosetron and netupitant: palonosetron prevents nausea and vomiting during the acute phase and netupitant prevents nausea and vomiting during both the acute and delayed phase after cancer chemotherapy.

Highly Emetogenic Chemotherapy, including Cisplatin Based Chemotherapy

The recommended dosage in adults is one capsule of AKYNZEO administered approximately 1 hour prior to the start of chemotherapy with dexamethasone 12 mg administered orally 30 minutes prior to chemotherapy on day 1 and 8 mg orally once daily on days 2 to 4 .

Anthracyclines and Cyclophosphamide Based Chemotherapy and Chemotherapy Not Considered Highly Emetogenic

The recommended dosage in adults is one capsule of AKYNZEO approximately 1 hour prior to the start of chemotherapy with dexamethasone 12 mg administered orally 30 minutes prior to chemotherapy on day 1.  Administration of dexamethasone on days 2 to 4 is not necessary .

AKYNZEO can be taken with or without food.


What interacts with AKYNZEO?

Sorry No Records found


What are the warnings of AKYNZEO?

Sorry No Records found


What are the precautions of AKYNZEO?

Sorry No Records found


What are the side effects of AKYNZEO?

Sorry No records found


What should I look out for while using AKYNZEO?

None.


What might happen if I take too much AKYNZEO?

No specific information is available on the treatment of overdosage with AKYNZEO. In the event of overdose, AKYNZEO should be discontinued and general supportive treatment and monitoring should be provided. Because of the antiemetic activity of AKYNZEO, drug-induced emesis may not be effective. Dialysis studies have not been performed; due to the large volume of distribution, dialysis is unlikely to be an effective treatment for AKYNZEO overdose.

A total of 33 adult cancer patients were administered oral palonosetron at a dose of 90 μg/kg (equivalent to 6 mg fixed dose), as part of a dose ranging study. This is approximately 12 times the recommended oral dose of 0.5 mg palonosetron. This dose group had a similar incidence of adverse events compared to the other dose groups and no dose response effects were observed. The highest dose of netupitant administered to 1169 cancer patients was 300 mg. The highest dose of netupitant administered to 49 healthy subjects was 600 mg. A similar incidence of adverse events was observed when compared to lower doses of netupitant in the respective populations of cancer patients and healthy subjects.


How should I store and handle AKYNZEO?

Store vials in the refrigerator at 2 to 8 °C (36 °F – 46 °F). Avoid excessive or vigorous agitation. . An unused vial of ACTIMMUNE can be stored at room temperature up to 12 hours prior to use. Discard vials if not used within the 12 hour period. Do not return to the refrigerator.AKYNZEO (300 mg netupitant/0.5 mg palonosetron) capsules: hard gelatin capsules with white body and caramel cap with “HE1” printed on the body. They are supplied as follows:NDC # 69639-101-01: pack of one capsule in one blisterNDC # 69639-101-04: pack of four capsules (two capsules per blister strip).StorageStore at 20 °C to 25 °C (68 °F to 77 °F); excursions permitted from 15 °C to 30 °C (59 °F to 86 °F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature]. AKYNZEO (300 mg netupitant/0.5 mg palonosetron) capsules: hard gelatin capsules with white body and caramel cap with “HE1” printed on the body. They are supplied as follows:NDC # 69639-101-01: pack of one capsule in one blisterNDC # 69639-101-04: pack of four capsules (two capsules per blister strip).StorageStore at 20 °C to 25 °C (68 °F to 77 °F); excursions permitted from 15 °C to 30 °C (59 °F to 86 °F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature]. AKYNZEO (300 mg netupitant/0.5 mg palonosetron) capsules: hard gelatin capsules with white body and caramel cap with “HE1” printed on the body. They are supplied as follows:NDC # 69639-101-01: pack of one capsule in one blisterNDC # 69639-101-04: pack of four capsules (two capsules per blister strip).StorageStore at 20 °C to 25 °C (68 °F to 77 °F); excursions permitted from 15 °C to 30 °C (59 °F to 86 °F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature]. AKYNZEO (300 mg netupitant/0.5 mg palonosetron) capsules: hard gelatin capsules with white body and caramel cap with “HE1” printed on the body. They are supplied as follows:NDC # 69639-101-01: pack of one capsule in one blisterNDC # 69639-101-04: pack of four capsules (two capsules per blister strip).StorageStore at 20 °C to 25 °C (68 °F to 77 °F); excursions permitted from 15 °C to 30 °C (59 °F to 86 °F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature]. AKYNZEO (300 mg netupitant/0.5 mg palonosetron) capsules: hard gelatin capsules with white body and caramel cap with “HE1” printed on the body. They are supplied as follows:NDC # 69639-101-01: pack of one capsule in one blisterNDC # 69639-101-04: pack of four capsules (two capsules per blister strip).StorageStore at 20 °C to 25 °C (68 °F to 77 °F); excursions permitted from 15 °C to 30 °C (59 °F to 86 °F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature].


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Clinical Information

Chemical Structure

No Image found
Clinical Pharmacology

Netupitant is a selective antagonist of human substance P/neurokinin 1 (NK) receptors.

Palonosetron is a 5-HT receptor antagonist with a strong binding affinity for this receptor and little or no affinity for other receptors. Cancer chemotherapy may be associated with a high incidence of nausea and vomiting, particularly when certain agents, such as cisplatin, are used. 5-HT receptors are located on the nerve terminals of the vagus in the periphery and centrally in the chemoreceptor trigger zone of the area postrema. Chemotherapeutic agents produce nausea and vomiting by stimulating the release of serotonin from the enterochromaffin cells of the small intestine. Serotonin then activates 5-HT receptors located on vagal afferents to initiate the vomiting reflex. The development of acute emesis is known to depend on serotonin and its 5-HT receptors have been demonstrated to selectively stimulate the emetic response.

Delayed emesis has been largely associated with the activation of tachykinin family neurokinin 1 (NK) receptors (broadly distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems) by substance P. As shown in and studies, netupitant inhibits substance P mediated responses.

Non-Clinical Toxicology
None.

Furosemide may increase the ototoxic potential of aminoglycoside antibiotics, especially in the presence of impaired renal function. Except in life-threatening situations, avoid this combination.

Furosemide should not be used concomitantly with ethacrynic acid because of the possibility of ototoxicity. Patients receiving high doses of salicylates concomitantly with furosemide, as in rheumatic disease, may experience salicylate toxicity at lower doses because of competitive renal excretory sites.

There is a risk of ototoxic effects if cisplatin and furosemide are given concomitantly. In addition, nephrotoxicity of nephrotoxic drugs such as cisplatin may be enhanced if furosemide is not given in lower doses and with positive fluid balance when used to achieve forced diuresis during cisplatin treatment.

Furosemide has a tendency to antagonize the skeletal muscle relaxing effect of tubocurarine and may potentiate the action of succinylcholine.

Lithium generally should not be given with diuretics because they reduce lithium’s renal clearance and add a high risk of lithium toxicity.

Furosemide combined with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers may lead to severe hypotension and deterioration in renal function, including renal failure. An interruption or reduction in the dosage of furosemide, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, or angiotensin receptor blockers may be necessary.

Potentiation occurs with ganglionic or peripheral adrenergic blocking drugs.

Furosemide may decrease arterial responsiveness to norepinephrine. However, norepinephrine may still be used effectively.

Simultaneous administration of sucralfate and furosemide tablets may reduce the natriuretic and antihypertensive effects of furosemide. Patients receiving both drugs should be observed closely to determine if the desired diuretic and/or antihypertensive effect of furosemide is achieved. The intake of furosemide and sucralfate should be separated by at least 2 hours.

In isolated cases, intravenous administration of furosemide within 24 hours of taking chloral hydrate may lead to flushing, sweating attacks, restlessness, nausea, increase in blood pressure, and tachycardia. Use of furosemide concomitantly with chloral hydrate is therefore not recommended.

Phenytoin interferes directly with renal action of furosemide. There is evidence that treatment with phenytoin leads to decrease intestinal absorption of furosemide, and consequently to lower peak serum furosemide concentrations.

Methotrexate and other drugs that, like furosemide, undergo significant renal tubular secretion may reduce the effect of furosemide. Conversely, furosemide may decrease renal elimination of other drugs that undergo tubular secretion. High-dose treatment of both furosemide and these other drugs may result in elevated serum levels of these drugs and may potentiate their toxicity as well as the toxicity of furosemide.

Furosemide can increase the risk of cephalosporin-induced nephrotoxicity even in the setting of minor or transient renal impairment.

Concomitant use of cyclosporine and furosemide is associated with increased risk of gouty arthritis secondary to furosemide-induced hyperurecemia and cyclosporine impairment of renal urate excretion.

High doses (> 80 mg) of furosemide may inhibit the binding of thyroid hormones to carrier proteins and result in transient increase in free thyroid hormones, followed by an overall decrease in total thyroid hormone levels.

One study in six subjects demonstrated that the combination of furosemide and acetylsalicylic acid temporarily reduced creatinine clearance in patients with chronic renal insufficiency. There are case reports of patients who developed increased BUN, serum creatinine and serum potassium levels, and weight gain when furosemide was used in conjunction with NSAIDs.

Literature reports indicate that coadministration of indomethacin may reduce the natriuretic and antihypertensive effects of furosemide in some patients by inhibiting prostaglandin synthesis. Indomethacin may also affect plasma renin levels, aldosterone excretion, and renin profile evaluation. Patients receiving both indomethacin and furosemide should be observed closely to determine if the desired diuretic and/or antihypertensive effect of furosemide is achieved.

Hypersensitivity reactions, including anaphylaxis, have been reported with or without known hypersensitivity to other 5-HT receptor antagonists.

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Reference

This information is obtained from the National Institute of Health's Standard Packaging Label drug database.
"https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/"

While we update our database periodically, we cannot guarantee it is always updated to the latest version.

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Professional

Clonazepam Description Each single-scored tablet, for oral administration, contains 0.5 mg, 1 mg, or 2 mg Clonazepam, USP, a benzodiazepine. Each tablet also contains corn starch, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, and povidone. Clonazepam tablets USP 0.5 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake. Clonazepam tablets USP 1 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake, as well as FD&C Blue No. 1 Aluminum Lake. Chemically, Clonazepam, USP is 5-(o-chlorophenyl)-1,3-dihydro-7-nitro-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one. It is a light yellow crystalline powder. It has the following structural formula: C15H10ClN3O3 M.W. 315.72
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Tips

Tips

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Interactions

Interactions

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