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Amlodipine besylate and Olmesartan medoxomil
What is Amlodipine besylate and Olmesartan medoxomil?
Amlodipine besylate and olmesartan medoxomil provided as a tablet for oral administration, is a combination of the calcium channel blocker (CCB) amlodipine besylate, USP and the angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) olmesartan medoxomil, USP.
The amlodipine besylate, USP component of amlodipine and olmesartan medoxomil tablets is chemically described as 3-ethyl-5-methyl (±)-2-[(2- aminoethoxy)methyl]-4-(2-chlorophenyl)-1,4-dihydro-6-methyl-3,5-pyridinedicarboxylate, monobenzenesulphonate. Its empirical formula is CHClNO•CHOS.
Olmesartan medoxomil, USP a prodrug, is hydrolyzed to olmesartan during absorption from the gastrointestinal tract.
The olmesartan medoxomil, USP component of amlodipine and olmesartan medoxomil tablets is chemically described as 2,3-dihydroxy-2-butenyl 4-(1-hydroxy-1-methylethyl)-2-propyl-1-[(1-tetrazol-5-ylphenyl)benzyl] imidazole-5-carboxylate, cyclic 2,3-carbonate. Its empirical formula is CHNO.
The structural formula for amlodipine besylate, USP is:
The structural formula for olmesartan medoxomil, USP is:
Amlodipine and olmesartan medoxomil tablets contains amlodipine besylate, USP a white or almost white powder, and olmesartan medoxomil, USP white to off-white crystalline powder. The molecular weights of amlodipine besylate, USP and olmesartan medoxomil, USP are 567.1 and 558.59, respectively. Amlodipine besylate, USP is slightly soluble in water and 2-propanol, sparingly soluble in ethanol, freely soluble in methanol. Olmesartan medoxomil, USP is practically insoluble in water and sparingly soluble in methanol. Each tablet of amlodipine and olmesartan medoxomil also contains the following inactive ingredients: microcrystalline cellulose, pregelatinized starch, colloidal silicon dioxide, croscarmellose sodium, and magnesium stearate. The color coatings contain polyvinyl alcohol, macrogol/polyethylene glycol, titanium dioxide, talc, iron oxide yellow (5/40 mg, 10/20 mg, 10/40 mg tablets), iron oxide red (10/20 mg and 10/40 mg tablets), and iron oxide black (10/20 mg, 10/40 mg tablets).
What does Amlodipine besylate and Olmesartan medoxomil look like?
What are the available doses of Amlodipine besylate and Olmesartan medoxomil?
Tablets: (amlodipine/olmesartan medoxomil content) 5/20 mg; 10/20 mg; 5/40 mg; and 10/40 mg .
What should I talk to my health care provider before I take Amlodipine besylate and Olmesartan medoxomil?
How should I use Amlodipine besylate and Olmesartan medoxomil?
Amlodipine and olmesartan medoxomil tablets are indicated for the treatment of hypertension, alone or with other antihypertensive agents, to lower blood pressure. Lowering blood pressure reduces the risk of fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events, primarily strokes and myocardial infarctions. These benefits have been seen in controlled trials of antihypertensive drugs from a wide variety of pharmacologic classes including the class to which this drug principally belongs. There are no controlled trials demonstrating risk reduction with amlodipine and olmesartan medoxomil tablets.
Control of high blood pressure should be part of comprehensive cardiovascular risk management, including, as appropriate, lipid control, diabetes management, antithrombotic therapy, smoking cessation, exercise, and limited sodium intake. Many patients will require more than one drug to achieve blood pressure goals. For specific advice on goals and management, see published guidelines, such as those of the National High Blood Pressure Education Program’s Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC).
Numerous antihypertensive drugs, from a variety of pharmacologic classes and with different mechanisms of action, have been shown in randomized controlled trials to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and it can be concluded that it is blood pressure reduction, and not some other pharmacologic property of the drugs, that is largely responsible for those benefits. The largest and most consistent cardiovascular outcome benefit has been a reduction in the risk of stroke, but reductions in myocardial infarction and cardiovascular mortality also have been seen regularly.
Elevated systolic or diastolic pressure causes increased cardiovascular risk, and the absolute risk increase per mmHg is greater at higher blood pressures, so that even modest reductions of severe hypertension can provide substantial benefit. Relative risk reduction from blood pressure reduction is similar across populations with varying absolute risk, so the absolute benefit is greater in patients who are at higher risk independent of their hypertension (for example, patients with diabetes or hyperlipidemia), and such patients would be expected to benefit from more aggressive treatment to a lower blood pressure goal.
Some antihypertensive drugs have smaller blood pressure effects (as monotherapy) in black patients, and many antihypertensive drugs have additional approved indications and effects (e.g., on angina, heart failure, or diabetic kidney disease). These considerations may guide selection of therapy.
Amlodipine and olmesartan medoxomil tablets may also be used as initial therapy in patients who are likely to need multiple antihypertensive agents to achieve their blood pressure goals.
Patients with moderate or severe hypertension are at relatively high risk for cardiovascular events (such as strokes, heart attacks, and heart failure), kidney failure, and vision problems, so prompt treatment is clinically relevant. The decision to use a combination as initial therapy should be individualized and should be shaped by considerations such as baseline blood pressure, the target goal, and the incremental likelihood of achieving goal with a combination compared to monotherapy. Individual blood pressure goals may vary based upon the patient’s risk. Data from an 8-week, placebo-controlled, parallel-group factorial study provide estimates of the probability of reaching a blood pressure goal with amlodipine and olmesartan medoxomil tablets compared to amlodipine or olmesartan medoxomil monotherapy. The figures below provide estimates of the likelihood of achieving the targeted systolic or diastolic blood pressure goals with amlodipine and olmesartan medoxomil tablets 10/40 mg compared with amlodipine or olmesartan medoxomil monotherapy, based upon baseline systolic or diastolic blood pressure. The curve of each treatment group was estimated by logistic regression modeling from all available data of that treatment group. The right tail of each curve is less reliable because of small numbers of subjects with high baseline blood pressures.
The figures above provide an approximation of the likelihood of reaching a targeted blood pressure goal (e.g., Week 8 SBP
For example, a patient with a baseline blood pressure of 160/100 mmHg has about a 48% likelihood of achieving a goal of
Warnings and Precautions ()
Use in Specific Populations (
What interacts with Amlodipine besylate and Olmesartan medoxomil?
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What are the warnings of Amlodipine besylate and Olmesartan medoxomil?
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What are the precautions of Amlodipine besylate and Olmesartan medoxomil?
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What are the side effects of Amlodipine besylate and Olmesartan medoxomil?
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What should I look out for while using Amlodipine besylate and Olmesartan medoxomil?
Do not co-administer aliskiren with amlodipine and olmesartan medoxomil tablets in patients with diabetes [See ].
What might happen if I take too much Amlodipine besylate and Olmesartan medoxomil?
There is no information on overdosage with amlodipine and olmesartan medoxomil tablets in humans.
Single oral doses of amlodipine maleate equivalent to 40 mg amlodipine/kg and 100 mg amlodipine/kg in mice and rats, respectively, caused deaths.Single oral amlodipine maleate doses equivalent to 4 or more mg amlodipine/kg or higher in dogs (11 or more times the maximum recommended human dose on a mg/mbasis) caused a marked peripheral vasodilation and hypotension.
Overdosage might be expected to cause excessive peripheral vasodilation with marked hypotension and possibly a reflex tachycardia. In humans, experience with intentional overdosage of amlodipine is limited.
If massive overdose should occur, active cardiac and respiratory monitoring should be instituted. Frequent blood pressure measurements are essential. Should hypotension occur, cardiovascular support including elevation of the extremities and the judicious administration of fluids should be initiated. If hypotension remains unresponsive to these conservative measures, administration of vasopressors (such as phenylephrine) should be considered with attention to circulating volume and urine output. Intravenous calcium gluconate may help to reverse the effects of calcium entry blockade. As amlodipine is highly protein bound, hemodialysis is not likely to be of benefit.
Limited data are available related to overdosage in humans. The most likely manifestations of overdosage would be hypotension and tachycardia; bradycardia could be encountered if parasympathetic (vagal) stimulation occurs. If symptomatic hypotension should occur, supportive treatment should be initiated. The dialyzability of olmesartan is unknown.
How should I store and handle Amlodipine besylate and Olmesartan medoxomil?
Amlodipine and olmesartan medoxomil tablets contain amlodipine besylate, USP at a dose equivalent to 5 or 10 mg amlodipine and olmesartan medoxomil, USP in the strengths described below. Amlodipine and olmesartan medoxomil tablets are differentiated by tablet color/size and are debossed with an individual product tablet code on one side. Amlodipine and olmesartan medoxomil tablets are supplied for oral administration in the following strength and package configurations:Store at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted to 15°C-30°C (59°F-86°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature].Amlodipine and olmesartan medoxomil tablets contain amlodipine besylate, USP at a dose equivalent to 5 or 10 mg amlodipine and olmesartan medoxomil, USP in the strengths described below. Amlodipine and olmesartan medoxomil tablets are differentiated by tablet color/size and are debossed with an individual product tablet code on one side. Amlodipine and olmesartan medoxomil tablets are supplied for oral administration in the following strength and package configurations:Store at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted to 15°C-30°C (59°F-86°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature].
Chemical StructureNo Image found
Amlodipine and olmesartan medoxomil tablets.
Non-Clinical ToxicologyDo not co-administer aliskiren with amlodipine and olmesartan medoxomil tablets in patients with diabetes [See ].
It has been reported that allopurinol prolongs the half-life of the anticoagulant, dicumarol. The clinical basis of this drug interaction has not been established but should be noted when allopurinol is given to patients already on dicumarol therapy.
Since the excretion of oxipurinol is similar to that of urate, uricosuric agents, which increase the excretion of urate, are also likely to increase the excretion of oxipurinol and thus lower the degree of inhibition of xanthine oxidase. The concomitant administration of uricosuric agents and allopurinol has been associated with a decrease in the excretion of oxypurines (hypoxanthine and xanthine) and an increase in urinary uric acid excretion compared with that observed with allopurinol alone. Although clinical evidence to date has not demonstrated renal precipitation of oxypurines in patients either on allopurinol alone or in combination with uricosuric agents, the possibility should be kept in mind.
The reports that the concomitant use of allopurinol and thiazide diuretics may contribute to the enhancement of allopurinol toxicity in some patients have been reviewed in an attempt to establish a cause-and-effect relationship and a mechanism of causation. Review of these case reports indicates that the patients were mainly receiving thiazide diuretics for hypertension and that tests to rule out decreased renal function secondary to hypertensive nephropathy were not often performed. In those patients in whom renal insufficiency was documented, however, the recommendation to lower the dose of allopurinol was not followed. Although a causal mechanism and a cause-and-effect relationship have not been established, current evidence suggests that renal function should be monitored in patients on thiazide diuretics and allopurinol even in the absence of renal failure, and dosage levels should be even more conservatively adjusted in those patients on such combined therapy if diminished renal function is detected.
An increase in the frequency of skin rash has been reported among patients receiving ampicillin or amoxicillin concurrently with allopurinol compared to patients who are not receiving both drugs. The cause of the reported association has not been established.
Enhanced bone marrow suppression by cyclophosphamide and other cytotoxic agents has been reported among patients with neoplastic disease, except leukemia, in the presence of allopurinol. However, in a well-controlled study of patients with lymphoma on combination therapy, allopurinol did not increase the marrow toxicity of patients treated with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, bleomycin, procarbazine, and/or mechlorethamine.
Tolbutamide's conversion to inactive metabolites has been shown to be catalyzed by xanthine oxidase from rat liver. The clinical significance, if any, of these observations is unknown.
Chlorpropamide's plasma half-life may be prolonged by allopurinol, since allopurinol and chlorpropamide may compete for excretion in the renal tubule. The risk of hypoglycemia secondary to this mechanism may be increased if allopurinol and chlorpropamide are given concomitantly in the presence of renal insufficiency.
Rare reports indicate that cyclosporine levels may be increased during concomitant treatment with allopurinol. Monitoring of cyclosporine levels and possible adjustment of cyclosporine dosage should be considered when these drugs are co-administered.
Pregnancy Category D
This information is obtained from the National Institute of Health's Standard Packaging Label drug database.
While we update our database periodically, we cannot guarantee it is always updated to the latest version.
ProfessionalClonazepam Description Each single-scored tablet, for oral administration, contains 0.5 mg, 1 mg, or 2 mg Clonazepam, USP, a benzodiazepine. Each tablet also contains corn starch, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, and povidone. Clonazepam tablets USP 0.5 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake. Clonazepam tablets USP 1 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake, as well as FD&C Blue No. 1 Aluminum Lake. Chemically, Clonazepam, USP is 5-(o-chlorophenyl)-1,3-dihydro-7-nitro-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one. It is a light yellow crystalline powder. It has the following structural formula: C15H10ClN3O3 M.W. 315.72
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