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Articaine Hydrochloride and Epinephrine
What is Articaine Hydrochloride and Epinephrine?
Articaine HCl and Epinephrine injection is a sterile, aqueous solution that contains articaine HCl 4% (40 mg/mL) and epinephrine bitartrate in an epinephrine 1:200,000 or epinephrine 1:100,000 strength. Articaine HCl is an amino amide local anesthetic, chemically designated as 4-methyl-3-[2-(propylamino)-propionamido]-2-thiophene-carboxylic acid, methyl ester hydrochloride and is a racemic mixture. Articaine HCl has a molecular weight of 320.84 and the following structural formula:
Articaine HCl has a partition coefficient in n-octanol/Soerensen buffer (pH 7.35) of 17 and a pKa of 7.8.
Epinephrine bitartrate, (-)-1-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)-2-methylamino-ethanol (+) tartrate (1:1) salt, is a vasoconstrictor that is added to articaine HCl in a concentration of 1:200,000 or 1:100,000 (expressed as free base). It has a molecular weight of 333.3 and the following structural formula:
Articaine HCl and Epinephrine contains articaine HCl (40 mg/mL), epinephrine (1:200,000 or 1:100,000) (as epinephrine bitartrate), sodium chloride (1.6 mg/mL), and sodium metabisulfite (0.5 mg/mL). The product is formulated with a 15% overage of epinephrine. The pH is adjusted with sodium hydroxide.
What does Articaine Hydrochloride and Epinephrine look like?
What are the available doses of Articaine Hydrochloride and Epinephrine?
Injection (clear colorless solution), containing:
What should I talk to my health care provider before I take Articaine Hydrochloride and Epinephrine?
How should I use Articaine Hydrochloride and Epinephrine?
Articaine HCl and Epinephrine, an amide local anesthetic containing a vasoconstrictor, is indicated for local, infiltrative, or conductive anesthesia in both simple and complex dental procedures.
Table 1 (below) summarizes the recommended volumes and concentrations of Articaine HCl and Epinephrine for various types of anesthetic procedures. The dosages suggested in this table are for normal healthy adults, administered by submucosal infiltration or nerve block.
The recommended doses serve only as a guide to the amount of anesthetic required for most routine procedures. The actual volumes to be used depend on a number of factors such as type and extent of surgical procedure, depth of anesthesia, degree of muscular relaxation, and condition of the patient. In all cases, the smallest dose that will produce the desired result should be given.
The onset of anesthesia and the duration of anesthesia are proportional to the volume and concentration (i.e., total dose) of local anesthetic used. Caution should be exercised when employing large volumes because the incidence of side effects may be dose-related.
For most routine dental procedures, Articaine HCl and Epinephrine containing epinephrine 1:200,000 is preferred. However, when more pronounced hemostasis or improved visualization of the surgical field are required, Articaine HCl and Epinephrine containing epinephrine 1:100,000 may be used.
What interacts with Articaine Hydrochloride and Epinephrine?
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What are the warnings of Articaine Hydrochloride and Epinephrine?
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What are the precautions of Articaine Hydrochloride and Epinephrine?
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What are the side effects of Articaine Hydrochloride and Epinephrine?
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What should I look out for while using Articaine Hydrochloride and Epinephrine?
Articaine HCl and Epinephrine is contraindicated in patients who are hypersensitive to products containing sulfites. Products containing sulfites may cause allergic-type reactions including anaphylactic symptoms and life-threatening or less severe asthmatic episodes in certain susceptible people. Sulfite sensitivity is seen more frequently in asthmatic than in non-asthmatic people
What might happen if I take too much Articaine Hydrochloride and Epinephrine?
Acute emergencies from local anesthetics are generally related to high plasma levels encountered during therapeutic use of local anesthetics or to unintended subarachnoid injection of local anesthetic solution
The first consideration is prevention, best accomplished by careful and constant monitoring of cardiovascular and respiratory vital signs and the patient's state of consciousness after each local anesthetic injection. At the first sign of change, oxygen should be administered.
The first step in the management of convulsions, as well as hypo-ventilation, consists of immediate attention to the maintenance of a patent airway and assisted or controlled ventilation as needed. The adequacy of the circulation should be assessed. Should convulsions persist despite adequate respiratory support, treatment with appropriate anticonvulsant therapy is indicated. The practitioner should be familiar with the use of anticonvulsant drugs, prior to the use of local anesthetics. Supportive treatment of circulatory depression may require administration of intravenous fluids and, when appropriate, a vasopressor.
If not treated immediately, both convulsions and cardiovascular depression can result in hypoxia, acidosis, bradycardia, arrhythmias, and/or cardiac arrest. If cardiac arrest should occur, standard cardiopulmonary resuscitative measures should be instituted.
For additional information about overdose treatment, call a poison control center ().
How should I store and handle Articaine Hydrochloride and Epinephrine?
Store original packages at room temperature; avoid excessive heat.
Chemical StructureNo Image found
Articaine HCl is an amide local anesthetic. Local anesthetics block the generation and conduction of nerve impulses, presumably by increasing the threshold for electrical excitation in the nerve, by slowing the propagation of the nerve impulse, and by reducing the rate of rise of the action potential. In general, the progression of anesthesia is related to the diameter, myelination, and conduction velocity of the affected nerve fibers. Epinephrine is a vasoconstrictor added to articaine HCl to slow absorption into the general circulation and thus prolong maintenance of an active tissue concentration.
Non-Clinical ToxicologyArticaine HCl and Epinephrine is contraindicated in patients who are hypersensitive to products containing sulfites. Products containing sulfites may cause allergic-type reactions including anaphylactic symptoms and life-threatening or less severe asthmatic episodes in certain susceptible people. Sulfite sensitivity is seen more frequently in asthmatic than in non-asthmatic people
Isoflurane potentiates the muscle relaxant effect of all muscle relaxants, most notably nondepolarizing muscle relaxants, and MAC (minimum alveolar concentration) is reduced by concomitant administration of N O. See .
Accidental intravascular injection of Articaine HCl and Epinephrine may be associated with convulsions, followed by central nervous system or cardiorespiratory depression and coma, progressing ultimately to respiratory arrest. Dental practitioners who employ local anesthetic agents including Articaine HCl and Epinephrine should be well versed in diagnosis and management of emergencies that may arise from their use. Resuscitative equipment, oxygen, and other resuscitative drugs should be available for immediate use. To avoid intravascular injection, aspiration should be performed before Articaine HCl and Epinephrine is injected. The needle must be repositioned until no return of blood can be elicited by aspiration. Note, however, that the absence of blood in the syringe does not guarantee that intravascular injection has been avoided.
Small doses of local anesthetics injected in dental blocks may produce adverse reactions similar to systemic toxicity seen with unintentional intravascular injections of larger doses. Confusion, convulsions, respiratory depression or respiratory arrest, and cardiovascular stimulation or depression have been reported. These reactions may be due to intra-arterial injection of the local anesthetic with retrograde flow to the cerebral circulation. Patients receiving these blocks should be observed constantly. Resuscitative equipment and personnel for treating adverse reactions should be immediately available. Dosage recommendations should not be exceeded
Reactions to articaine are characteristic of those associated with other amide-type local anesthetics. Adverse reactions to this group of drugs may also result from excessive plasma levels (which may be due to overdosage, unintentional intravascular injection, or slow metabolic degradation), injection technique, volume of injection, or hypersensitivity or they may be idiosyncratic.
This information is obtained from the National Institute of Health's Standard Packaging Label drug database.
While we update our database periodically, we cannot guarantee it is always updated to the latest version.
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