Disclaimer:

Medidex is not a provider of medical services and all information is provided for the convenience of the user. No medical decisions should be made based on the information provided on this website without first consulting a licensed healthcare provider.This website is intended for persons 18 years or older. No person under 18 should consult this website without the permission of a parent or guardian.

Azathioprine Sodium

&times

Overview

What is Azathioprine Sodium?

Azathioprine Sodium for Injection, USP is a sterile lyophilized material, which when reconstituted with Sterile Water for Injection yields a solution for intravenous administration. Each vial contains azathioprine sodium equivalent to 100 mg azathioprine, an immunosuppressive antimetabolite. Each vial also contains sodium hydroxide and, if necessary, hydrochloric acid to adjust the pH.

Azathioprine is chemically 6-[(1-methyl-4-nitroimidazol-5-yl)thio]purine. The structural formula of azathioprine sodium is:

Molecular Formula: CHNOSNa                     Molecular Weight: 300.28

It is an imidazolyl derivative of 6-mercaptopurine and many of its biological effects are similar to those of the parent compound.

Azathioprine is insoluble in water, but may be dissolved with addition of one molar equivalent of alkali. The sodium salt of azathioprine is sufficiently soluble to make a 10 mg/mL water solution which is stable for 24 hours at 59° to 77°F (15° to 25°C). Azathioprine is stable in solution at neutral or acid pH but hydrolysis to mercaptopurine occurs in excess sodium hydroxide (0.1N), especially on warming. Conversion to mercaptopurine also occurs in the presence of sulfhydryl compounds such as cysteine, glutathione and hydrogen sulfide.



What does Azathioprine Sodium look like?



What are the available doses of Azathioprine Sodium?

Sorry No records found.

What should I talk to my health care provider before I take Azathioprine Sodium?

Sorry No records found

How should I use Azathioprine Sodium?

Azathioprine Sodium for Injection, USP is indicated as an adjunct for the prevention of rejection in renal homotransplantation. It is also indicated for the management of active rheumatoid arthritis to reduce signs and symptoms.

TPMT TESTING CANNOT SUBSTITUTE FOR COMPLETE BLOOD COUNT (CBC) MONITORING IN PATIENTS RECEIVING AZATHIOPRINE.


What interacts with Azathioprine Sodium?

Azathioprine Sodium for Injection should not be given to patients who have shown hypersensitivity to the drug. Azathioprine should not be used for treating rheumatoid arthritis in pregnant women. Patients with rheumatoid arthritis previously treated with alkylating agents (cyclophosphamide, chlorambucil, melphalan or others) may have a prohibitive risk of malignancy if treated with azathioprine. 



What are the warnings of Azathioprine Sodium?

Malignancy:

Patients receiving immunosuppressants, including azathioprine, are at increased risk of developing lymphoma and other malignancies, particularly of the skin. Physicians should inform patients of the risk of malignancy with azathioprine. As usual for patients with increased risk for skin cancer, exposure to sunlight and ultraviolet light should be limited by wearing protective clothing and using a sunscreen with a high protection factor.

Post-transplant:

Renal transplant patients are known to have an increased risk of malignancy, predominantly skin cancer and reticulum cell or lymphomatous tumors. The risk of post-transplant lymphomas may be increased in patients who receive aggressive treatment with immunosuppressive drugs, including azathioprine. Therefore, immunosuppressive drug therapy should be maintained at the lowest effective levels.

Rheumatoid Arthritis:

Information is available on the risk of malignancy with the use of azathioprine in rheumatoid arthritis (see ). It has not been possible to define the precise risk of malignancy due to azathioprine. The data suggest the risk may be elevated in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, though lower than for renal transplant patients. However, acute myelogenous leukemia as well as solid tumors have been reported in patients with rheumatoid arthritis who have received azathioprine.

Inflammatory Bowel Disease:

Postmarketing cases of hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma (HSTCL), a rare type of T-cell lymphoma, have been reported in patients treated with azathioprine. These cases have had a very aggressive disease course and have been fatal. The majority of reported cases have occurred in patients with Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis and the majority were in adolescent and young adult males. Some of the patients were treated with azathioprine as monotherapy and some had received concomitant treatment with a TNFα blocker at or prior to diagnosis. The safety and efficacy of azathioprine for the treatment of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis have not been established.

Cytopenias:

Severe leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, anemias including macrocytic anemia, and/or pancytopenia may occur in patients being treated with azathioprine. Severe bone marrow suppression may also occur. Patients with intermediate thiopurine S-methyl transferase (TPMT) activity may be at an increased risk of myelotoxicity if receiving conventional doses of azathioprine. Patients with low or absent TPMT activity are at an increased risk of developing severe, life-threatening myelotoxicity if receiving conventional doses of azathioprine. TPMT genotyping or phenotyping can help identify patients who are at an increased risk for developing azathioprine toxicity.(See ). Hematologic toxicities are dose-related and may be more severe in renal transplant patients whose homograft is undergoing rejection. It is suggested that patients on azathioprine have complete blood counts, including platelet counts, weekly during the first month, twice monthly for the second and third months of treatment, then monthly or more frequently if dosage alterations or other therapy changes are necessary. Delayed hematologic suppression may occur. Prompt reduction in dosage or temporary withdrawal of the drug may be necessary if there is a rapid fall in or persistently low leukocyte count, or other evidence of bone marrow depression. Leukopenia does not correlate with therapeutic effect; therefore the dose should not be increased intentionally to lower the white blood cell count.

Serious infections:

Patients receiving immunosuppressants, including azathioprine, are at increased risk for bacterial, viral, fungal, protozoal, and opportunistic infections, including reactivation of latent infections. These infections may lead to serious, including fatal, outcomes.

Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy

Cases of JC virus-associated infection resulting in progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), sometimes fatal, have been reported in patients treated with immunosuppressants, including azathioprine. Risk factors for PML include treatment with immunosuppressant therapies and impairment of immune function. Consider the diagnosis of PML in any patient presenting with new-onset neurological manifestations and consider consultation with a neurologist as clinically indicated. Consider reducing the amount of immunosuppression in patients who develop PML. In transplant patients, consider the risk that the reduced immunosuppression represents to the graft.

Effect on Sperm in Animals:

Azathioprine has been reported to cause temporary depression in spermatogenesis and reduction in sperm viability and sperm count in mice at doses 10 times the human therapeutic dose;a reduced percentage of fertile matings occurred when animals received 5 mg/kg.

Pregnancy: Pregnancy Category D

Azathioprine can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Azathioprine should not be given during pregnancy without careful weighing of risk versus benefit. Whenever possible, use of azathioprine in pregnant patients should be avoided. This drug should not be used for treating rheumatoid arthritis in pregnant women.

Azathioprine is teratogenic in rabbits and mice when given in doses equivalent to the human dose (5 mg/kg daily). Abnormalities included skeletal malformations and visceral anomalies.

Limited immunologic and other abnormalities have occurred in a few infants born of renal allograft recipients on azathioprine. In a detailed case report, documented lymphopenia, diminished IgG and IgM levels, CMV infection, and a decreased thymic shadow were noted in an infant born to a mother receiving 150 mg azathioprine and 30 mg prednisone daily throughout pregnancy. At ten weeks most features were normalized. DeWitte et al  reported pancytopenia and severe immune deficiency in a preterm infant whose mother received 125 mg azathioprine and 12.5 mg prednisone daily. There have been two published reports of abnormal physical findings. Williamson and Karp  described an infant born with preaxial polydactyly whose mother received azathioprine 200 mg daily and prednisone 20 mg every other day during pregnancy. Tallent et al  described an infant with a large myelomeningocele in the upper lumbar region, bilateral dislocated hips, and bilateral talipes equinovarus. The father was on long-term azathioprine therapy.

Benefit versus risk must be weighed carefully before use of azathioprine in patients of reproductive potential. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. If this drug is used during pregnancy or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking this drug, the patient should be apprised of the potential hazard to the fetus. Women of childbearing age should be advised to avoid becoming pregnant.


What are the precautions of Azathioprine Sodium?

General

A gastrointestinal hypersensitivity reaction characterized by severe nausea and vomiting has been reported.  These symptoms may also be accompanied by diarrhea, rash, fever, malaise, myalgias, elevations in liver enzymes, and occasionally, hypotension. Symptoms of gastrointestinal toxicity most often develop within the first several weeks of therapy with azathioprine and are reversible upon discontinuation of the drug. The reaction can recur within hours after re-challenge with a single dose of azathioprine.

Information for Patients

Patients being started on azathioprine should be informed of the necessity of periodic blood counts while they are receiving the drug and should be encouraged to report any unusual bleeding or bruising to their physician. They should be informed of the danger of infection while receiving azathioprine and asked to report signs and symptoms of infection to their physician. Careful dosage instructions should be given to the patient, especially when azathioprine is being administered in the presence of impaired renal function or concomitantly with allopurinol (see subsection and ). Patients should be advised of the potential risks of the use of azathioprine during pregnancy and during the nursing period. The increased risk of malignancy following therapy with azathioprine should be explained to the patient.

Laboratory Tests



Drug Interactions



Use with Other Agents Affecting Myelopoesis

Drugs which may affect leukocyte production, including co-trimoxazole, may lead to exaggerated leukopenia, especially in renal transplant recipients. 

Use with Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors

The use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors to control hypertension in patients on azathioprine has been reported to induce anemia and severe leukopenia. 

Use with Warfarin

Azathioprine may inhibit the anticoagulant effect of warfarin.

Use with Ribavirin

The use of ribavirin for hepatitis C in patients receiving azathioprine has been reported to induce severe pancytopenia and may increase the risk of azathioprine-related myelotoxicity. Inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMDH) is required for one of the metabolic pathways of azathioprine. Ribavirin is known to inhibit IMDH, thereby leading to accumulation of an azathioprine metabolite, 6-methylthioionosine monophosphate (6-MTITP), which is associated with myelotoxicity (neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and anemia). Patients receiving azathioprine with ribavirin should have complete blood counts, including platelet counts, monitored weekly for the first month, twice monthly for the second and third months of treatment, then monthly or more frequently if dosage or other therapy changes are necessary.

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

See section.

Pregnancy

See section.

Nursing Mothers

The use of azathioprine in nursing mothers is not recommended. Azathioprine or its metabolites are transferred at low levels, both transplacentally and in breast milk. Because of the potential for tumorigenicity shown for azathioprine, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.

Pediatric Use

Safety and efficacy of azathioprine in pediatric patients have not been established.


What are the side effects of Azathioprine Sodium?

The principal and potentially serious toxic effects of azathioprine are hematologic and gastrointestinal. The risks of secondary infection and malignancy are also significant (see ). The frequency and severity of adverse reactions depend on the dose and duration of azathioprine as well as on the patient’s underlying disease or concomitant therapies. The incidence of hematologic toxicities and neoplasia encountered in groups of renal homograft recipients is significantly higher than that in studies employing azathioprine for rheumatoid arthritis. The relative incidences in clinical studies are summarized below:

     
    
     
     
     
    
     
     


Hematologic

Leukopenia and/or thrombocytopenia are dose-dependent and may occur late in the course of therapy with azathioprine. Dose reduction or temporary withdrawal may result in reversal of these toxicities. Infection may occur as a secondary manifestation of bone marrow suppression or leukopenia, but the incidence of infection in renal homotransplantation is 30 to 60 times that in rheumatoid arthritis. Anemias, including macrocytic anemia and/or bleeding have been reported.

TPMT genotyping or phenotyping can help identify patients with low or absent TPMT activity (homozygous for non-functional alleles) who are at increased risk for severe, life-threatening myelosuppression from azathioprine. (See , and ). Death associated with pancytopenia has been reported in patients with absent TPMT activity receiving azathioprine.

Gastrointestinal

Nausea and vomiting may occur within the first few months of therapy with azathioprine, and occurred in approximately 12% of 676 rheumatoid arthritis patients. The frequency of gastric disturbance often can be reduced by administration of the drug in divided doses and/or after meals. However, in some patients, nausea and vomiting may be severe and may be accompanied by symptoms such as diarrhea, fever, malaise, and myalgias (see ). Vomiting with abdominal pain may occur rarely with a hypersensitivity pancreatitis.

Hepatotoxicity manifest by elevation of serum alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin and/or serum transaminases is known to occur following azathioprine use, primarily in allograft recipients. Hepatotoxicity has been uncommon (less than 1%) in rheumatoid arthritis patients. Hepatotoxicity following transplantation most often occurs within 6 months of transplantation and is generally reversible after interruption of azathioprine. A rare, but life-threatening hepatic veno-occlusive disease associated with chronic administration of azathioprine has been described in transplant patients and in one patient receiving azathioprine for panuveitis. Periodic measurement of serum transaminases, alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin is indicated for early detection of hepatotoxicity. If hepatic veno-occlusive disease is clinically suspected, azathioprine should be permanently withdrawn.

Others

Additional side effects of low frequency have been reported. These include skin rashes, alopecia, fever, arthralgias, diarrhea, steatorrhea, negative nitrogen balance, reversible interstitial pneumonitis, hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma (see Boxed ), and Sweet’s Syndrome (acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis).


What should I look out for while using Azathioprine Sodium?

Azathioprine Sodium for Injection should not be given to patients who have shown hypersensitivity to the drug. Azathioprine should not be used for treating rheumatoid arthritis in pregnant women. Patients with rheumatoid arthritis previously treated with alkylating agents (cyclophosphamide, chlorambucil, melphalan or others) may have a prohibitive risk of malignancy if treated with azathioprine. 


What might happen if I take too much Azathioprine Sodium?

The oral LDs for single doses of azathioprine in mice and rats are 2500 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg, respectively. Very large doses of this antimetabolite may lead to marrow hypoplasia, bleeding, infection, and death. About 30% of azathioprine is bound to serum proteins, but approximately 45% is removed during an 8-hour hemodialysis. A single case has been reported of a renal transplant patient who ingested a single dose of 7500 mg azathioprine. The immediate toxic reactions were nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea, followed by mild leukopenia and mild abnormalities in liver function. The white blood cell count, SGOT, and bilirubin returned to normal 6 days after the overdose. 


How should I store and handle Azathioprine Sodium?

Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature].Dispense in a tight, light-resistant container as defined in the USP, with a child-resistant closure (as required).Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature].Dispense in a tight, light-resistant container as defined in the USP, with a child-resistant closure (as required).Azathioprine Sodium for Injection, USP, is supplied in a 20 mL vial, each containing azathioprine sodium, equivalent to 100 mg azathioprine.NDC 0143-9566-01.Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F). [ See USP Controlled Room Temperature].Protect from light.The sterile, lyophilized sodium salt is yellow, and should be dissolved in Sterile Water for Injection (see )To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact West-Ward Pharmaceutical Corp. at 1-877-845-0689, or the FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or .For Product Inquiry call 1-877-845-0689.Azathioprine Sodium for Injection, USP, is supplied in a 20 mL vial, each containing azathioprine sodium, equivalent to 100 mg azathioprine.NDC 0143-9566-01.Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F). [ See USP Controlled Room Temperature].Protect from light.The sterile, lyophilized sodium salt is yellow, and should be dissolved in Sterile Water for Injection (see )To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact West-Ward Pharmaceutical Corp. at 1-877-845-0689, or the FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or .For Product Inquiry call 1-877-845-0689.Azathioprine Sodium for Injection, USP, is supplied in a 20 mL vial, each containing azathioprine sodium, equivalent to 100 mg azathioprine.NDC 0143-9566-01.Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F). [ See USP Controlled Room Temperature].Protect from light.The sterile, lyophilized sodium salt is yellow, and should be dissolved in Sterile Water for Injection (see )To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact West-Ward Pharmaceutical Corp. at 1-877-845-0689, or the FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or .For Product Inquiry call 1-877-845-0689.Azathioprine Sodium for Injection, USP, is supplied in a 20 mL vial, each containing azathioprine sodium, equivalent to 100 mg azathioprine.NDC 0143-9566-01.Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F). [ See USP Controlled Room Temperature].Protect from light.The sterile, lyophilized sodium salt is yellow, and should be dissolved in Sterile Water for Injection (see )To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact West-Ward Pharmaceutical Corp. at 1-877-845-0689, or the FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or .For Product Inquiry call 1-877-845-0689.Azathioprine Sodium for Injection, USP, is supplied in a 20 mL vial, each containing azathioprine sodium, equivalent to 100 mg azathioprine.NDC 0143-9566-01.Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F). [ See USP Controlled Room Temperature].Protect from light.The sterile, lyophilized sodium salt is yellow, and should be dissolved in Sterile Water for Injection (see )To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact West-Ward Pharmaceutical Corp. at 1-877-845-0689, or the FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or .For Product Inquiry call 1-877-845-0689.Azathioprine Sodium for Injection, USP, is supplied in a 20 mL vial, each containing azathioprine sodium, equivalent to 100 mg azathioprine.NDC 0143-9566-01.Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F). [ See USP Controlled Room Temperature].Protect from light.The sterile, lyophilized sodium salt is yellow, and should be dissolved in Sterile Water for Injection (see )To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact West-Ward Pharmaceutical Corp. at 1-877-845-0689, or the FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or .For Product Inquiry call 1-877-845-0689.Azathioprine Sodium for Injection, USP, is supplied in a 20 mL vial, each containing azathioprine sodium, equivalent to 100 mg azathioprine.NDC 0143-9566-01.Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F). [ See USP Controlled Room Temperature].Protect from light.The sterile, lyophilized sodium salt is yellow, and should be dissolved in Sterile Water for Injection (see )To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact West-Ward Pharmaceutical Corp. at 1-877-845-0689, or the FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or .For Product Inquiry call 1-877-845-0689.


&times

Clinical Information

Chemical Structure

No Image found
Clinical Pharmacology

Azathioprine is well absorbed following oral administration. Maximum serum radioactivity occurs at 1 to 2 hours after oral S-azathioprine and decays with a half-life of 5 hours. This is not an estimate of the half-life of azathioprine itself, but is the decay rate for all S-containing metabolites of the drug. Because of extensive metabolism, only a fraction of the radioactivity is present as azathioprine. Usual doses produce blood levels of azathioprine, and of mercaptopurine derived from it, which are low (
Azathioprine is metabolized to 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP). Both compounds are rapidly eliminated from blood and are oxidized or methylated in erythrocytes and liver; no azathioprine or mercaptopurine is detectable in urine after 8 hours. Activation of 6-mercaptopurine occurs via hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT) and a series of multi-enzymatic processes involving kinases to form 6-thioguanine nucleotides (6-TGNs) as major metabolites (See Metabolism Scheme in ). The cytotoxicity of azathioprine is due, in part, to the incorporation of 6-TGN into DNA.

6-MP undergoes two major inactivation routes (). One is thiol methylation, which is catalyzed by the enzyme thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT), to form the inactive metabolite methyl-6-MP (6-MeMP). TPMT activity is controlled by a genetic polymorphism. For Caucasians and African Americans, approximately 10% of the population inherit one non-functional TPMT allele (heterozygous) conferring intermediate TPMT activity, and 0.3% inherit two TPMT non-functional alleles (homozygous) for low or absent TPMT activity. Non-functional alleles are less common in Asians. TPMT activity correlates inversely with 6-TGN levels in erythrocytes and presumably other hematopoietic tissues, since these cells have negligible xanthine oxidase (involved in the other inactivation pathway) activities, leaving TPMT methylation as the only inactivation pathway. Patients with intermediate TPMT activity may be at increased risk of myelotoxicity if receiving conventional doses of azathioprine. Patients with low or absent TPMT activity are at an increased risk of developing severe, life-threatening myelotoxicity if receiving conventional doses of azathioprine.TPMT genotyping or phenotyping (red blood cell TPMT activity) can help identify patients who are at an increased risk for developing azathioprine toxicity.Accurate phenotyping (red blood cell TPMT activity) results are not possible in patients who have received recent blood transfusions. (See and sections).

Figure 1. Metabolism pathway of azathioprine : competing pathways result in inactivation by TPMT or XO, or incorporation of cytotoxic nucleotides into DNA.

  GMPS: Guanosine monophosphate synthetase; HGPRT: Hypoxanthine-guanine-phosphoribosyl-transferase; IMPD: Inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase; MeMP: Methylmercaptopurine; MeMPN: Methylmercaptopurine nucleotide; TGN: Thioguanine nucleotides; TIMP: Thioinosine monophosphate; TPMT: Thiopurine S-methyltransferase; TU Thiouric acid; XO: Xanthine oxidase (Adapted from 2002; 3:89-98; and 2001; 61:5810-5816.)

Another inactivation pathway is oxidation, which is catalyzed by xanthine oxidase (XO) to form 6-thiouric acid. The inhibition of xanthine oxidase in patients receiving allopurinol is the basis for the azathioprine dosage reduction required in these patients (see ). Proportions of metabolites are different in individual patients, and this presumably accounts for variable magnitude and duration of drug effects. Renal clearance is probably not important in predicting biological effectiveness or toxicities, although dose reduction is practiced in patients with poor renal function.

Non-Clinical Toxicology
Azathioprine Sodium for Injection should not be given to patients who have shown hypersensitivity to the drug. Azathioprine should not be used for treating rheumatoid arthritis in pregnant women. Patients with rheumatoid arthritis previously treated with alkylating agents (cyclophosphamide, chlorambucil, melphalan or others) may have a prohibitive risk of malignancy if treated with azathioprine. 

Aspirin - See

Acetazolamide modifies phenytoin metabolism with increased serum levels of phenytoin. This may increase or enhance the occurrence of osteomalacia in some patients receiving chronic phenytoin therapy. Caution is advised in patients receiving chronic concomitant therapy. By decreasing the gastrointestinal absorption of primidone, acetazolamide may decrease serum concentrations of primidone and its metabolites, with a consequent possible decrease in anticonvulsant effect. Caution is advised when beginning, discontinuing, or changing the dose of acetazolamide in patients receiving primidone.

Because of possible additive effects with other carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, concomitant use is not advisable.

Acetazolamide may increase the effects of other folic acid antagonists.

Acetazolamide decreases urinary excretion of amphetamine and may enhance the magnitude and duration of their effect.

Acetazolamide reduces urinary excretion of quinidine and may enhance its effect.

Acetazolamide may prevent the urinary antiseptic effect of methenamine.

Acetazolamide increases lithium excretion and the lithium may be decreased.

Acetazolamide and sodium bicarbonate used concurrently increase the risk of renal calculus formation.

Acetazolamide may elevate cyclosporine levels.

A gastrointestinal hypersensitivity reaction characterized by severe nausea and vomiting has been reported.  These symptoms may also be accompanied by diarrhea, rash, fever, malaise, myalgias, elevations in liver enzymes, and occasionally, hypotension. Symptoms of gastrointestinal toxicity most often develop within the first several weeks of therapy with azathioprine and are reversible upon discontinuation of the drug. The reaction can recur within hours after re-challenge with a single dose of azathioprine.

The principal and potentially serious toxic effects of azathioprine are hematologic and gastrointestinal. The risks of secondary infection and malignancy are also significant (see ). The frequency and severity of adverse reactions depend on the dose and duration of azathioprine as well as on the patient’s underlying disease or concomitant therapies. The incidence of hematologic toxicities and neoplasia encountered in groups of renal homograft recipients is significantly higher than that in studies employing azathioprine for rheumatoid arthritis. The relative incidences in clinical studies are summarized below:

&times

Reference

This information is obtained from the National Institute of Health's Standard Packaging Label drug database.
"https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/"

While we update our database periodically, we cannot guarantee it is always updated to the latest version.

&times

Review

Rate this treatment and share your opinion


Helpful tips to write a good review:

  1. Only share your first hand experience as a consumer or a care giver.
  2. Describe your experience in the Comments area including the benefits, side effects and how it has worked for you. Do not provide personal information like email addresses or telephone numbers.
  3. Fill in the optional information to help other users benefit from your review.

Reason for Taking This Treatment

(required)

Click the stars to rate this treatment

This medication has worked for me.




This medication has been easy for me to use.




Overall, I have been satisfied with my experience.




Write a brief description of your experience with this treatment:

2000 characters remaining

Optional Information

Help others benefit from your review by filling in the information below.
I am a:
Gender:
&times

Professional

Clonazepam Description Each single-scored tablet, for oral administration, contains 0.5 mg, 1 mg, or 2 mg Clonazepam, USP, a benzodiazepine. Each tablet also contains corn starch, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, and povidone. Clonazepam tablets USP 0.5 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake. Clonazepam tablets USP 1 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake, as well as FD&C Blue No. 1 Aluminum Lake. Chemically, Clonazepam, USP is 5-(o-chlorophenyl)-1,3-dihydro-7-nitro-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one. It is a light yellow crystalline powder. It has the following structural formula: C15H10ClN3O3 M.W. 315.72
&times

Tips

Tips

&times

Interactions

Interactions

A total of 440 drugs (1549 brand and generic names) are known to interact with Imbruvica (ibrutinib). 228 major drug interactions (854 brand and generic names) 210 moderate drug interactions (691 brand and generic names) 2 minor drug interactions (4 brand and generic names) Show all medications in the database that may interact with Imbruvica (ibrutinib).