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Bermuda Grass, Standardized

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Overview

What is Bermuda Grass, Standardized?

Standardized allergenic extract of grass pollens from Timothy (P), Orchard (), June (), Red Top (),Sweet Vernal (), Meadow Fescue (Perennial Rye (), Bermuda Grass (), in the accompanying vial are sterile, and contain glycerin 50% v/v and phenol 0.4% (preservative). Inert ingredients may include sodium chloride for isotonicity and sodium bicarbonate buffer.

Glycerinated pollen extracts, for subcutaneous injection for immunotherapy and/or percutaneous or intracutaneous testing (see section), are prepared from defatted dried pollen extracted in glycerinated Coca’s Fluid, filtered aseptically, and dispensed into multiple dose vials. These are subsequently tested for sterility, safety, and potency.

Standardized grass pollen extracts labeled in BAU/mL are not interchangeable with grass pollen extracts labeled in AU/mL or non-standardized grass pollen extracts.

For ease in use and for lot-to-lot consistency, the potency is expressed in Bioequivalent Allergy Units (BAUs) per milliliter. A value of 10,000 BAU/mL is assigned to the CBER reference standard that can be diluted 1:0.5 million to produce intradermal ƩE (sum of Erythema) of 50 mm in highly puncture reactive subjects. A value of 100,000 BAU/mL is assigned to the CBER reference standard that can be diluted 1:5 million to produce intradermal ƩE (sum of Erythema) of 50 mm in highly puncture reactive subjects. The relative potency of each lot of standardized extract has been compared to the official CBER reference standard by an acceptable assay such as ELISA Inhibition.When the potency is equivalent by ELISA Inhibition to the reference, the product is assigned 10,000 BAU/mL or 100,000 BAU/mL. Standardized grass pollen extracts, except for Bermuda, have potency designations of either 10,000 BAU/mL or 100,000 BAU/mL. Bermuda grass pollen extract is only available with a 10,000 BAU/mL potency designation.

In the ELISA Inhibition assay, a competitive binding assay, the wells of microtiter plates are coated using a characterized allergenic extract. Allergic sera is added to each well. The binding of IgE specific for the coating allergen is inhibited by concentrations of a test sample of an extract of the same allergen. The amount of IgE bound to the solid phase allergen (and subsequently the degree of inhibition) is determined using enzyme-labeled anti-human IgE antibodies and the appropriate substrate. The potency relative to a reference is determined using a parallel line bioassay method.



What does Bermuda Grass, Standardized look like?



What are the available doses of Bermuda Grass, Standardized?

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What should I talk to my health care provider before I take Bermuda Grass, Standardized?

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How should I use Bermuda Grass, Standardized?

Indicated use of allergenic extracts is for the diagnosis and treatment (hyposensitization therapy) of patients who experience allergic symptoms due to exposure to grass pollen and who exhibit type I skin sensitivity when tested to those specific allergens.

Hyposensitization (injection) therapy is a treatment for patients exhibiting allergic reactions to seasonal pollens, dust mites, molds, animal danders, and various other inhalants in situations where the offending allergen cannot be avoided.

For previously untreated patients, prior to the initiation of therapy, clinical sensitivity to the standardized grass pollen extract should be established by careful evaluation of the patient's history confirmed by diagnostic skin testing. Hyposensitization should not be prescribed for sensitivities to allergens which can easily be avoided.

Standardized grass pollen extracts labeled in BAU/mL are not interchangeable with grass pollen extracts labeled in AU/mL or non-standardized grass pollen extracts.

10,000 BAU/mL extracts are indicated for percutaneous testing. If negative, the 100,000 BAU/mL dose may be used. Availability of 10,000 and 100,000 BAU/mL dosages facilitate safe switching. Patients who tolerate dilutions prepared from the 10,000 BAU/mL dosage and require a higher dose may be treated with dilutions prepared from the 100,000 BAU/mL dosage.

100,000 BAU/mL concentrations may be especially useful when patients are hyposensitized to numerous allergens. Mixing of allergenic extracts dilutes the potency of each constituent. Using higher concentrations such as 100,000 BAU/mL allows for dilution with other extracts without sacrificing immunizing properties. : The final potency of each individual component in a patient mixture should never exceed 10,000 BAU/mL. See also, section for discussion of mixture labeling.

Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration whenever solution and container permit.

When diluting bulk extracts, use of Sterile Diluent for Allergenic Extracts or Sterile Diluent for Allergenic Extracts Normal Saline with HSA are recommended. Dilutions should be made with sterile disposable syringes using aseptic technique. Commonly 10 fold dilutions are used to achieve a desired concentration for intradermal testing or initiation and continuation of immunotherapy. For example transferring 0.5 mL of a 10,000 BAU/mL extract into 4.5 mL of diluent will yield 5 mL of extract @ 1,000 BAU/mL. Prepare as many additional serial dilutions as necessary to reach the appropriate concentration.

Stock mixtures of grass pollen extracts are compounded from individual grass pollen extracts. The total potency per milliliter (mL) of these mixtures is described on the container label, where space permits. The contribution each individual component is expressed in the supplemental labeling accompanying the vial.


What interacts with Bermuda Grass, Standardized?

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What are the warnings of Bermuda Grass, Standardized?

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What are the precautions of Bermuda Grass, Standardized?

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What are the side effects of Bermuda Grass, Standardized?

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What should I look out for while using Bermuda Grass, Standardized?

A patient should not be immunized with preparations of allergens to which the patient has not demonstrated symptoms, IgE antibodies, positive skin tests, or properly controlled challenge testing. In most cases, immunotherapy is not indicated for those allergens that can be eliminated or minimized by environmental control.

Patients on beta-blockers are not candidates for immunotherapy, as they can be non-responsive to beta-agonists that may be required to reverse a systemic reaction (also see and ). In the presence of active symptoms such as rhinitis, wheezing, dyspnea, etc., the indications of immunotherapy must be weighed carefully against the risk of temporarily aggravating the symptoms by the injection itself.

Also, there is some evidence, although inconclusive, that routine immunizations may exacerbate autoimmune diseases. Hyposensitization should be given cautiously to patients with this predisposition. Patients with severe cardiorespiratory symptoms are at an additional risk during a systemic reaction. The physician must weigh risk to benefit in these cases.

See warnings at the beginning of this package insert. Standardized extracts may be more, less, or equivalently potent compared to non-standardized extracts (See table I).

Conversion from non-standardized to standardized Grass Pollen Extracts:

There is no one specific formula to convert immunotherapy patients from non-standardized to standardized extracts. However, you may wish to consider the following as part of your overall plan:

A.       Time your conversion outside of the height of the grass pollen season.

B.       Table I describing potency of non-standardized extracts in section can be used as a guide in selection dose.

CAUTION:

By the very nature of non-standardized extracts individual lots may vary more than 10-fold from the average value expressed in these tables. Further, you must consider the rapid decline in potency of non-glycerinated concentrates or aqueous dilutions of glycerinated concentrates of grass pollen extract. The BAU/mL expressed in the tables, therefore, may be overstated when compared to actual patient treatment extracts.

1.       Refer to the table in the section and based on the current w/v or PNU determine an approximate BAU concentration that would be about 1/10 the non-standardized dose that the patient is currently receiving. To compare dose selection by puncture and intradermal testing, compare their wheal and erythema responses. If the reaction to the standardized is equal to or less than the non-standardized, proceed with immunotherapy beginning with 0.05 mL of the standardized extract concentration tested, and proceed to maintenance as described in the Section.

2.       If the intradermal reaction to the standardized extract is greater than the non-standardized dose, dilute 10 fold and repeat until skin response to standardized is equal to or less than non-standardized, then proceed with immunotherapy.

C.       From alum precipitated or modified extracts to standardized extracts: It is recommended that therapy be initiated as if the patient were not previously treated.

Patients should always be observed for at least 20 - 30 minutes after any injection. In the event of a marked systemic reaction (for a description of systemic reactions see Adverse Reaction Section), application of a tourniquet above the injection site and intramuscular administration of 0.2 mL to 1.0 mL (0.01 mg/kg) of Epinephrine Injection (1:1000) is recommended. This dose can be repeated after 15 minutes, as needed. Maximal recommended dose for children between 2 and 12 years of age is 0.5 mL. The tourniquet is then gradually released at 15 minute intervals. Patients under treatment with beta-blockers may be refractory to the usual dose of epinephrine.

Volume expanders and vasopressor agents may be required to reverse hypotension. Inhalation bronchodilators and parenteral aminophylline may be required to reverse bronchospasm. In cases of respiratory obstruction, oxygen and intubation may be necessary. Life-threatening reactions unresponsive to the above may require cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

Withhold allergenic extracts temporarily or reduce the dose in patients with any one of the following conditions:

Patients with unstable asthma or steroid dependent asthmatics and patients with underlying cardiovascular disease are at greater risk to a fatal outcome from a systemic allergic reaction.

See also and


What might happen if I take too much Bermuda Grass, Standardized?

Signs and symptoms of overdose are typically local and systemic reactions. For a description and management of overdose reactions, refer to "Adverse Reactions" section above.


How should I store and handle Bermuda Grass, Standardized?

Store at controlled room temperature 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [see USP] .For percutaneous testing, 5 mL vial, 10,000 BAU/mL and 100,000 BAU/mL (except Bermuda grass 10,000 BAU/mL only) in glycerin 50% (v/v).For immunotherapy, 10 mL, 30 mL, and 50 mL vials 10,000 BAU/mL in glycerin 50% (v/v), or 10 mL, 30 mL and 50 mL vials 100,000 BAU/mL in glycerin 50% (v/v). Bermuda is available only at 10,000 BAU/mL.For percutaneous testing, 5 mL vial, 10,000 BAU/mL and 100,000 BAU/mL (except Bermuda grass 10,000 BAU/mL only) in glycerin 50% (v/v).For immunotherapy, 10 mL, 30 mL, and 50 mL vials 10,000 BAU/mL in glycerin 50% (v/v), or 10 mL, 30 mL and 50 mL vials 100,000 BAU/mL in glycerin 50% (v/v). Bermuda is available only at 10,000 BAU/mL.


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Clinical Information

Chemical Structure

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Clinical Pharmacology

Diagnostically (for skin testing) the allergen combines with IgE antibodies fixed to mast cells in the skin. This complexing causes an increase in cellular permeability and degranulation of the mast cells releasing chemical mediators. These mediators (such as histamine) are responsible for a local inflammatory response of wheal and erythema typical of a positive skin test reaction and also, the symptoms commonly associated with allergic disease. The more mediator released, the larger the reaction (wheal and erythema).

Treatment consists of the subcutaneous injection of gradually increasing doses of the allergens to which the patient is allergic. It has been demonstrated that this method of treatment induces an increased tolerance to the allergens responsible for the symptoms on subsequent exposure. Although the exact relationships between allergen, skin-sensitizing antibody (IgE) and the blocking antibody (IgG) have not been precisely established, clinically confirmed immunological studies have adduced evidence of the efficacy of hyposensitization therapy.

Numerous controlled studies have demonstrated the clinical efficacy of immunotherapy with cat, dust mites and some pollen, including grass pollen extracts. Nevertheless, responses are variable, and in a few studies patients reported no appreciable benefit.

Puncture test data with 10,000 BAU/mL Grass Pollen Extract CBER reference preparations, in 15 grass allergic patients yielded the following sizes of wheal and erythema (Ʃ = sum of longest diameter and orthogonal cross diameter).

The intradermal dose (BAU) of the CBER (FDA) Grass Pollen Extract Reference Preparation required producing a 50 mm Sum of Erythema was calculated based on titration in sensitive individuals.

An analysis of relative potency of the 1:10 w/v unstandardized grass pollen extracts utilizing the ELISA Inhibition method shows the relative potency in BAU/mL in the following table. By the very nature of unstandardized extracts individual lots of the unstandardized extracts may vary more than 1 log from the average value expressed in these tables. 

*The BAU/mL range for equivalence to the FDA 100,000 BAU/mL reference is 69,900-143,100.

*The BAU/mL range for equivalence to the FDA 10,000 BAU/mL reference is 6,990-14,310.

 

Non-Clinical Toxicology
A patient should not be immunized with preparations of allergens to which the patient has not demonstrated symptoms, IgE antibodies, positive skin tests, or properly controlled challenge testing. In most cases, immunotherapy is not indicated for those allergens that can be eliminated or minimized by environmental control.

Patients on beta-blockers are not candidates for immunotherapy, as they can be non-responsive to beta-agonists that may be required to reverse a systemic reaction (also see and ). In the presence of active symptoms such as rhinitis, wheezing, dyspnea, etc., the indications of immunotherapy must be weighed carefully against the risk of temporarily aggravating the symptoms by the injection itself.

Also, there is some evidence, although inconclusive, that routine immunizations may exacerbate autoimmune diseases. Hyposensitization should be given cautiously to patients with this predisposition. Patients with severe cardiorespiratory symptoms are at an additional risk during a systemic reaction. The physician must weigh risk to benefit in these cases.

See warnings at the beginning of this package insert. Standardized extracts may be more, less, or equivalently potent compared to non-standardized extracts (See table I).

Conversion from non-standardized to standardized Grass Pollen Extracts:

There is no one specific formula to convert immunotherapy patients from non-standardized to standardized extracts. However, you may wish to consider the following as part of your overall plan:

A.       Time your conversion outside of the height of the grass pollen season.

B.       Table I describing potency of non-standardized extracts in section can be used as a guide in selection dose.

CAUTION:

By the very nature of non-standardized extracts individual lots may vary more than 10-fold from the average value expressed in these tables. Further, you must consider the rapid decline in potency of non-glycerinated concentrates or aqueous dilutions of glycerinated concentrates of grass pollen extract. The BAU/mL expressed in the tables, therefore, may be overstated when compared to actual patient treatment extracts.

1.       Refer to the table in the section and based on the current w/v or PNU determine an approximate BAU concentration that would be about 1/10 the non-standardized dose that the patient is currently receiving. To compare dose selection by puncture and intradermal testing, compare their wheal and erythema responses. If the reaction to the standardized is equal to or less than the non-standardized, proceed with immunotherapy beginning with 0.05 mL of the standardized extract concentration tested, and proceed to maintenance as described in the Section.

2.       If the intradermal reaction to the standardized extract is greater than the non-standardized dose, dilute 10 fold and repeat until skin response to standardized is equal to or less than non-standardized, then proceed with immunotherapy.

C.       From alum precipitated or modified extracts to standardized extracts: It is recommended that therapy be initiated as if the patient were not previously treated.

Patients should always be observed for at least 20 - 30 minutes after any injection. In the event of a marked systemic reaction (for a description of systemic reactions see Adverse Reaction Section), application of a tourniquet above the injection site and intramuscular administration of 0.2 mL to 1.0 mL (0.01 mg/kg) of Epinephrine Injection (1:1000) is recommended. This dose can be repeated after 15 minutes, as needed. Maximal recommended dose for children between 2 and 12 years of age is 0.5 mL. The tourniquet is then gradually released at 15 minute intervals. Patients under treatment with beta-blockers may be refractory to the usual dose of epinephrine.

Volume expanders and vasopressor agents may be required to reverse hypotension. Inhalation bronchodilators and parenteral aminophylline may be required to reverse bronchospasm. In cases of respiratory obstruction, oxygen and intubation may be necessary. Life-threatening reactions unresponsive to the above may require cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

Withhold allergenic extracts temporarily or reduce the dose in patients with any one of the following conditions:

Patients with unstable asthma or steroid dependent asthmatics and patients with underlying cardiovascular disease are at greater risk to a fatal outcome from a systemic allergic reaction.

See also and

Drugs can interfere with the performance of skin tests.

Antihistamines: Response to mediator (histamine) released by allergens is suppressed by antihistamines. The length of suppression varies and is dependent on individual patient, type of antihistamine and length of time the patient has been on antihistamines. The duration of this suppression may be as little as 24 hours (chlorpheniramine), and can be as long as 40 days (astemizole).

Tricyclic Antidepressants: These exert a potent and sustained decrease of skin reactivity to histamine which may last for a few weeks.

Beta Agonists: Oral terbutaline and parenteral ephedrine, in general, have been shown to decrease allergen induced wheal.

Dopamine: Intravenous infusion of dopamine may inhibit skin test responses.

Beta Blocking Agents: Propranolol can significantly increase skin test reactivity (see boxed Warnings).

Other Drugs: Short acting steroids, inhaled beta agonists, theophylline and cromolyn do not seem to affect skin test response.

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Reference

This information is obtained from the National Institute of Health's Standard Packaging Label drug database.
"https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/"

While we update our database periodically, we cannot guarantee it is always updated to the latest version.

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Clonazepam Description Each single-scored tablet, for oral administration, contains 0.5 mg, 1 mg, or 2 mg Clonazepam, USP, a benzodiazepine. Each tablet also contains corn starch, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, and povidone. Clonazepam tablets USP 0.5 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake. Clonazepam tablets USP 1 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake, as well as FD&C Blue No. 1 Aluminum Lake. Chemically, Clonazepam, USP is 5-(o-chlorophenyl)-1,3-dihydro-7-nitro-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one. It is a light yellow crystalline powder. It has the following structural formula: C15H10ClN3O3 M.W. 315.72
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Interactions

Interactions

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