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Besifloxacin

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Overview

What is Besivance?

BESIVANCE (besifloxacin ophthalmic suspension) 0.6%, is a sterile ophthalmic suspension of besifloxacin formulated with DuraSite† (polycarbophil, edetate disodium dihydrate and sodium chloride). Each mL of BESIVANCE contains 6.63 mg besifloxacin hydrochloride equivalent to 6 mg besifloxacin base. It is an 8-chloro fluoroquinolone anti-infective for topical ophthalmic use.

CHClFNO•HCl

Molecular Weight 430.30

Chemical Name: (+)-7-[(3R)-3-aminohexahydro-1H-azepin-1-yl]-8-chloro-1-cyclopropyl-6-fluoro-4-oxo-1,4-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxylic acid hydrochloride.

Besifloxacin hydrochloride is a white to pale yellowish-white powder.

Each mL contains:

Active:

Inactives:

Preservative:

BESIVANCE is an isotonic suspension with an osmolality of approximately 290 mOsm/kg.



What does Besivance look like?



What are the available doses of Besivance?

Ophthalmic suspension: besifloxacin 6 mg/mL (0.6%) ()

What should I talk to my health care provider before I take Besivance?

How should I use Besivance?

BESIVANCE (besifloxacin ophthalmic suspension) 0.6%, is indicated for the treatment of bacterial conjunctivitis caused by susceptible isolates of the following bacteria:

Aerococcus viridans*

CDC coryneform group G

Corynebacterium pseudodiphtheriticum*

Corynebacterium striatum*

Haemophilus influenzae

Moraxella catarrhalis*

Moraxella lacunata*

Pseudomonas aeruginosa*

Staphylococcus aureus

Staphylococcus epidermidis

Staphylococcus hominis*

Staphylococcus lugdunensis*

Staphylococcus warneri*

Streptococcus mitis

Streptococcus oralis

Streptococcus pneumoniae

Streptococcus salivarius*

*Efficacy for this organism was studied in fewer than 10 infections.

Invert closed bottle and shake once before use.

Instill one drop in the affected eye(s) 3 times a day, 4 to 12 hours apart for 7 days.


What interacts with Besivance?

Sorry No Records found


What are the warnings of Besivance?

Sorry No Records found


What are the precautions of Besivance?

Sorry No Records found


What are the side effects of Besivance?

Sorry No records found


What should I look out for while using Besivance?

None.


What might happen if I take too much Besivance?

Sorry No Records found


How should I store and handle Besivance?

Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Dispense in a tight container.Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Dispense in a tight container.BESIVANCE (besifloxacin ophthalmic suspension) 0.6%, is supplied as a sterile ophthalmic suspension in a white low density polyethylene (LDPE) bottle with a controlled dropper tip and tan polypropylene cap. Tamper evidence is provided with a shrink band around the cap and neck area of the package.5 mL in 7.5 mL bottle 24208-446-05Storage: BESIVANCE (besifloxacin ophthalmic suspension) 0.6%, is supplied as a sterile ophthalmic suspension in a white low density polyethylene (LDPE) bottle with a controlled dropper tip and tan polypropylene cap. Tamper evidence is provided with a shrink band around the cap and neck area of the package.5 mL in 7.5 mL bottle 24208-446-05Storage: BESIVANCE (besifloxacin ophthalmic suspension) 0.6%, is supplied as a sterile ophthalmic suspension in a white low density polyethylene (LDPE) bottle with a controlled dropper tip and tan polypropylene cap. Tamper evidence is provided with a shrink band around the cap and neck area of the package.5 mL in 7.5 mL bottle 24208-446-05Storage:


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Clinical Information

Chemical Structure

No Image found
Clinical Pharmacology

Besifloxacin is a fluoroquinolone antibacterial .

Non-Clinical Toxicology
None.

Potential Effects of Coadministration of Drugs Highly Bound to Plasma Proteins

In a study comparing prothrombin time AUC (0-120 hr) following dosing with warfarin (0.75 mg/kg) before and after 21 days of dosing with either sertraline hydrochloride (50-200 mg/day) or placebo, there was a mean increase in prothrombin time of 8% relative to baseline for sertraline hydrochloride compared to a 1% decrease for placebo (p
Cimetidine

CNS Active Drugs

In a placebo-controlled trial in normal volunteers, the administration of two doses of Sertraline hydrochloride did not significantly alter steady-state lithium levels or the renal clearance of lithium.

Nonetheless, at this time, it is recommended that plasma lithium levels be monitored following initiation of Sertraline hydrochloride therapy with appropriate adjustments to the lithium dose.

In a controlled study of a single dose (2 mg) of pimozide, 200 mg sertraline (q.d.) co-administration to steady state was associated with a mean increase in pimozide AUC and C of about 40%, but was not associated with any changes in EKG. Since the highest recommended pimozide dose (10 mg) has not been evaluated in combination with sertraline, the effect on QT interval and PK parameters at doses higher than 2 mg at this time are not known. While the mechanism of this interaction is unknown, due to the narrow therapeutic index of pimozide and due to the interaction noted at a low dose of pimozide, concomitant administration of Sertraline hydrochloride and pimozide should be contraindicated (see ).

Results of a placebo-controlled trail in normal volunteers suggest that chronic administration of sertraline 200 mg/day does not produce clinically important inhibition of phenytoin metabolism. Nonetheless, at this time, it is recommended that plasma phenytoin concentrations be monitored following initiation of Sertraline Hydrochloride therapy with appropriate adjustments to the phenytoin dose, particularly in patients with multiple underlying medical conditions and/or those receiving multiple concomitant medications.

The effect of Sertraline hydrochloride on valproate levels has not been evaluated in clinical trials. In the absence of such data, it is recommended that plasma valproate levels be monitored following initiation of Sertraline hydrochloride therapy with appropriate adjustments to the valproate dose.

The risk of using sertraline hydrochloride in combination with other CNS active drugs has not been systematically evaluated. Consequently, caution is advised if the concomitant administration of sertraline hydrochloride and such drugs is required.

There is limited controlled experience regarding the optimal timing of switching from other drugs effective in the treatment of major depressive disorder, premenstrual dysphoric disorder to sertraline hydrochloride. Care and prudent medical judgment should be exercised when switching, particularly from long-acting agents. The duration of an appropriate washout period which should intervene before switching from one selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) to another has not been established.

Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors





Drugs Metabolized by P450 2D6

Serotonergic Drugs:

Triptans:

Sumatriptan

Tricyclic Antidepressant Drugs Effective in the Treatment of Major Depressive Disorder (TCAs)

Hypoglycemic Drugs

Atenolol

Digoxin

Microsomal Enzyme Induction

Drugs that Interfere with Hemostasis (Non-selective NSAIDs, Aspirin, Warfarin, etc.)

Serotonin release by platelets plays an important role in hemostasis. Epidemiological studies of  the case-control and cohort design that have demonstrated an association between use of  psychotropic drugs that interfere with serotonin reuptake and the occurrence of upper gastrointestinal bleeding have also shown that concurrent use of an NSAID or aspirin may  potentiate this risk of bleeding. These studies have also shown that concurrent use of an NSAID or aspirin may potentiate this risk of bleeding. Altered anticoagulant effects, including increased bleeding, have been reported when SSRIs or SNRIs are coadministered with warfarin. Patients receiving warfarin therapy should be carefully monitored when Sertraline hydrochloride is initiated or discontinued.

Electroconvulsive Therapy

Alcohol

Carcinogenesis







Impairment of Fertility





Pregnancy-Nonteratogenic Effects

Infants exposed to SSRIs in pregnancy may have an increased risk for persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN). PPHN occurs in 1 – 2 per 1,000 live births in the general population and is associated with substantial neonatal morbidity and mortality. Several recent epidemiologic studies suggest a positive statistical association between SSRI use (including sertraline hydrochloride) in pregnancy and PPHN. Other studies do not show a significant statistical association.

Physicians should also note the results of a prospective longitudinal study of 201 pregnant women with a history of major depression, who were either on antidepressants or had received antidepressants less than 12 weeks prior to their last menstrual period, and were in remission. Women who discontinued antidepressant medication during pregnancy showed a significant increase in relapse of their major depression compared to those women who remained on antidepressant medication throughout pregnancy.

When treating a pregnant woman with sertraline hydrochloride, the physician should carefully consider both the potential risks of taking an SSRI, along with the established benefits of treating depression with an antidepressant. This decision can only be made on a case by case basis (see ).

Labor and Delivery

Nursing Mothers

Pediatric Use

The safety of Sertraline hydrochloride use in children and adolescents with OCD, ages 6-18, was evaluated in a 12-week, multicenter, placebo-controlled study with 187 outpatients, ages 6-17, and in a flexible dose, 52 week open extension study of 137 patients, ages 6-18, who had completed the initial 12week, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Sertraline hydrochloride was administered at doses of either 25 mg/day (children, ages 6-12) or 50 mg/day (adolescents, ages 13-18) and then titrated in weekly 25 mg/day or 50 mg/day increments, respectively, to a maximum dose of 200 mg/day based upon clinical response. The mean dose for completers was 157 mg/day. In the acute 12 week pediatric study and in the 52 week study, Sertraline hydrochloride had an adverse event profile generally similar to that observed in adults.

Sertraline pharmacokinetics were evaluated in 61 pediatric patients between 6 and 17 years of age with major depressive disorder or OCD and revealed similar drug exposures to those of adults when plasma concentration was adjusted for weight (see under ).

Approximately 600 patients with major depressive disorder or OCD between 6 and 17 years of age have received Sertraline hydrochloride in clinical trials, both controlled and uncontrolled. The adverse event profile observed in these patients was generally similar to that observed in adult studies with sertraline hydrochloride (see ). As with other SSRIs, decreased appetite and weight loss have been observed in association with the use of Sertraline hydrochloride. In a pooled analysis of two 10-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled, flexible dose (50-200 mg) outpatient trials for major depressive disorder (n=373), there was a difference in weight change between sertraline and placebo of roughly 1 kilogram, for both children (ages 6-11) and adolescents (ages 12-17), in both cases representing a slight weight loss for sertraline compared to a slight gain for placebo. At baseline the mean weight for children was 39.0 kg for sertraline and 38.5 kg for placebo. At baseline the mean weight for adolescents was 61.4 kg for sertraline and 62.5 kg for placebo. There was a bigger difference between sertraline and placebo in the proportion of outliers for clinically important weight loss in children than in adolescents. For children, about 7% had a weight loss > 7% of body weight compared to none of the placebo patients; for adolescents, about 2% had a weight loss > 7% of body weight compared to about 1% of the placebo patients. A subset of these patients who completed the randomized controlled trials (sertraline n=99, placebo n=122) were continued into a 24-week, flexible-dose, open-label, extension study. A mean weight loss of approximately 0.5 kg was seen during the first eight weeks of treatment for subjects with first exposure to sertraline during the open-label extension study, similar to mean weight loss observed among sertraline treated subjects during the first eight weeks of the randomized controlled trials. The subjects continuing in the open label study began gaining weight compared to baseline by week 12 of sertraline treatment. Those subjects who completed 34 weeks of sertraline treatment (10 weeks in a placebo controlled trial + 24 weeks open label, n=68) had weight gain that was similar to that expected using data from age-adjusted peers. Regular monitoring of weight and growth is recommended if treatment of a pediatric patient with an SSRI is to be continued long term. Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients below the age of 6 have not been established.

The risks, if any, that may be associated with Sertraline hydrochloride’s use beyond 1 year in children and adolescents with OCD or major depressive disorder have not been systematically assessed. The prescriber should be mindful that the evidence relied upon to conclude that sertraline is safe for use in children and adolescents derives from clinical studies that were 10 to 52 weeks in duration and from the extrapolation of experience gained with adult patients. In particular, there are no studies that directly evaluate the effects of long-term sertraline use on the growth, development, and maturation of children and adolescents. Although there is no affirmative finding to suggest that sertraline possesses a capacity to adversely affect growth, development or maturation, the absence of such findings is not compelling evidence of the absence of the potential of sertraline to have adverse effects in chronic use (see – ).

Geriatric Use

Other Adverse Events in Geriatric Patients. In 354 geriatric subjects treated with Sertraline hydrochloride in placebo-controlled trials, the overall profile of adverse events was generally similar to that shown in Tables 2 and 3. Urinary tract infection was the only adverse event not appearing in Tables 2 and 3 and reported at an incidence of at least 2% and at a rate greater than placebo in placebo-controlled trials.

SSRIS and SNRIs, including Sertraline hydrochloride, have been associated with cases of clinically significant hyponatremia in elderly patients, who may be at greater risk for this adverse event (see , ).

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in clinical practice.

The data described below reflect exposure to BESIVANCE in approximately 1,000 patients between 1 and 98 years old with clinical signs and symptoms of bacterial conjunctivitis.

The most frequently reported ocular adverse reaction was conjunctival redness, reported in approximately 2% of patients.

Other adverse reactions reported in patients receiving BESIVANCE occurring in approximately 1-2% of patients included: blurred vision, eye pain, eye irritation, eye pruritus and headache.

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Reference

This information is obtained from the National Institute of Health's Standard Packaging Label drug database.
"https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/"

While we update our database periodically, we cannot guarantee it is always updated to the latest version.

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Professional

Clonazepam Description Each single-scored tablet, for oral administration, contains 0.5 mg, 1 mg, or 2 mg Clonazepam, USP, a benzodiazepine. Each tablet also contains corn starch, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, and povidone. Clonazepam tablets USP 0.5 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake. Clonazepam tablets USP 1 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake, as well as FD&C Blue No. 1 Aluminum Lake. Chemically, Clonazepam, USP is 5-(o-chlorophenyl)-1,3-dihydro-7-nitro-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one. It is a light yellow crystalline powder. It has the following structural formula: C15H10ClN3O3 M.W. 315.72
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Tips

Tips

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Interactions

Interactions

A total of 440 drugs (1549 brand and generic names) are known to interact with Imbruvica (ibrutinib). 228 major drug interactions (854 brand and generic names) 210 moderate drug interactions (691 brand and generic names) 2 minor drug interactions (4 brand and generic names) Show all medications in the database that may interact with Imbruvica (ibrutinib).