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Drospirenone/ethinyl estradiol/levomefolate calcium and levomefolate calcium
What is Beyaz?
Beyaz (drospirenone/ethinyl estradiol/levomefolate calcium tablets and levomefolate calcium tablets) provides an oral contraceptive regimen consisting of 28 film-coated tablets that contain the active ingredients specified for each tablet below:
The inactive ingredients in the pink tablets are lactose monohydrate NF, microcrystalline cellulose NF, croscarmellose sodium NF, hydroxypropyl cellulose NF, magnesium stearate NF, hypromellose USP, titanium dioxide USP, talc USP, polyethylene glycol NF, ferric oxide pigment, red NF. The light orange film-coated tablets contain 0.451 mg of levomefolate calcium. The inactive ingredients in the light orange tablets are lactose monohydrate NF, microcrystalline cellulose NF, croscarmellose sodium NF, hydroxypropyl cellulose NF, magnesium stearate NF, hypromellose USP, titanium dioxide USP talc USP, polyethylene glycol NF, ferric oxide pigment, red NF, ferric oxide pigment, yellow NF.
Drospirenone (6R,7R,8R,9S,10R,13S,14S,15S,16S,17S)-1,3',4',6,6a,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,15a,16-hexadecahydro-10,13-dimethylspiro-[17H-dicyclopropa- [6,7:15,16] cyclopenta[a]phenanthrene-17,2'(5H)-furan]-3,5'(2H)-dione) is a synthetic progestational compound and has a molecular weight of 366.5 and a molecular formula of CHO.
Ethinyl estradiol (19-nor-17α-pregna 1,3,5(10)-triene-20-yne-3, 17-diol) is a synthetic estrogenic compound and has a molecular weight of 296.4 and a molecular formula of CHO.
Levomefolate calcium (N-[4-[[(2-amino-1,4,5,6,7,8-hexahydro-5-methyl-4-oxo-(6S)-pteridinyl)methyl]amino]benzoyl]-L-glutamic acid, calcium salt) is a synthetic calcium salt of L-5-methyltetrahydrofolate (L-5-methyl-THF), which is a metabolite of vitamin B and has a molecular weight of 497.5 and a molecular formula of CHCaNO
The structural formulas are as follows:
What does Beyaz look like?
What are the available doses of Beyaz?
Beyaz consists of 28 film-coated, biconvex tablets in the following order ():
What should I talk to my health care provider before I take Beyaz?
How should I use Beyaz?
Beyaz is indicated for use by women to prevent pregnancy.
Take one tablet by mouth at the same time every day. The failure rate may increase when pills are missed or taken incorrectly.
To achieve maximum contraceptive and PMDD effectiveness, Beyaz must be taken as directed, in the order directed on the blister pack. Single missed pills should be taken as soon as remembered.
What interacts with Beyaz?
Sorry No Records found
What are the warnings of Beyaz?
Sorry No Records found
What are the precautions of Beyaz?
Sorry No Records found
What are the side effects of Beyaz?
Sorry No records found
What should I look out for while using Beyaz?
Do not prescribe Beyaz to women who are known to have the following:
What might happen if I take too much Beyaz?
There have been no reports of serious ill effects from overdose, including ingestion by children. Overdosage may cause withdrawal bleeding in females and nausea.
DRSP is a spironolactone analogue which has anti-mineralocorticoid properties. Serum concentration of potassium and sodium, and evidence of metabolic acidosis, should be monitored in cases of overdose.
Levomefolate calcium doses of 17 mg/day (37-fold higher than the levomefolate calcium dose of Beyaz) were well tolerated after long-term treatment up to 12 weeks.
How should I store and handle Beyaz?
Store oxcarbazepine oral suspension, USP in the original container. Shake well before using.Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F); excursions permitted to 15° to 30°C (59° to 86°F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature].Store oxcarbazepine oral suspension, USP in the original container. Shake well before using.Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F); excursions permitted to 15° to 30°C (59° to 86°F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature].Potassium Chloride for Injection Concentrate, USP, is supplied in single-dose containters as follows:Store at controlled room temperature 15º to 30ºC (68º to 77ºF) [See USP.]Revised: 9/2014HOSPIRA, INC., LAKE FOREST, IL 60045 USAPotassium Chloride for Injection Concentrate, USP, is supplied in single-dose containters as follows:Store at controlled room temperature 15º to 30ºC (68º to 77ºF) [See USP.]Revised: 9/2014HOSPIRA, INC., LAKE FOREST, IL 60045 USAPotassium Chloride for Injection Concentrate, USP, is supplied in single-dose containters as follows:Store at controlled room temperature 15º to 30ºC (68º to 77ºF) [See USP.]Revised: 9/2014HOSPIRA, INC., LAKE FOREST, IL 60045 USAPotassium Chloride for Injection Concentrate, USP, is supplied in single-dose containters as follows:Store at controlled room temperature 15º to 30ºC (68º to 77ºF) [See USP.]Revised: 9/2014HOSPIRA, INC., LAKE FOREST, IL 60045 USA
Chemical StructureNo Image found
COCs lower the risk of becoming pregnant primarily by suppressing ovulation. Other possible mechanisms may include cervical mucus changes that inhibit sperm penetration and endometrial changes that reduce the likelihood of implantation.
Non-Clinical ToxicologyDo not prescribe Beyaz to women who are known to have the following:
Drug interaction studies with mycophenolate mofetil have been conducted with acyclovir, antacids, cholestyramine, cyclosporine, ganciclovir, oral contraceptives, sevelamer, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, norfloxacin, and metronidazole. Drug interaction studies have not been conducted with other drugs that may be commonly administered to renal, cardiac or hepatic transplant patients. Mycophenolate mofetil has not been administered concomitantly with azathioprine.
Coadministration of mycophenolate mofetil (1 g) and acyclovir (800 mg) to 12 healthy volunteers resulted in no significant change in MPA AUC and C. However, MPAG and acyclovir plasma AUCs were increased 10.6 % and 21.9 %, respectively. Because MPAG plasma concentrations are increased in the presence of renal impairment, as are acyclovir concentrations, the potential exists for mycophenolate and acyclovir or its prodrug (e.g, valacyclovir) to compete for tubular secretion, further increasing the concentrations of both drugs.
Absorption of a single dose of mycophenolate mofetil (2 g) was decreased when administered to ten rheumatoid arthritis patients also taking MaaloxTC (10 mL qid). The Cand AUC(0 to 24h) for MPA were 33 % and 17 % lower, respectively, than when mycophenolate mofetil was administered alone under fasting conditions. Mycophenolate mofetil may be administered to patients who are also taking antacids containing magnesium and aluminum hydroxides; however, it is recommended that mycophenolate mofetil and the antacid not be administered simultaneously.
Coadministration of PPIs (e.g., lansoprazole, pantoprazole) in single doses to healthy volunteers and multiple doses to transplant patients receiving mycophenolate mofetil has been reported to reduce the exposure to mycophenolic acid (MPA). An approximate reduction of 30 to 70% in the C and 25% to 35% in the AUC of MPA has been observed, possibly due to a decrease in MPA solubility at an increased gastric pH. The clinical impact of reduced MPA exposure on organ rejection has not been established in transplant patients receiving PPIs and mycophenolate mofetil. Because clinical relevance has not been established, PPIs should be used with caution when coadministered to transplant patients being treated with mycophenolate mofetil.
Following single-dose administration of 1.5 g mycophenolate mofetil to 12 healthy volunteers pretreated with 4 g tid of cholestyramine for 4 days, MPA AUC decreased approximately 40 %. This decrease is consistent with interruption of enterohepatic recirculation which may be due to binding of recirculating MPAG with cholestyramine in the intestine. Some degree of enterohepatic recirculation is also anticipated following intravenous administration of mycophenolate mofetil. Therefore, mycophenolate mofetil is not recommended to be given with cholestyramine or other agents that may interfere with enterohepatic recirculation.
Cyclosporine (Sandimmune) pharmacokinetics (at doses of 275 to 415 mg/day) were unaffected by single and multiple doses of 1.5 g bid of mycophenolate mofetil in 10 stable renal transplant patients. The mean (±SD) AUC and C of cyclosporine after 14 days of multiple doses of mycophenolate mofetil were 3290 (±822) ng•h/mL and 753 (±161) ng/mL, respectively, compared to 3245 (±1088) ng•h/mL and 700 (±246) ng/mL, respectively, 1 week before administration of mycophenolate mofetil.
Cyclosporine A interferes with MPA enterohepatic recirculation. In renal transplant patients, mean MPA exposure (AUC) was approximately 30 to 50 % greater when mycophenolate mofetil is administered without cyclosporine compared with when mycophenolate mofetil is coadministered with cyclosporine. This interaction is due to cyclosporine inhibition of multidrug-resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP-2) transporter in the biliary tract, thereby preventing the excretion of MPAG into the bile that would lead to enterohepatic recirculation of MPA. This information should be taken into consideration when MMF is used without cyclosporine; changes in MPA exposure should be expected when switching patients from cyclosporine A to one of the immunosuppressants which do not interfere with MPA's enterohepatic cycle (e.g., tacrolimus; belatacept).
Concommitant administration of telmisartan and mycophenolate mofetil resulted in an approximately 30% decrease in mycophenolic acid (MPA) concentrations. Telmisartan changes MPA's elimination by enhancing PPAR gamma (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma) expression, which in turn results in an enhanced UGT1A9 expression and activity.
Following single-dose administration to 12 stable renal transplant patients, no pharmacokinetic interaction was observed between mycophenolate mofetil (1.5 g) and intravenous ganciclovir (5 mg/kg). Mean (±SD) ganciclovir AUC and C (n=10) were 54.3 (±19) mcg•h/mL and 11.5 (±1.8) mcg/mL, respectively, after coadministration of the two drugs, compared to 51 (±17) mcg•h/mL and 10.6 (±2) mcg/mL, respectively, after administration of intravenous ganciclovir alone. The mean (±SD) AUC and C of MPA (n=12) after coadministration were 80.9 (±21.6) mcg•h/mL and 27.8 (±13.9) mcg/mL, respectively, compared to values of 80.3 (±16.4) mcg•h/mL and 30.9 (±11.2) mcg/mL, respectively, after administration of mycophenolate mofetil alone. Because MPAG plasma concentrations are increased in the presence of renal impairment, as are ganciclovir concentrations, the two drugs will compete for tubular secretion and thus further increases in concentrations of both drugs may occur. In patients with renal impairment in which MMF and ganciclovir or its prodrug (eg, valganciclovir) are coadministered, patients should be monitored carefully.
A study of coadministration of mycophenolate mofetil (1 g bid) and combined oral contraceptives containing ethinylestradiol (0.02 mg to 0.04 mg) and levonorgestrel (0.05 mg to 0.20 mg), desogestrel (0.15 mg) or gestodene (0.05 mg to 0.10 mg) was conducted in 18 women with psoriasis over 3 consecutive menstrual cycles. Mean AUC was similar for ethinylestradiol and 3-keto desogestrel; however, mean levonorgestrel AUC significantly decreased by about 15 %. There was large inter-patient variability (%CV in the range of 60 % to 70 %) in the data, especially for ethinylestradiol. Mean serum levels of LH, FSH and progesterone were not significantly affected. Mycophenolate mofetil may not have any influence on the ovulation-suppressing action of the studied oral contraceptives. It is recommended to coadminister mycophenolate mofetil with hormonal contraceptives (eg, birth control pill, transdermal patch, vaginal ring, injection, and implant) with caution and additional barrier contraceptive methods must be used (see ).
Concomitant administration of sevelamer and mycophenolate mofetil in adult and pediatric patients decreased the mean MPA C and AUC by 36 % and 26 % respectively. This data suggest that sevelamer and other calcium free phosphate binders should not be administered simultaneously with mycophenolate mofetil. Alternatively, it is recommended that sevelamer and other calcium free phosphate binders preferentially could be given 2 hours after mycophenolate mofetil intake to minimize the impact on the absorption of MPA.
Following single-dose administration of mycophenolate mofetil (1.5 g) to 12 healthy male volunteers on day 8 of a 10 day course of trimethoprim 160 mg/sulfamethoxazole 800 mg administered bid, no effect on the bioavailability of MPA was observed. The mean (±SD) AUC and C of MPA after concomitant administration were 75.2 (±19.8) mcg•h/mL and 34 (±6.6) mcg/mL, respectively, compared to 79.2 (±27.9) mcg•h/mL and 34.2 (±10.7) mcg/mL, respectively, after administration of mycophenolate mofetil alone.
Following single-dose administration of mycophenolate mofetil (1 g) to 11 healthy volunteers on day 4 of a 5 day course of a combination of norfloxacin and metronidazole, the mean MPA AUC was significantly reduced by 33 % compared to the administration of mycophenolate mofetil alone (p< 0.05). Therefore, mycophenolate mofetil is not recommended to be given with the combination of norfloxacin and metronidazole. There was no significant effect on mean MPA AUC when mycophenolate mofetil was concomitantly administered with norfloxacin or metronidazole separately. The mean (±SD) MPA AUC after coadministration of mycophenolate mofetil with norfloxacin or metronidazole separately was 48.3 (±24) mcg·h/mL and 42.7 (±23) mcg·h/mL, respectively, compared with 56.2 (±24) mcg·h/mL after administration of mycophenolate mofetil alone.
A total of 64 mycophenolate mofetil -treated renal transplant recipients received either oral ciprofloxacin 500 mg bid or amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid 375 mg tid for 7 or at least 14 days. Approximately 50 % reductions in median trough MPA concentrations (pre-dose) from baseline (mycophenolate mofetil alone) were observed in 3 days following commencement of oral ciprofloxacin or amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid. These reductions in trough MPA concentrations tended to diminish within 14 days of antibiotic therapy and ceased within 3 days after discontinuation of antibiotics. The postulated mechanism for this interaction is an antibiotic-induced reduction in glucuronidase-possessing enteric organisms leading to a decrease in enterohepatic recirculation of MPA. The change in trough level may not accurately represent changes in overall MPA exposure; therefore, clinical relevance of these observations is unclear.
In a single heart-lung transplant patient, after correction for dose, a 67 % decrease in MPA exposure (AUC) has been observed with concomitant administration of mycophenolate mofetil and rifampin. Therefore, mycophenolate mofetil is not recommended to be given with rifampin concomitantly unless the benefit outweighs the risk.
The measured value for renal clearance of MPAG indicates removal occurs by renal tubular secretion as well as glomerular filtration. Consistent with this, coadministration of probenecid, a known inhibitor of tubular secretion, with mycophenolate mofetil in monkeys results in a 3-fold increase in plasma MPAG AUC and a 2-fold increase in plasma MPA AUC. Thus, other drugs known to undergo renal tubular secretion may compete with MPAG and thereby raise plasma concentrations of MPAG or the other drug undergoing tubular secretion.
Drugs that alter the gastrointestinal flora may interact with mycophenolate mofetil by disrupting enterohepatic recirculation. Interference of MPAG hydrolysis may lead to less MPA available for absorption.
During treatment with mycophenolate mofetil, the use of live attenuated vaccines should be avoided and patients should be advised that vaccinations may be less effective (see ). Influenza vaccination may be of value. Prescribers should refer to national guidelines for influenza vaccination.
Stop Beyaz if an arterial or venous thrombotic (VTE) event occurs.
Based on presently available information on DRSP-containing COCs with 0.03 mg ethinyl estradiol (that is, Yasmin), DRSP-containing COCs may be associated with a higher risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) than COCs containing the progestin levonorgestrel or some other progestins. Epidemiologic studies that compared the risk of VTE reported that the risk ranged from no increase to a three-fold increase. Before initiating use of Beyaz in a new COC user or a woman who is switching from a contraceptive that does not contain DRSP, consider the risks and benefits of a DRSP-containing COC in light of her risk of a VTE. Known risk factors for VTE include smoking, obesity, and family history of VTE, in addition to other factors that contraindicate use of COCs .
A number of studies have compared the risk of VTE for users of Yasmin (which contains 0.03 mg of EE and 3 mg of DRSP) to the risk for users of other COCs, including COCs containing levonorgestrel. Those that were required or sponsored by regulatory agencies are summarized in Table 1.
In addition to these “regulatory studies,” other studies of various designs have been conducted. Overall, there are two prospective cohort studies (see Table 1): the US post-approval safety study Ingenix [Seeger 2007], the European post-approval safety study EURAS (European Active Surveillance Study) [Dinger 2007]. An extension of the EURAS study, the Long-Term Active Surveillance Study (LASS), did not enroll additional subjects, but continued to assess VTE risk. There are three retrospective cohort studies: one study in the US funded by the FDA (see Table 1), and two from Denmark [Lidegaard 2009, Lidegaard 2011]. There are two case-control studies: the Dutch MEGA study analysis [van Hylckama Vlieg 2009] and the German case-control study [Dinger 2010]. There are two nested case-control studies that evaluated the risk of non-fatal idiopathic VTE: the PharMetrics study [Jick 2011] and the GPRD study [Parkin 2011]. The results of all of these studies are presented in Figure 1.
Figure 1: VTE Risk with Yasmin Relative to LNG-Containing COCs (adjusted risk)
Risk ratios displayed on logarithmic scale; risk ratio < 1 indicates a lower risk of VTE for DRSP, > 1 indicates an increased risk of VTE for DRSP.
*Comparator “Other COCs”, including LNG- containing COCs
(References: Ingenix [Seeger 2007], EURAS (European Active Surveillance Study) [Dinger 2007], LASS (Long-Term Active Surveillance Study) [Dinger, unpublished document on file], FDA-funded study [Sidney 2011], Danish [Lidegaard 2009], Danish re-analysis [ Lidegaard 2011], MEGA study [van Hylckama Vlieg 2009], German Case-Control study [Dinger 2010], PharMetrics [Jick 2011], GPRD study [Parkin 2011])
Although the absolute VTE rates are increased for users of hormonal contraceptives compared to non-users, the rates during pregnancy are even greater, especially during the post-partum period (see Figure 2). The risk of VTE in women using COCs has been estimated to be 3 to 9 per 10,000 woman-years. The risk of VTE is highest during the first year of use. Data from a large, prospective cohort safety study of various COCs suggest that this increased risk, as compared to that in non-COC users, is greatest during the first 6 months of COC use. Data from this safety study indicate that the greatest risk of VTE is present after initially starting a COC or restarting (following a 4 week or greater pill-free interval) the same or a different COC.
The risk of thromboembolic disease due to oral contraceptives gradually disappears after COC use is discontinued.
Figure 2 shows the risk of developing a VTE for women who are not pregnant and do not use oral contraceptives, for women who use oral contraceptives, for pregnant women, and for women in the postpartum period. To put the risk of developing a VTE into perspective: If 10,000 women who are not pregnant and do not use oral contraceptives are followed for one year, between 1 and 5 of these women will develop a VTE.
Figure 2: Likelihood of Developing a VTE
If feasible, stop Beyaz at least 4 weeks before and through 2 weeks after major surgery or other surgeries known to have an elevated risk of thromboembolism.
Start Beyaz no earlier than 4 weeks after delivery, in women who are not breastfeeding. The risk of postpartum thromboembolism decreases after the third postpartum week, whereas the risk of ovulation increases after the third postpartum week.
Use of COCs also increases the risk of arterial thromboses such as strokes and myocardial infarctions, especially in women with other risk factors for these events.
COCs have been shown to increase both the relative and attributable risks of cerebrovascular events (thrombotic and hemorrhagic strokes), although, in general, the risk is greatest among older (>35 years of age), hypertensive women who also smoke. COCs also increase the risk for stroke in women with other underlying risk factors.
Oral contraceptives must be used with caution in women with cardiovascular disease risk factors.
Stop Beyaz if there is unexplained loss of vision, proptosis, diplopia, papilledema, or retinal vascular lesions. Evaluate for retinal vein thrombosis immediately.
The following serious adverse reactions with the use of COCs are discussed elsewhere in the labeling:
Adverse reactions commonly reported by COC users are:
This information is obtained from the National Institute of Health's Standard Packaging Label drug database.
While we update our database periodically, we cannot guarantee it is always updated to the latest version.
ProfessionalClonazepam Description Each single-scored tablet, for oral administration, contains 0.5 mg, 1 mg, or 2 mg Clonazepam, USP, a benzodiazepine. Each tablet also contains corn starch, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, and povidone. Clonazepam tablets USP 0.5 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake. Clonazepam tablets USP 1 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake, as well as FD&C Blue No. 1 Aluminum Lake. Chemically, Clonazepam, USP is 5-(o-chlorophenyl)-1,3-dihydro-7-nitro-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one. It is a light yellow crystalline powder. It has the following structural formula: C15H10ClN3O3 M.W. 315.72
InteractionsA total of 440 drugs (1549 brand and generic names) are known to interact with Imbruvica (ibrutinib). 228 major drug interactions (854 brand and generic names) 210 moderate drug interactions (691 brand and generic names) 2 minor drug interactions (4 brand and generic names) Show all medications in the database that may interact with Imbruvica (ibrutinib).