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Bisoprolol fumarate

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Overview

What is Bisoprolol Fumarate?

BISOPROLOL FUMARATE USP is a synthetic, beta-selective (cardioselective) adrenoceptor blocking agent. The chemical name for bisoprolol fumarate is (±)-1-[4-[[2-(1-Methylethoxy)ethoxy]methyl]phenoxy]-3-[(1-methylethyl)amino]-2-propanol (E)-2-butenedioate (2:1) (salt). It possesses an asymmetric carbon atom in its structure and is provided as a racemic mixture. The S(-) enantiomer is responsible for most of the beta-blocking activity. Its molecular formula is (CHNO)•CHO and its structure is:

Bisoprolol fumarate has a molecular weight of 766.97. It is a white crystalline powder which is approximately equally hydrophilic and lipophilic, and is readily soluble in water, methanol, ethanol, and chloroform.

BISOPROLOL FUMARATE TABLETS USP are available as 5 and 10 mg tablets for oral administration.

Inactive ingredients include Colloidal Silicon Dioxide, Corn Starch (Pregelatinized), Crospovidone, Dibasic Calcium Phosphate, Hypromellose, Magnesium Stearate, Microcrystalline Cellulose, Polyethylene Glycol, Polysorbate 80 and Titanium Dioxide. The 5 mg tablets also contain Red and Yellow Iron Oxide.



What does Bisoprolol Fumarate look like?



What are the available doses of Bisoprolol Fumarate?

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What should I talk to my health care provider before I take Bisoprolol Fumarate?

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How should I use Bisoprolol Fumarate?

BISOPROLOL FUMARATE is indicated in the management of hypertension. It may be used alone or in combination with other antihypertensive agents.

The dose of BISOPROLOL FUMARATE must be individualized to the needs of the patient. The usual starting dose is 5 mg once daily. In some patients, 2.5 mg may be an appropriate starting dose ( ). If the antihypertensive effect of 5 mg is inadequate, the dose may be increased to 10 mg and then, if necessary, to 20 mg once daily.


What interacts with Bisoprolol Fumarate?

BISOPROLOL FUMARATE is contraindicated in patients with cardiogenic shock, overt cardiac failure, second or third degree AV block, and marked sinus bradycardia.



What are the warnings of Bisoprolol Fumarate?

Cardiac Failure

Sympathetic stimulation is a vital component supporting circulatory function in the setting of congestive heart failure, and beta-blockade may result in further depression of myocardial contractility and precipitate more severe failure. In general, beta-blocking agents should be avoided in patients with overt congestive failure. However, in some patients with compensated cardiac failure it may be necessary to utilize them. In such a situation, they must be used cautiously.

In Patients Without a History of Cardiac Failure

Continued depression of the myocardium with beta-blockers can, in some patients, precipitate cardiac failure. At the first signs or symptoms of heart failure, discontinuation of BISOPROLOL FUMARATE should be considered. In some cases, beta-blocker therapy can be continued while heart failure is treated with other drugs.

Abrupt Cessation of Therapy

Exacerbation of angina pectoris, and, in some instances, myocardial infarction or ventricular arrhythmia, have been observed in patients with coronary artery disease following abrupt cessation of therapy with beta-blockers. Such patients should, therefore, be cautioned against interruption or discontinuation of therapy without the physician's advice. Even in patients without overt coronary artery disease, it may be advisable to taper therapy with BISOPROLOL FUMARATE over approximately one week with the patient under careful observation. If withdrawal symptoms occur, BISOPROLOL FUMARATE therapy should be reinstituted, at least temporarily.

Peripheral Vascular Disease

Beta-blockers can precipitate or aggravate symptoms of arterial insufficiency in patients with peripheral vascular disease. Caution should be exercised in such individuals.

Bronchospastic Disease

PATIENTS WITH BRONCHOSPASTIC DISEASE SHOULD, IN GENERAL, NOT RECEIVE BETA-BLOCKERS. Because of its relative beta-selectivity, however, BISOPROLOL FUMARATE may be used with caution in patients with bronchospastic disease who do not respond to, or who cannot tolerate other antihypertensive treatment. Since beta-selectivity is not absolute, the lowest possible dose of BISOPROLOL FUMARATE should be used, with therapy starting at 2.5 mg. A beta agonist (bronchodilator) should be made available.

Major Surgery

Chronically administered beta-blocking therapy should not be routinely withdrawn prior to major surgery; however, the impaired ability of the heart to respond to reflex adrenergic stimuli may augment the risk of general anesthesia and surgical procedures.  

Diabetes and Hypoglycemia

Beta-blockers may mask some of the manifestations of hypoglycemia, particularly tachycardia. Nonselective beta-blockers may potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and delay recovery of serum glucose levels. Because of its beta-selectivity, this is less likely with BISOPROLOL FUMARATE. However, patients subject to spontaneous hypoglycemia, or diabetic patients receiving insulin or oral hypoglycemic agents, should be cautioned about these possibilities and bisoprolol fumarate should be used with caution.

Thyrotoxicosis

Beta-adrenergic blockade may mask clinical signs of hyperthyroidism, such as tachycardia. Abrupt withdrawal of beta-blockade may be followed by an exacerbation of the symptoms of hyperthyroidism or may precipitate thyroid storm.


What are the precautions of Bisoprolol Fumarate?

Impaired Renal or Hepatic Function

Use caution in adjusting the dose of BISOPROLOL FUMARATE in patients with renal or hepatic impairment (see and ).

Drug Interactions

BISOPROLOL FUMARATE should not be combined with other beta-blocking agents. Patients receiving catecholamine-depleting drugs, such as reserpine or guanethidine, should be closely monitored, because the added beta-adrenergic blocking action of BISOPROLOL FUMARATE may produce excessive reduction of sympathetic activity. In patients receiving concurrent therapy with clonidine, if therapy is to be discontinued, it is suggested that BISOPROLOL FUMARATE be discontinued for several days before the withdrawal of clonidine.

BISOPROLOL FUMARATE should be used with care when myocardial depressants or inhibitors of AV conduction, such as certain calcium antagonists (particularly of the phenylalkylamine [verapamil] and benzothiazepine [diltiazem] classes), or antiarrhythmic agents, such as disopyramide, are used concurrently.

Both digitalis glycosides and beta-blockers slow atrioventricular conduction and decrease heart rate. Concomitant use can increase the risk of bradycardia.

Concurrent use of rifampin increases the metabolic clearance of BISOPROLOL FUMARATE, resulting in a shortened elimination half-life of BISOPROLOL FUMARATE. However, initial dose modification is generally not necessary. Pharmacokinetic studies document no clinically relevant interactions with other agents given concomitantly, including thiazide diuretics and cimetidine. There was no effect of BISOPROLOL FUMARATE on prothrombin time in patients on stable doses of warfarin.

Risk of Anaphylactic Reaction: While taking beta-blockers, patients with a history of severe anaphylactic reaction to a variety of allergens may be more reactive to repeated challenge, either accidental, diagnostic, or therapeutic. Such patients may be unresponsive to the usual doses of epinephrine used to treat allergic reactions.

Information for Patients

Patients, especially those with coronary artery disease, should be warned about discontinuing use of BISOPROLOL FUMARATE without a physician's supervision. Patients should also be advised to consult a physician if any difficulty in breathing occurs, or if they develop signs or symptoms of congestive heart failure or excessive bradycardia.

Patients subject to spontaneous hypoglycemia, or diabetic patients receiving insulin or oral hypoglycemic agents, should be cautioned that beta-blockers may mask some of the manifestations of hypoglycemia, particularly tachycardia, and bisoprolol fumarate should be used with caution.

Patients should know how they react to this medicine before they operate automobiles and machinery or engage in other tasks requiring alertness.

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

Long-term studies were conducted with oral bisoprolol fumarate administered in the feed of mice (20 and 24 months) and rats (26 months). No evidence of carcinogenic potential was seen in mice dosed up to 250 mg/kg/day or rats dosed up to 125 mg/kg/day. On a body weight basis, these doses are 625 and 312 times, respectively, the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of 20 mg, (or 0.4 mg/kg/day based on a 50 kg individual); on a body surface area basis, these doses are 59 times (mice) and 64 times (rats) the MRHD. The mutagenic potential of bisoprolol fumarate was evaluated in the microbial mutagenicity (Ames) test, the point mutation and chromosome aberration assays in Chinese hamster V79 cells, the unscheduled DNA synthesis test, the micronucleus test in mice, and the cytogenetics assay in rats. There was no evidence of mutagenic potential in these and assays.

Reproduction studies in rats did not show any impairment of fertility at doses up to 150 mg/kg/day of bisoprolol fumarate, or 375 and 77 times the MRHD on the basis of body weight and body surface area, respectively.

Pregnancy Category C

In rats, bisoprolol fumarate was not teratogenic at doses up to 150 mg/kg/day which is 375 and 77 times the MRHD on the basis of body weight and body surface area, respectively. Bisoprolol fumarate was fetotoxic (increased late resorptions) at 50 mg/kg/day and maternotoxic (decreased food intake and body weight gain) at 150 mg/kg/day. The fetotoxicity in rats occurred at 125 times the MRHD on a body weight basis and 26 times the MRHD on the basis of body surface area. The maternotoxicity occurred at 375 times the MRHD on a body weight basis and 77 times the MRHD on the basis of body surface area. In rabbits, bisoprolol fumarate was not teratogenic at doses up to 12.5 mg/kg/day, which is 31 and 12 times the MRHD based on body weight and body surface area, respectively, but was embryolethal (increased early resorptions) at 12.5 mg/kg/day.

There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. BISOPROLOL FUMARATE should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.

Nursing Mothers

Small amounts of bisoprolol fumarate (
Pediatric Use

Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established.

Geriatric Use

BISOPROLOL FUMARATE has been used in elderly patients with hypertension. Response rates and mean decreases in systolic and diastolic blood pressure were similar to the decreases in younger patients in the U.S. clinical studies. Although no dose response study was conducted in elderly patients, there was a tendency for older patients to be maintained on higher doses of bisoprolol fumarate.

Observed reductions in heart rate were slightly greater in the elderly than in the young and tended to increase with increasing dose. In general, no disparity in adverse experience reports or dropouts for safety reasons was observed between older and younger patients. Dose adjustment based on age is not necessary.


What are the side effects of Bisoprolol Fumarate?

Safety data are available in more than 30,000 patients or volunteers. Frequency estimates and rates of withdrawal of therapy for adverse events were derived from two U.S. placebo-controlled studies.

In Study A, doses of 5 mg, 10 mg, and 20 mg bisoprolol fumarate were administered for 4 weeks. In Study B, doses of 2.5 mg, 10 mg, and 40 mg of bisoprolol fumarate were administered for 12 weeks. A total of 273 patients were treated with 5 mg to 20 mg of bisoprolol fumarate; 132 received placebo.

Withdrawal of therapy for adverse events was 3.3% for patients receiving bisoprolol fumarate and 6.8% for patients on placebo. Withdrawals were less than 1% for either bradycardia or fatigue/lack of energy.

The following table presents adverse experiences, whether or not considered drug related, reported in at least 1% of patients in these studies, for all patients studied in placebo-controlled clinical trials (2.5 mg to 40 mg), as well as for a subgroup that was treated with doses within the recommended dosage range (5 mg to 20 mg). Of the adverse events listed in the table, bradycardia, diarrhea, asthenia, fatigue, and sinusitis appear to be dose related.

The following is a comprehensive list of adverse experiences reported with bisoprolol fumarate in worldwide studies, or in postmarketing experience (in italics):

unsteadiness,

syncope,

sleep disturbances,

Autonomic Nervous System:

Cardiovascular:

Psychiatric:

Gastrointestinal:

arthralgia,

psoriasis,

dermatitis,angioedema, exfoliative dermatitis,

decreased hearing,

Metabolic:

Respiratory:

Peyronie’s disease

Hematologic:

General:

In addition, a variety of adverse effects have been reported with other beta-adrenergic blocking agents and should be considered potential adverse effects of bisoprolol fumarate:

Central Nervous System:

Allergic:

Hematologic:

Gastrointestinal:

Miscellaneous:

Skin
Increased Sweating1.50.71
Musculoskeletal
Arthralgia2.32.22.7
Central Nervous System
Dizziness3.82.93.5
Headache11.48.810.9
Hypoaesthesia0.81.11.5
Autonomic Nervous System
Dry Mouth1.50.71.3
Heart Rate/Rhythm
Bradycardia00.40.5
Psychiatric
Vivid Dreams000
Insomnia2.31.52.5
Depression0.800.2
Gastrointestinal
Diarrhea1.52.63.5
Nausea1.51.52.2
Vomiting01.11.5
Respiratory
Bronchospasm000
Cough4.52.62.5
Dyspnea0.81.11.5
Pharyngitis2.32.22.2
Rhinitis32.94
Sinusitis1.52.22.2
URI3.84.85
Body as a Whole
Asthenia00.41.5
Chest Pain0.81.11.5
Fatigue1.56.68.2
Edema (Peripheral)3.83.73


Laboratory Abnormalities

In clinical trials, the most frequently reported laboratory change was an increase in serum triglycerides, but this was not a consistent finding.

Sporadic liver test abnormalities have been reported. In the U.S. controlled trials experience with bisoprolol fumarate treatment for 4 to 12 weeks, the incidence of concomitant elevations in SGOT and SGPT from 1 to 2 times normal was 3.9%, compared to 2.5% for placebo. No patient had concomitant elevations greater than twice normal.

In the long-term, uncontrolled experience with bisoprolol fumarate treatment for 6 to 18 months, the incidence of one or more concomitant elevations in SGOT and SGPT from 1 to 2 times normal was 6.2%. The incidence of multiple occurrences was 1.9%. For concomitant elevations in SGOT and SGPT of greater than twice normal, the incidence was 1.5%. The incidence of multiple occurrences was 0.3%. In many cases these elevations were attributed to underlying disorders, or resolved during continued treatment with bisoprolol fumarate.

Other laboratory changes included small increases in uric acid, creatinine, BUN, serum potassium, glucose, and phosphorus and decreases in WBC and platelets. These were generally not of clinical importance and rarely resulted in discontinuation of bisoprolol fumarate.

As with other beta-blockers, ANA conversions have also been reported on bisoprolol fumarate. About 15% of patients in long-term studies converted to a positive titer, although about one-third of these patients subsequently reconverted to a negative titer while on continued therapy.


What should I look out for while using Bisoprolol Fumarate?

BISOPROLOL FUMARATE is contraindicated in patients with cardiogenic shock, overt cardiac failure, second or third degree AV block, and marked sinus bradycardia.


What might happen if I take too much Bisoprolol Fumarate?

The most common signs expected with overdosage of a beta-blocker are bradycardia, hypotension, congestive heart failure, bronchospasm, and hypoglycemia. To date, a few cases of overdose (maximum: 2000 mg) with bisoprolol fumarate have been reported. Bradycardia and/or hypotension were noted. Sympathomimetic agents were given in some cases, and all patients recovered.

In general, if overdose occurs, BISOPROLOL FUMARATE therapy should be stopped and supportive and symptomatic treatment should be provided. Limited data suggest that bisoprolol fumarate is not dialyzable. Based on the expected pharmacologic actions and recommendations for other beta-blockers, the following general measures should be considered when clinically warranted:

Bradycardia

Administer IV atropine. If the response is inadequate, isoproterenol or another agent with positive chronotropic properties may be given cautiously. Under some circumstances, transvenous pacemaker insertion may be necessary.

Hypotension

IV fluids and vasopressors should be administered. Intravenous glucagon may be useful.

Heart Block (second or third degree)

Patients should be carefully monitored and treated with isoproterenol infusion or transvenous cardiac pacemaker insertion, as appropriate.

Congestive Heart Failure

Initiate conventional therapy (i.e., digitalis, diuretics, inotropic agents, vasodilating agents).

Bronchospasm

Administer bronchodilator therapy such as isoproterenol and/or aminophylline.

Hypoglycemia

Administer IV glucose.


How should I store and handle Bisoprolol Fumarate?

Store at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted to 15° to 30°C (59° to 86°F) [see USP controlled room temperature]. Dispense and keep product in original container. Keep container closed and do not remove desiccant from bottle. Do not break the tablet. Store at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted to 15° to 30°C (59° to 86°F) [see USP controlled room temperature]. Dispense and keep product in original container. Keep container closed and do not remove desiccant from bottle. Do not break the tablet. BISOPROLOL FUMARATE is supplied as 5 mg and 10 mg tablets.The 5 mg tablet is pink colored, biconvex, round, film coated tablet debossed with UL on one side and scored on the other side with 5 debossed on either side of the score.Bottles of 30: NDC 68788-6775-3Bottles of 60: NDC 68788-6775-6Bottles of 90: NDC 68788-6775-9Bottles of 100: NDC 68788-6775-1Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F). [See USP Controlled Room Temperature].Protect from moisture.Dispense in tight, light-resistant containers.Please address medical inquiries to Unichem's toll free # 1-866-562-4616.BISOPROLOL FUMARATE is supplied as 5 mg and 10 mg tablets.The 5 mg tablet is pink colored, biconvex, round, film coated tablet debossed with UL on one side and scored on the other side with 5 debossed on either side of the score.Bottles of 30: NDC 68788-6775-3Bottles of 60: NDC 68788-6775-6Bottles of 90: NDC 68788-6775-9Bottles of 100: NDC 68788-6775-1Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F). [See USP Controlled Room Temperature].Protect from moisture.Dispense in tight, light-resistant containers.Please address medical inquiries to Unichem's toll free # 1-866-562-4616.BISOPROLOL FUMARATE is supplied as 5 mg and 10 mg tablets.The 5 mg tablet is pink colored, biconvex, round, film coated tablet debossed with UL on one side and scored on the other side with 5 debossed on either side of the score.Bottles of 30: NDC 68788-6775-3Bottles of 60: NDC 68788-6775-6Bottles of 90: NDC 68788-6775-9Bottles of 100: NDC 68788-6775-1Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F). [See USP Controlled Room Temperature].Protect from moisture.Dispense in tight, light-resistant containers.Please address medical inquiries to Unichem's toll free # 1-866-562-4616.BISOPROLOL FUMARATE is supplied as 5 mg and 10 mg tablets.The 5 mg tablet is pink colored, biconvex, round, film coated tablet debossed with UL on one side and scored on the other side with 5 debossed on either side of the score.Bottles of 30: NDC 68788-6775-3Bottles of 60: NDC 68788-6775-6Bottles of 90: NDC 68788-6775-9Bottles of 100: NDC 68788-6775-1Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F). [See USP Controlled Room Temperature].Protect from moisture.Dispense in tight, light-resistant containers.Please address medical inquiries to Unichem's toll free # 1-866-562-4616.BISOPROLOL FUMARATE is supplied as 5 mg and 10 mg tablets.The 5 mg tablet is pink colored, biconvex, round, film coated tablet debossed with UL on one side and scored on the other side with 5 debossed on either side of the score.Bottles of 30: NDC 68788-6775-3Bottles of 60: NDC 68788-6775-6Bottles of 90: NDC 68788-6775-9Bottles of 100: NDC 68788-6775-1Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F). [See USP Controlled Room Temperature].Protect from moisture.Dispense in tight, light-resistant containers.Please address medical inquiries to Unichem's toll free # 1-866-562-4616.BISOPROLOL FUMARATE is supplied as 5 mg and 10 mg tablets.The 5 mg tablet is pink colored, biconvex, round, film coated tablet debossed with UL on one side and scored on the other side with 5 debossed on either side of the score.Bottles of 30: NDC 68788-6775-3Bottles of 60: NDC 68788-6775-6Bottles of 90: NDC 68788-6775-9Bottles of 100: NDC 68788-6775-1Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F). [See USP Controlled Room Temperature].Protect from moisture.Dispense in tight, light-resistant containers.Please address medical inquiries to Unichem's toll free # 1-866-562-4616.BISOPROLOL FUMARATE is supplied as 5 mg and 10 mg tablets.The 5 mg tablet is pink colored, biconvex, round, film coated tablet debossed with UL on one side and scored on the other side with 5 debossed on either side of the score.Bottles of 30: NDC 68788-6775-3Bottles of 60: NDC 68788-6775-6Bottles of 90: NDC 68788-6775-9Bottles of 100: NDC 68788-6775-1Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F). [See USP Controlled Room Temperature].Protect from moisture.Dispense in tight, light-resistant containers.Please address medical inquiries to Unichem's toll free # 1-866-562-4616.BISOPROLOL FUMARATE is supplied as 5 mg and 10 mg tablets.The 5 mg tablet is pink colored, biconvex, round, film coated tablet debossed with UL on one side and scored on the other side with 5 debossed on either side of the score.Bottles of 30: NDC 68788-6775-3Bottles of 60: NDC 68788-6775-6Bottles of 90: NDC 68788-6775-9Bottles of 100: NDC 68788-6775-1Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F). [See USP Controlled Room Temperature].Protect from moisture.Dispense in tight, light-resistant containers.Please address medical inquiries to Unichem's toll free # 1-866-562-4616.BISOPROLOL FUMARATE is supplied as 5 mg and 10 mg tablets.The 5 mg tablet is pink colored, biconvex, round, film coated tablet debossed with UL on one side and scored on the other side with 5 debossed on either side of the score.Bottles of 30: NDC 68788-6775-3Bottles of 60: NDC 68788-6775-6Bottles of 90: NDC 68788-6775-9Bottles of 100: NDC 68788-6775-1Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F). [See USP Controlled Room Temperature].Protect from moisture.Dispense in tight, light-resistant containers.Please address medical inquiries to Unichem's toll free # 1-866-562-4616.BISOPROLOL FUMARATE is supplied as 5 mg and 10 mg tablets.The 5 mg tablet is pink colored, biconvex, round, film coated tablet debossed with UL on one side and scored on the other side with 5 debossed on either side of the score.Bottles of 30: NDC 68788-6775-3Bottles of 60: NDC 68788-6775-6Bottles of 90: NDC 68788-6775-9Bottles of 100: NDC 68788-6775-1Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F). [See USP Controlled Room Temperature].Protect from moisture.Dispense in tight, light-resistant containers.Please address medical inquiries to Unichem's toll free # 1-866-562-4616.


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Clinical Information

Chemical Structure

No Image found
Clinical Pharmacology

The absolute bioavailability after a 10 mg oral dose of bisoprolol fumarate is about 80%. Absorption is not affected by the presence of food. The first pass metabolism of bisoprolol fumarate is about 20%.

Binding to serum proteins is approximately 30%. Peak plasma concentrations occur within 2-4 hours of dosing with 5 to 20 mg, and mean peak values range from 16 ng/mL at 5 mg to 70 ng/mL at 20 mg. Once daily dosing with bisoprolol fumarate results in less than twofold intersubject variation in peak plasma levels. The plasma elimination half-life is 9-12 hours and is slightly longer in elderly patients, in part because of decreased renal function in that population. Steady state is attained within 5 days of once daily dosing. In both young and elderly populations, plasma accumulation is low; the accumulation factor ranges from 1.1 to 1.3, and is what would be expected from the first order kinetics and once daily dosing. Plasma concentrations are proportional to the administered dose in the range of 5 to 20 mg. Pharmacokinetic characteristics of the two enantiomers are similar.

Bisoprolol fumarate is eliminated equally by renal and non-renal pathways with about 50% of the dose appearing unchanged in the urine and the remainder appearing in the form of inactive metabolites. In humans, the known metabolites are labile or have no known pharmacologic activity. Less than 2% of the dose is excreted in the feces. Bisoprolol fumarate is not metabolized by cytochrome P450 II D6 (debrisoquin hydroxylase).

In subjects with creatinine clearance less than 40 mL/min, the plasma half-life is increased approximately threefold compared to healthy subjects.

In patients with cirrhosis of the liver, the elimination of BISOPROLOL FUMARATE is more variable in rate and significantly slower than that in healthy subjects, with plasma half-life ranging from 8.3 to 21.7 hours.

Non-Clinical Toxicology
BISOPROLOL FUMARATE is contraindicated in patients with cardiogenic shock, overt cardiac failure, second or third degree AV block, and marked sinus bradycardia.

BISOPROLOL FUMARATE should not be combined with other beta-blocking agents. Patients receiving catecholamine-depleting drugs, such as reserpine or guanethidine, should be closely monitored, because the added beta-adrenergic blocking action of BISOPROLOL FUMARATE may produce excessive reduction of sympathetic activity. In patients receiving concurrent therapy with clonidine, if therapy is to be discontinued, it is suggested that BISOPROLOL FUMARATE be discontinued for several days before the withdrawal of clonidine.

BISOPROLOL FUMARATE should be used with care when myocardial depressants or inhibitors of AV conduction, such as certain calcium antagonists (particularly of the phenylalkylamine [verapamil] and benzothiazepine [diltiazem] classes), or antiarrhythmic agents, such as disopyramide, are used concurrently.

Both digitalis glycosides and beta-blockers slow atrioventricular conduction and decrease heart rate. Concomitant use can increase the risk of bradycardia.

Concurrent use of rifampin increases the metabolic clearance of BISOPROLOL FUMARATE, resulting in a shortened elimination half-life of BISOPROLOL FUMARATE. However, initial dose modification is generally not necessary. Pharmacokinetic studies document no clinically relevant interactions with other agents given concomitantly, including thiazide diuretics and cimetidine. There was no effect of BISOPROLOL FUMARATE on prothrombin time in patients on stable doses of warfarin.

Risk of Anaphylactic Reaction: While taking beta-blockers, patients with a history of severe anaphylactic reaction to a variety of allergens may be more reactive to repeated challenge, either accidental, diagnostic, or therapeutic. Such patients may be unresponsive to the usual doses of epinephrine used to treat allergic reactions.

Use caution in adjusting the dose of BISOPROLOL FUMARATE in patients with renal or hepatic impairment (see and ).

Safety data are available in more than 30,000 patients or volunteers. Frequency estimates and rates of withdrawal of therapy for adverse events were derived from two U.S. placebo-controlled studies.

In Study A, doses of 5, 10, and 20 mg bisoprolol fumarate were administered for 4 weeks. In Study B, doses of 2.5, 10, and 40 mg of bisoprolol fumarate were administered for 12 weeks. A total of 273 patients were treated with 5 to 20 mg of bisoprolol fumarate; 132 received placebo.

Withdrawal of therapy for adverse events was 3.3% for patients receiving bisoprolol fumarate and 6.8% for patients on placebo. Withdrawals were less than 1% for either bradycardia or fatigue/lack of energy.

The following table presents adverse experiences, whether or not considered drug related, reported in at least 1% of patients in these studies, for all patients studied in placebo-controlled clinical trials (2.5 to 40 mg), as well as for a subgroup that was treated with doses within the recommended dosage range (5 to 20 mg). Of the adverse events listed in the table, bradycardia, diarrhea, asthenia, fatigue, and sinusitis appear to be dose related.

The following is a comprehensive list of adverse experiences reported with bisoprolol fumarate in worldwide studies, or in postmarketing experience (in italics):

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Reference

This information is obtained from the National Institute of Health's Standard Packaging Label drug database.
"https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/"

While we update our database periodically, we cannot guarantee it is always updated to the latest version.

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Professional

Clonazepam Description Each single-scored tablet, for oral administration, contains 0.5 mg, 1 mg, or 2 mg Clonazepam, USP, a benzodiazepine. Each tablet also contains corn starch, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, and povidone. Clonazepam tablets USP 0.5 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake. Clonazepam tablets USP 1 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake, as well as FD&C Blue No. 1 Aluminum Lake. Chemically, Clonazepam, USP is 5-(o-chlorophenyl)-1,3-dihydro-7-nitro-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one. It is a light yellow crystalline powder. It has the following structural formula: C15H10ClN3O3 M.W. 315.72
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Tips

Tips

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Interactions

Interactions

A total of 440 drugs (1549 brand and generic names) are known to interact with Imbruvica (ibrutinib). 228 major drug interactions (854 brand and generic names) 210 moderate drug interactions (691 brand and generic names) 2 minor drug interactions (4 brand and generic names) Show all medications in the database that may interact with Imbruvica (ibrutinib).