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BUPROPION HYDROCHLORIDE

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Overview

What is BUDEPRION XL?

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What does BUDEPRION XL look like?



What are the available doses of BUDEPRION XL?

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What should I talk to my health care provider before I take BUDEPRION XL?

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How should I use BUDEPRION XL?

DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION


What interacts with BUDEPRION XL?

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What are the warnings of BUDEPRION XL?

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What are the precautions of BUDEPRION XL?

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What are the side effects of BUDEPRION XL?

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What should I look out for while using BUDEPRION XL?

Clinical Worsening and Suicide Risk:    Patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), both adult and pediatric, may experience worsening of their depression and/or the emergence of suicidal ideation and behavior (suicidality) or unusual changes in behavior, whether or not they are taking antidepressant medications, and this risk may persist until significant remission occurs. Suicide is a known risk of depression and certain other psychiatric disorders, and these disorders themselves are the strongest predictors of suicide. There has been a long-standing concern, however, that antidepressants may have a role in inducing worsening of depression and the emergence of suicidality in certain patients during the early phases of treatment. Pooled analyses of short-term placebo-controlled trials of antidepressant drugs (SSRIs and others) showed that these drugs increase the risk of suicidal thinking and behavior (suicidality) in children, adolescents, and young adults (ages 18-24) with major depressive disorder (MDD) and other psychiatric disorders. Short-term studies did not show an increase in the risk of suicidality with antidepressants compared to placebo in adults beyond age 24; there was a reduction with antidepressants compared to placebo in adults aged 65 and older. The pooled analyses of placebo-controlled trials in children and adolescents with MDD, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), or other psychiatric disorders included a total of 24 short-term trials of 9 antidepressant drugs in over 4400 patients. The pooled analyses of placebo-controlled trials in adults with MDD or other psychiatric disorders included a total of 295 short-term trials (median duration of 2 months) of 11 antidepressant drugs in over 77,000 patients. There was considerable variation in risk of suicidality among drugs, but a tendency toward an increase in the younger patients for almost all drugs studied. There were differences in absolute risk of suicidality across the different indications, with the highest incidence in MDD. The risk differences (drug vs placebo), however, were relatively stable within age strata and across indications. These risk differences (drug-placebo difference in the number of cases of suicidality per 1000 patients treated) are provided in Table 1.Table 1.Age Range    Drug-Placebo Difference in Number of Cases of Suicidalityper 1000 Patients Treated    Drug-Related Increasesless than 18    14 additional cases18-24    5 additional cases    Drug-Related Diseases25-64    1 fewer case>65    6 fewer cases No suicides occurred in any of the pediatric trials. There were suicides in the adult trials, but the number was not sufficient to reach any conclusion about drug effect on suicide. It is unknown whether the suicidality risk extends to longer-term use, i.e., beyond several months. However, there is substantial evidence from placebo-controlled maintenance trials in adults with depression that the use of antidepressants can delay the recurrence of depression. All patients being treated with antidepressants for any indication should be monitored appropriately and observed closely for clinical worsening, suicidality, and unusual changes in behavior, especially during the initial few months of a course of drug therapy, or at times of dose changes, either increases or decreases. The following symptoms, anxiety, agitation, panic attacks, insomnia, irritability, hostility, aggressiveness, impulsivity, akathisia (psychomotor restlessness), hypomania, and mania, have been reported in adult and pediatric patients being treated with antidepressants for major depressive disorder as well as for other indications, both psychiatric and nonpsychiatric.  Although a causal link between the emergence of such symptoms and either the worsening of depression and/or the emergence of suicidal impulses has not been established, there is concern that such symptoms may represent precursors to emerging suicidality. Consideration should be given to changing the therapeutic regimen, including possibly discontinuing the medication, in patients whose depression is persistently worse, or who are experiencing emergent suicidality or symptoms that might be precursors to worsening depression or suicidality, especially if these symptoms are severe, abrupt in onset, or were not part of the patient’s presenting symptoms. Families and caregivers of patients being treated with antidepressants for major depressive disorder or other indications, both psychiatric and nonpsychiatric, should be alerted about the need to monitor patients for the emergence of agitation, irritability, unusual changes in behavior, and the other symptoms described above, as well as the emergence of suicidality, and to report such symptoms immediately to health care providers.  Such monitoring should include daily observation by families and caregivers.  Prescriptions for bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (XL) should be written for the smallest quantity of tablets consistent with good patient management, in order to reduce the risk of overdose. Screening Patients for Bipolar Disorder: A major depressive episode may be the initial presentation of bipolar disorder.  It is generally believed (though not established in controlled trials) that treating such an episode with an antidepressant alone may increase the likelihood of precipitation of a mixed/manic episode in patients at risk for bipolar disorder.  Whether any of the symptoms described above represent such a conversion is unknown.  However, prior to initiating treatment with an antidepressant, patients with depressive symptoms should be adequately screened to determine if they are at risk for bipolar disorder; such screening should include a detailed psychiatric history, including a family history of suicide, bipolar disorder, and depression.  It should be noted that bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (XL) are not approved for use in treating bipolar depression. Patients should be made aware that bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (XL) contain the same active ingredient found in ZYBAN®, used as an aid to smoking cessation treatment, and that bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (XL) should not be used in combination with ZYBAN®, or any other medications that contain bupropion, such as Wellbutrin® SR (bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (SR)), the sustained-release formulation or Wellbutrin® (bupropion hydrochloride tablets), the immediate-release formulation.     Seizures: Bupropion is associated with a dose-related risk of seizures. The risk of seizures is also related to patient factors, clinical situations, and concomitant medications, which must be considered in selection of patients for therapy with bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (XL). Bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (XL) should be discontinued and not restarted in patients who experience a seizure while on treatment.     As bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (XL) are bioequivalent to both the immediate-release formulation of bupropion and to the sustained-release formulation of bupropion, the seizure incidence with bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (XL), while not formally evaluated in clinical trials, may be similar to that presented below for the immediate-release and sustained-release formulations of bupropion.     *       Dose: At doses up to 300 mg/day of the sustained-release formulation of bupropion, the incidence of seizure is approximately 0.1% (1/1,000). Data for the immediate-release formulation of bupropion revealed a seizure incidence of approximately 0.4% (i.e., 13 of 3,200 patients followed prospectively) in patients treated at doses in a range of 300 to 450 mg/day. This seizure incidence (0.4%) may exceed that of some other marketed antidepressants. Additional data accumulated for the immediate-release formulation of bupropion suggested that the estimated seizure incidence increases almost tenfold between 450 and 600 mg/day. The 600 mg dose is twice the usual adult dose and one and one-third the maximum recommended daily dose (450 mg) of bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (XL). Thisdisproportionate increase in seizure incidence with dose incrementation calls for caution in dosing.     *       Patient factors: Predisposing factors that may increase the risk of seizure with bupropion use include history of head trauma or prior seizure, central nervous system (CNS) tumor, the presence of severe hepatic cirrhosis, and concomitant medications that lower seizure threshold.    *       Clinical situations: Circumstances associated with an increased seizure risk include, among others, excessive use of alcohol or sedatives (including benzodiazepines); addiction to opiates, cocaine, or stimulants; use of over-the-counter stimulants and anorectics; and diabetes treated with oral hypoglycemics or insulin.    *       Concomitant medications: Many medications (e.g., antipsychotics, antidepressants, theophylline, systemic steroids) are known to lower seizure threshold. Recommendations for Reducing the Risk of Seizure:

Retrospective analysis of clinical experience gained during the development of bupropion suggests that the risk of seizure may be minimized if     *       the total daily dose of bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (XL) does not exceed 450 mg,    *       the rate of incrementation of dose is gradual. Bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (XL) should be administered with extreme caution to patients with a history of seizure, cranial trauma, or other predisposition(s) toward seizure, or patients treated with other agents (e.g., antipsychotics, other antidepressants, theophylline, systemic steroids, etc.) that lower seizure threshold. Hepatic Impairment: Bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (XL) should be used with extreme caution in patients with severe hepatic cirrhosis. In these patients a reduced frequency and/or dose is required, as peak bupropion, as well as AUC, levels are substantially increased and accumulation is likely to occur in such patients to a greater extent than usual. The dose should not exceed 150 mg every other day in these patients (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, PRECAUTIONS, and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION). Potential for Hepatotoxicity: In rats receiving large doses of bupropion chronically, there was an increase in incidence of hepatic hyperplastic nodules and hepatocellular hypertrophy.  In dogs receiving large doses of bupropion chronically, various histologic changes were seen in the liver, and laboratory tests suggesting mild hepatocellular injury were noted.


What might happen if I take too much BUDEPRION XL?

OVERDOSAGE


How should I store and handle BUDEPRION XL?

Store between 20-25°C (68-77°F); excursions permitted between 15-30°C (59-86°F).Do not refrigerate. Keep the bottle in the outer carton when not in use.The product should be used within three months after it has been opened.Store between 20-25°C (68-77°F); excursions permitted between 15-30°C (59-86°F).Do not refrigerate. Keep the bottle in the outer carton when not in use.The product should be used within three months after it has been opened.Store between 20-25°C (68-77°F); excursions permitted between 15-30°C (59-86°F).Do not refrigerate. Keep the bottle in the outer carton when not in use.The product should be used within three months after it has been opened.Plavix (clopidogrel bisulfate) 75 mg tablets are available as pink, round, biconvex, film-coated tablets debossed with "75" on one side and "1171" on the other. Tablets are provided as follows:


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Clinical Information

Chemical Structure

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Clinical Pharmacology

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Non-Clinical Toxicology
Clinical Worsening and Suicide Risk:    Patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), both adult and pediatric, may experience worsening of their depression and/or the emergence of suicidal ideation and behavior (suicidality) or unusual changes in behavior, whether or not they are taking antidepressant medications, and this risk may persist until significant remission occurs. Suicide is a known risk of depression and certain other psychiatric disorders, and these disorders themselves are the strongest predictors of suicide. There has been a long-standing concern, however, that antidepressants may have a role in inducing worsening of depression and the emergence of suicidality in certain patients during the early phases of treatment. Pooled analyses of short-term placebo-controlled trials of antidepressant drugs (SSRIs and others) showed that these drugs increase the risk of suicidal thinking and behavior (suicidality) in children, adolescents, and young adults (ages 18-24) with major depressive disorder (MDD) and other psychiatric disorders. Short-term studies did not show an increase in the risk of suicidality with antidepressants compared to placebo in adults beyond age 24; there was a reduction with antidepressants compared to placebo in adults aged 65 and older. The pooled analyses of placebo-controlled trials in children and adolescents with MDD, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), or other psychiatric disorders included a total of 24 short-term trials of 9 antidepressant drugs in over 4400 patients. The pooled analyses of placebo-controlled trials in adults with MDD or other psychiatric disorders included a total of 295 short-term trials (median duration of 2 months) of 11 antidepressant drugs in over 77,000 patients. There was considerable variation in risk of suicidality among drugs, but a tendency toward an increase in the younger patients for almost all drugs studied. There were differences in absolute risk of suicidality across the different indications, with the highest incidence in MDD. The risk differences (drug vs placebo), however, were relatively stable within age strata and across indications. These risk differences (drug-placebo difference in the number of cases of suicidality per 1000 patients treated) are provided in Table 1.Table 1.Age Range    Drug-Placebo Difference in Number of Cases of Suicidalityper 1000 Patients Treated    Drug-Related Increasesless than 18    14 additional cases18-24    5 additional cases    Drug-Related Diseases25-64    1 fewer case>65    6 fewer cases No suicides occurred in any of the pediatric trials. There were suicides in the adult trials, but the number was not sufficient to reach any conclusion about drug effect on suicide. It is unknown whether the suicidality risk extends to longer-term use, i.e., beyond several months. However, there is substantial evidence from placebo-controlled maintenance trials in adults with depression that the use of antidepressants can delay the recurrence of depression. All patients being treated with antidepressants for any indication should be monitored appropriately and observed closely for clinical worsening, suicidality, and unusual changes in behavior, especially during the initial few months of a course of drug therapy, or at times of dose changes, either increases or decreases. The following symptoms, anxiety, agitation, panic attacks, insomnia, irritability, hostility, aggressiveness, impulsivity, akathisia (psychomotor restlessness), hypomania, and mania, have been reported in adult and pediatric patients being treated with antidepressants for major depressive disorder as well as for other indications, both psychiatric and nonpsychiatric.  Although a causal link between the emergence of such symptoms and either the worsening of depression and/or the emergence of suicidal impulses has not been established, there is concern that such symptoms may represent precursors to emerging suicidality. Consideration should be given to changing the therapeutic regimen, including possibly discontinuing the medication, in patients whose depression is persistently worse, or who are experiencing emergent suicidality or symptoms that might be precursors to worsening depression or suicidality, especially if these symptoms are severe, abrupt in onset, or were not part of the patient’s presenting symptoms. Families and caregivers of patients being treated with antidepressants for major depressive disorder or other indications, both psychiatric and nonpsychiatric, should be alerted about the need to monitor patients for the emergence of agitation, irritability, unusual changes in behavior, and the other symptoms described above, as well as the emergence of suicidality, and to report such symptoms immediately to health care providers.  Such monitoring should include daily observation by families and caregivers.  Prescriptions for bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (XL) should be written for the smallest quantity of tablets consistent with good patient management, in order to reduce the risk of overdose. Screening Patients for Bipolar Disorder: A major depressive episode may be the initial presentation of bipolar disorder.  It is generally believed (though not established in controlled trials) that treating such an episode with an antidepressant alone may increase the likelihood of precipitation of a mixed/manic episode in patients at risk for bipolar disorder.  Whether any of the symptoms described above represent such a conversion is unknown.  However, prior to initiating treatment with an antidepressant, patients with depressive symptoms should be adequately screened to determine if they are at risk for bipolar disorder; such screening should include a detailed psychiatric history, including a family history of suicide, bipolar disorder, and depression.  It should be noted that bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (XL) are not approved for use in treating bipolar depression. Patients should be made aware that bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (XL) contain the same active ingredient found in ZYBAN®, used as an aid to smoking cessation treatment, and that bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (XL) should not be used in combination with ZYBAN®, or any other medications that contain bupropion, such as Wellbutrin® SR (bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (SR)), the sustained-release formulation or Wellbutrin® (bupropion hydrochloride tablets), the immediate-release formulation.     Seizures: Bupropion is associated with a dose-related risk of seizures. The risk of seizures is also related to patient factors, clinical situations, and concomitant medications, which must be considered in selection of patients for therapy with bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (XL). Bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (XL) should be discontinued and not restarted in patients who experience a seizure while on treatment.     As bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (XL) are bioequivalent to both the immediate-release formulation of bupropion and to the sustained-release formulation of bupropion, the seizure incidence with bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (XL), while not formally evaluated in clinical trials, may be similar to that presented below for the immediate-release and sustained-release formulations of bupropion.     *       Dose: At doses up to 300 mg/day of the sustained-release formulation of bupropion, the incidence of seizure is approximately 0.1% (1/1,000). Data for the immediate-release formulation of bupropion revealed a seizure incidence of approximately 0.4% (i.e., 13 of 3,200 patients followed prospectively) in patients treated at doses in a range of 300 to 450 mg/day. This seizure incidence (0.4%) may exceed that of some other marketed antidepressants. Additional data accumulated for the immediate-release formulation of bupropion suggested that the estimated seizure incidence increases almost tenfold between 450 and 600 mg/day. The 600 mg dose is twice the usual adult dose and one and one-third the maximum recommended daily dose (450 mg) of bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (XL). Thisdisproportionate increase in seizure incidence with dose incrementation calls for caution in dosing.     *       Patient factors: Predisposing factors that may increase the risk of seizure with bupropion use include history of head trauma or prior seizure, central nervous system (CNS) tumor, the presence of severe hepatic cirrhosis, and concomitant medications that lower seizure threshold.    *       Clinical situations: Circumstances associated with an increased seizure risk include, among others, excessive use of alcohol or sedatives (including benzodiazepines); addiction to opiates, cocaine, or stimulants; use of over-the-counter stimulants and anorectics; and diabetes treated with oral hypoglycemics or insulin.    *       Concomitant medications: Many medications (e.g., antipsychotics, antidepressants, theophylline, systemic steroids) are known to lower seizure threshold. Recommendations for Reducing the Risk of Seizure:

Retrospective analysis of clinical experience gained during the development of bupropion suggests that the risk of seizure may be minimized if     *       the total daily dose of bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (XL) does not exceed 450 mg,    *       the rate of incrementation of dose is gradual. Bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (XL) should be administered with extreme caution to patients with a history of seizure, cranial trauma, or other predisposition(s) toward seizure, or patients treated with other agents (e.g., antipsychotics, other antidepressants, theophylline, systemic steroids, etc.) that lower seizure threshold. Hepatic Impairment: Bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (XL) should be used with extreme caution in patients with severe hepatic cirrhosis. In these patients a reduced frequency and/or dose is required, as peak bupropion, as well as AUC, levels are substantially increased and accumulation is likely to occur in such patients to a greater extent than usual. The dose should not exceed 150 mg every other day in these patients (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, PRECAUTIONS, and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION). Potential for Hepatotoxicity: In rats receiving large doses of bupropion chronically, there was an increase in incidence of hepatic hyperplastic nodules and hepatocellular hypertrophy.  In dogs receiving large doses of bupropion chronically, various histologic changes were seen in the liver, and laboratory tests suggesting mild hepatocellular injury were noted.

General:

Agitation and Insomnia:

Increased restlessness, agitation, anxiety, and insomnia, especially shortly after initiation of treatment, have been associated with treatment with bupropion.  Patients in placebo-controlled trials of major depressive disorder with the sustained-release formulation of bupropion, experienced agitation, anxiety, and insomnia as shown in Table 2.Table 2. Incidence of Agitation, Anxiety, and Insomnia in Placebo-Controlled Trials of Sustained-release Formulation of Bupropion for Major Depressive DisorderAdverse Event Team    Sustained-releaseformulation of bupropion300 mg/day(n=376)    Sustained-releaseformulation of bupropion400 mg/day(n=114)    Placebo(n=385)Agitation    3%    9%    2%Anxiety    5%    6%    3%Insomnia    11%    16%    6% In clinical studies of major depressive disorder, these symptoms were sometimes of sufficient magnitude to require treatment with sedative/hypnotic drugs. Symptoms in these studies were sufficiently severe to require discontinuation of treatment in 1% and 2.6% of patients treated with 300 and 400 mg/day, respectively, of bupropion sustained-release tablets and 0.8% of patients treated with placebo. Psychosis, Confusion, and Other Neuropsychiatric Phenomena:

Depressed patients treated with bupropion have been reported to show a variety of neuropsychiatric signs and symptoms, including delusions, hallucinations, psychosis, concentration disturbance, paranoia, and confusion. In some cases, these symptoms abated upon dose reduction and/or withdrawal of treatment. Activation of Psychosis and/or Mania:

 Antidepressants can precipitate manic episodes in bipolar disorder patients during the depressed phase of their illness and may activate latent psychosis in other susceptible patients. Bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablet (XL) is expected to pose similar risks. Altered Appetite and Weight:

In placebo-controlled studies of major depressive disorder using the sustained-release formulation of bupropion, patients experienced weight gain or weight loss as shown in Table 3.Table 3. Incidence of Weight Gain and Weight Loss in Placebo-Controlled Trials of Sustained-release Formulation of Bupropion for Major Depressive DisorderWeight Change    Sustained-releaseformulation of bupropion300 mg/day(n=339)    Sustained-releaseformulation of bupropion400 mg/day(n=112)    Placebo(n=347)Gained >5lbs    3%    2%    4%Lost >5lbs    14%    19%    6% In studies conducted with the immediate-release formulation of bupropion, 35% of patients receiving tricyclic antidepressants gained weight, compared to 9% of patients treated with the immediate-release formulation of bupropion. If weight loss is a major presenting sign of a patient’s depressive illness, the anorectic and/or weight-reducing potential of bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (XL) should be considered. Allergic Reactions:

Anaphylactoid/anaphylactic reactions characterized by symptoms such as pruritus, urticaria, angioedema, and dyspnea requiring medical treatment have been reported in clinical trials with bupropion. In addition, there have been rare spontaneous post-marketing reports of erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and anaphylactic shock associated with bupropion. A patient should stop taking bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (XL) and consult a doctor if experiencing allergic or anaphylactoid/anaphylactic reactions (e.g., skin rash, pruritus, hives, chest pain, edema, and shortness of breath) during treatment. Arthralgia, myalgia, and fever with rash and other symptoms suggestive of delayed hypersensitivity have been reported in association with bupropion. These symptoms may resemble serum sickness. Cardiovascular Effects:

In clinical practice, hypertension, in some cases severe, requiring acute treatment, has been reported in patients receiving bupropion alone and in combination with nicotine replacement therapy. These events have been observed in both patients with and without evidence of preexisting hypertension. Data from a comparative study of the sustained-release formulation of bupropion, nicotine transdermal system (NTS), the combination of sustained-release bupropion plus NTS, and placebo as an aid to smoking cessation suggest a higher incidence of treatment-emergent hypertension in patients treated with the combination of sustained-release bupropion and NTS.  In this study, 6.1% of patients treated with the combination of sustained-release bupropion and NTS had treatment-emergent hypertension compared to 2.5%, 1.6%, and 3.1% of patients treated with sustained-release bupropion, NTS, and placebo, respectively. The majority of these patients had evidence of preexisting hypertension. Three patients (1.2%) treated with the combination of a ZYBAN® and NTS and 1 patient (0.4%) treated with NTS had study medication discontinued due to hypertension compared to none of the patients treated with a sustained-release formulation of bupropion or placebo. Monitoring of blood pressure is recommended in patients who receive the combination of bupropion and nicotine replacement. There is no clinical experience establishing the safety of bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (XL) in patients with a recent history of myocardial infarction or unstable heart disease. Therefore, care should be exercised if it is used in these groups. Bupropion was well tolerated in depressed patients who had previously developed orthostatic hypotension while receiving tricyclic antidepressants, and was also generally well tolerated in a group of 36 depressed inpatients with stable congestive heart failure (CHF). However, bupropion was associated with a rise in supine blood pressure in the study of patients with CHF, resulting in discontinuation of treatment in 2 patients for exacerbation of baseline hypertension. Hepatic Impairment:

Bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (XL) should be used with extreme caution in patients with severe hepatic cirrhosis. In these patients, a reduced frequency and/or dose is required. Bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (XL) should be used with caution in patients with hepatic impairment (including mild to moderate hepatic cirrhosis) and reduced frequency and/or dose should be considered in patients with mild to moderate hepatic cirrhosis. All patients with hepatic impairment should be closely monitored for possible adverse effects that could indicate high drug and metabolite levels (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, WARNINGS, and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION). Renal Impairment:

 There is limited information on the pharmacokinetics of bupropion in patients with renal impairment. An inter-study comparison between normal subjects and patients with end-stage renal failure demonstrated that the parent drug Cmax and AUC values were comparable in the 2 groups, whereas the hydroxybupropion and threohydrobupropion metabolites had a 2.3 and 2.8-fold increase, respectively, in AUC for patients with end-stage renal failure.  Bupropion is extensively metabolized in the liver to active metabolites, which are further metabolized and subsequently excreted by the kidneys. Bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (XL) should be used with caution in patients with renal impairment and a reduced frequency and/or dose should be considered as bupropion and the metabolites of bupropion may accumulate in such patients to a greater extent than usual. The patient should be closely monitored for possible adverse effects that could indicate high drug or metabolite levels. Information for Patients: Prescribers or other health professionals should inform patients, their families, and their caregivers about the benefits and risks associated with treatment with bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (XL) and should counsel them in its appropriate use.  A patient Medication Guide About “Antidepressant Medicines, Depression and other Serious Mental Illnesses, and Suicidal Thoughts or Actions” and other important information about using bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (XL) is available for bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (XL).  The prescriber or health professional should instruct patients, their families, and their caregivers to read the Medication Guide and should assist them in understanding its contents.  Patients should be given the opportunity to discuss the contents of the Medication Guide and to obtain answers to any questions they may have.  The complete text of the Medication Guides is reprinted at the end of this document. Patients should be advised of the following issues and asked to alert their prescriber if these occur while taking bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (XL). Clinical Worsening and Suicide Risk:

 Patients, their families, and their caregivers should be encouraged to be alert to the emergence of anxiety, agitation, panic attacks, insomnia, irritability, hostility, aggressiveness, impulsivity, akathisia (psychomotor restlessness), hypomania, mania, other unusual changes in behavior, worsening of depression, and suicidal ideation, especially early during antidepressant treatment and when the dose is adjusted up or down.  Families and caregivers of patients should be advised to observe for the emergence of such symptoms on a day-to-day basis, since changes may be abrupt.  Such symptoms should be reported to the patient’s prescriber or health professional, especially if they are severe, abrupt in onset, or were not part of the patient’s presenting symptoms.  Symptoms such as these may be associated with an increased risk for suicidal thinking and behavior and indicate a need for very close monitoring and possibly changes in the medication. Patients should be made aware that bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (XL) contain the same active ingredient found in ZYBAN®, used as an aid to smoking cessation treatment, and that bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (XL) should not be used in combination with ZYBAN®, or any other medications that contain bupropion, such as Wellbutrin® SR (bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (SR)), the sustained-release formulation or Wellbutrin® (bupropion hydrochloride tablets), the immediate-release formulation. Patients should be told that bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (XL) should be discontinued and not restarted if they experience a seizure while on treatment. Patients should be told that any CNS-active drug like bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (XL) may impair their ability to perform tasks requiring judgment or motor and cognitive skills.  Consequently, until they are reasonably certain that bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (XL) do not adversely affect their performance, they should refrain from driving an automobile or operating complex, hazardous machinery. Patients should be told that the excessive use or abrupt discontinuation of alcohol or sedatives (including benzodiazepines) may alter the seizure threshold. Some patients have reported lower alcohol tolerance during treatment with bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (XL). Patients should be advised that the consumption of alcohol should be minimized or avoided. Patients should be advised to inform their physicians if they are taking or plan to take any prescription or over-the-counter drugs. Concern is warranted because bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (XL) and other drugs may affect each other’s metabolism. Patients should be advised to notify their physicians if they become pregnant or intend to become pregnant during therapy. Patients should be advised to swallow bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (XL) whole so that the release rate is not altered. Do not chew, divide, or crush tablets. Patients should be advised that they may notice in their stool something that looks like a tablet. This is normal. The medication in bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (XL) is contained in a non-absorbable shell that has been specially designed to slowly release drug in the body. When this process is completed, the empty shell is eliminated from the body.

(See also WARNINGS and PRECAUTIONS.) Major Depressive Disorder: Bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (XL) have been demonstrated to have similar bioavailability both to the immediate-release formulation of bupropion and to the sustained-release formulation of bupropion (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY).  The information included under this subsection is based primarily on data from controlled clinical trials with the sustained-release formulation of bupropion. Adverse Events Leading to Discontinuation of Treatment With the Immediate-Release or Sustained-Release Formulations of Bupropion: In placebo-controlled clinical trials, 9% and 11% of patients treated with 300 and 400 mg/day, respectively, of the sustained-release formulation of bupropion and 4% of patients treated with placebo discontinued treatment due to adverse events. The specific adverse events in these trials that led to discontinuation in at least 1% of patients treated with either 300 mg/day or 400 mg/day of the sustained-release formulation of bupropion, and at a rate at least twice the placebo rate are listed in Table 4.Table 4. Treatment Discontinuations Due to Adverse Events in Placebo-Controlled TrialsAdverse Event Team    Sustained-releaseformulation of bupropion300 mg/day(n=376)    Sustained-releaseformulation of bupropion400 mg/day(n=114)    Placebo(n=385)Rash    2.4%    0.9%    0.0%Nausea    0.8%    1.8%    0.3%Agitation    0.3%    1.8%    0.3%Migraine    0.0%    1.8%    0.3% In clinical trials with the immediate-release formulation of bupropion, 10% of patients and volunteers discontinued due to an adverse event. Events resulting in discontinuation, in addition to those listed above for the sustained-release formulation of bupropion, include vomiting, seizures, and sleep disturbances. Adverse Events Occurring at an Incidence of 1% or More Among Patients Treated With the Immediate-Release or Sustained-Release Formulations of Bupropion: Table 5 enumerates treatment-emergent adverse events that occurred among patients treated with 300 and 400 mg/day of the sustained-release formulation of bupropion and with placebo in controlled trials. Events that occurred in either the 300- or 400-mg/day group at an incidence of 1% or more and were more frequent than in the placebo group are included. Reported adverse events were classified using a COSTART-based Dictionary. Accurate estimates of the incidence of adverse events associated with the use of any drug are difficult to obtain. Estimates are influenced by drug dose, detection technique, setting, physician judgments, etc. The figures cited cannot be used to predict precisely the incidence of untoward events in the course of usual medical practice where patient characteristics and other factors differ from those that prevailed in the clinical trials. These incidence figures also cannot be compared with those obtained from other clinical studies involving related drug products as each group of drug trials is conducted under a different set of conditions. Finally, it is important to emphasize that the tabulation does not reflect the relative severity and/or clinical importance of the events. A better perspective on the serious adverse events associated with the use of bupropion is provided in the WARNINGS and PRECAUTIONS sections.Table 5.  Treatment-Emergent Adverse Events in Placebo-Controlled Trials*Body System/Adverse Event    Sustained-releaseformulation of bupropion300 mg/day(n=376)    Sustained-releaseformulation of bupropion400 mg/day(n=114)    Placebo(n=385)*   Adverse events that occurred in at least 1% of patients treated with either 300 or 400 mg/day of the sustained-release formulation of bupropion, but equally or more frequently in the placebo group, were: abnormal dreams, accidental injury, acne, appetite increased, back pain, bronchitis, dysmenorrhea, dyspepsia, flatulence, flu syndrome, hypertension, neck pain, respiratory disorder, rhinitis, and tooth disorder.†    Incidence based on the number of female patients.— Hyphen denotes adverse events occurring in greater than 0 but less than 0.5% of patients.Body (General)            Headache    26%    25%    23%Infection    8%    9%    6%Abdominal pain    3%    9%    2%Asthenia    2%    4%    2%Chest pain    3%    4%    1%Pain    2%    3%    2%Fever    1%    2%    ----Cardiovascular            Palpitation    2%    6%    2%Flushing    1%    4%    ----Migraine    1%    4%    1%Hot flashes    1%    3%    1%Digestive            Dry mouth    17%    24%    7%Nausea    13%    18%    8%Constipation    10%    5%    7%Diarrhea    5%    7%    6%Anorexia    5%    3%    2%Vomiting    4%    2%    2%Dysphagia    0%    2%    0%Musculoskeletal            Myalgia    2%    6%    3%Arthralgia    1%    4%    1%Arthritis    0%    2%    0%Twitch    1%    2%    ----Nervous System            Insomia    11%    16%    6%Dizziness    7%    11%    5%Agitation    3%    9%    2%Anxiety    5%    6%    3%Tremor    6%    3%    1%Nervousness    5%    3%    3%Somnolence    2%    3%    2%Irritability    3%    2%    2%Memory decreased    ----    3%    1%Paresthesia    1%    2%    1%Central nervous System stimulation    2%    1%    1%Respiratory            Pharyngitis    3%    11%    2%Sinusitis    3%    1%    2%Increased cough    1%    2%    1%Skin            Sweating    6%    5%    2%Rash    5%    4%    1%Pruritus    2%    4%    2%Urticaria    2%    1%    0%Special senses            Tinnitus    6%    6%    2%Taste Perversion    2%    4%    --Amblyopia    3%    2%    2%Urogenital            Urinary frequency    2%    5%    2%Urinary Urgency    --    2%    0%Vaginal Hemorrhage†    0%    2%    --Urinary tract Infection    1%    0%    -- Additional events to those listed in Table 5 that occurred at an incidence of at least 1% in controlled clinical trials of the immediate-release formulation of bupropion (300 to 600 mg/day) and that were numerically more frequent than placebo were: cardiac arrhythmias (5% vs 4%), hypertension (4% vs 2%), hypotension (3% vs 2%), tachycardia (11% vs 9%), appetite increase (4% vs 2%), dyspepsia (3% vs 2%), menstrual complaints (5% vs 1%), akathisia (2% vs 1%), impaired sleep quality (4% vs 2%), sensory disturbance (4% vs 3%), confusion (8% vs 5%), decreased libido (3% vs 2%), hostility (6% vs 4%), auditory disturbance (5% vs 3%), and gustatory disturbance (3% vs 1%). Incidence of Commonly Observed Adverse Events in Controlled Clinical Trials: Adverse events from Table 4 occurring in at least 5% of patients treated with the sustained-release formulation of bupropion and at a rate at least twice the placebo rate are listed below for the 300- and 400-mg/day dose groups. 300 mg/day of the Sustained-Release Formulation: Anorexia, dry mouth, rash, sweating, tinnitus, and tremor. 400 mg/day of the Sustained-Release Formulation: Abdominal pain, agitation, anxiety, dizziness, dry mouth, insomnia, myalgia, nausea, palpitation, pharyngitis, sweating, tinnitus, and urinary frequency. Other Events Observed During the Clinical Development and Postmarketing Experience of Bupropion: In addition to the adverse events noted above, the following events have been reported in clinical trials and postmarketing experience with the sustained-release formulation of bupropion in depressed patients and in nondepressed smokers, as well as in clinical trials and postmarketing clinical experience with the immediate-release formulation of bupropion. Adverse events for which frequencies are provided below occurred in clinical trials with the sustained-release formulation of bupropion. The frequencies represent the proportion of patients who experienced a treatment-emergent adverse event on at least one occasion in placebo-controlled studies for depression (n = 987) or smoking cessation (n = 1,013), or patients who experienced an adverse event requiring discontinuation of treatment in an open-label surveillance study with the sustained-release formulation of bupropion (n = 3,100). All treatment-emergent adverse events are included except those listed in Tables 1 through 4, those events listed in other safety-related sections, those adverse events subsumed under COSTART terms that are either overly general or excessively specific so as to be uninformative, those events not reasonably associated with the use of the drug, and those events that were not serious and occurred in fewer than 2 patients. Events of major clinical importance are described in the WARNINGS and PRECAUTIONS sections of the labeling. Events are further categorized by body system and listed in order of decreasing frequency according to the following definitions of frequency: Frequent adverse events are defined as those occurring in at least 1/100 patients. Infrequent adverse events are those occurring in 1/100 to 1/1,000 patients, while rare events are those occurring in less than 1/1,000 patients. Adverse events for which frequencies are not provided occurred in clinical trials or postmarketing experience with bupropion. Only those adverse events not previously listed for sustained-release bupropion are included. The extent to which these events may be associated with bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (XL) is unknown. Body (General): Infrequent were chills, facial edema, musculoskeletal chest pain, and photosensitivity. Rare was malaise. Also observed were arthralgia, myalgia, and fever with rash and other symptoms suggestive of delayed hypersensitivity. These symptoms may resemble serum sickness (see PRECAUTIONS). Cardiovascular: Infrequent were postural hypotension, stroke, tachycardia, and vasodilation. Rare was syncope. Also observed were complete atrioventricular block, extrasystoles, hypotension, hypertension (in some cases severe, see PRECAUTIONS), myocardial infarction, phlebitis, and pulmonary embolism. Digestive: Infrequent were abnormal liver function, bruxism, gastric reflux, gingivitis, glossitis, increased salivation, jaundice, mouth ulcers, stomatitis, and thirst. Rare was edema of tongue. Also observed were colitis, esophagitis, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, gum hemorrhage, hepatitis, intestinal perforation, liver damage, pancreatitis, and stomach ulcer. Endocrine: Also observed were hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia, and syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone. Hemic and Lymphatic: Infrequent was ecchymosis. Also observed were anemia, leukocytosis, leukopenia, lymphadenopathy, pancytopenia, and thrombocytopenia. Altered PT and/or INR, infrequently associated with hemorrhagic or thrombotic complications, were observed when bupropion was coadministered with warfarin. Metabolic and Nutritional: Infrequent were edema and peripheral edema. Also observed was glycosuria. Musculoskeletal: Infrequent were leg cramps. Also observed were muscle rigidity/fever/rhabdomyolysis and muscle weakness. Nervous System: Infrequent were abnormal coordination, decreased libido, depersonalization, dysphoria, emotional lability, hostility, hyperkinesia, hypertonia, hypesthesia, suicidal ideation, and vertigo. Rare were amnesia, ataxia, derealization, and hypomania. Also observed were abnormal electroencephalogram (EEG), aggression, akinesia, aphasia, coma, delirium, delusions, dysarthria, dyskinesia, dystonia, euphoria, extrapyramidal syndrome, hallucinations, hypokinesia, increased libido, manic reaction, neuralgia, neuropathy, paranoid ideation, restlessness, and unmasking tardive dyskinesia. Respiratory: Rare was bronchospasm. Also observed was pneumonia. Skin: Rare was maculopapular rash. Also observed were alopecia, angioedema, exfoliative dermatitis, and hirsutism. Special Senses: Infrequent were accommodation abnormality and dry eye. Also observed were deafness, diplopia, increased intraocular pressure, and mydriasis. Urogenital: Infrequent were impotence, polyuria, and prostate disorder. Also observed were abnormal ejaculation, cystitis, dyspareunia, dysuria, gynecomastia, menopause, painful erection, salpingitis, urinary incontinence, urinary retention, and vaginitis. To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Teva Pharmaceuticals USA at 1-888-493-0857 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch.

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Reference

This information is obtained from the National Institute of Health's Standard Packaging Label drug database.
"https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/"

While we update our database periodically, we cannot guarantee it is always updated to the latest version.

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Clonazepam Description Each single-scored tablet, for oral administration, contains 0.5 mg, 1 mg, or 2 mg Clonazepam, USP, a benzodiazepine. Each tablet also contains corn starch, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, and povidone. Clonazepam tablets USP 0.5 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake. Clonazepam tablets USP 1 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake, as well as FD&C Blue No. 1 Aluminum Lake. Chemically, Clonazepam, USP is 5-(o-chlorophenyl)-1,3-dihydro-7-nitro-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one. It is a light yellow crystalline powder. It has the following structural formula: C15H10ClN3O3 M.W. 315.72
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Interactions

Interactions

A total of 440 drugs (1549 brand and generic names) are known to interact with Imbruvica (ibrutinib). 228 major drug interactions (854 brand and generic names) 210 moderate drug interactions (691 brand and generic names) 2 minor drug interactions (4 brand and generic names) Show all medications in the database that may interact with Imbruvica (ibrutinib).