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celecoxib

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Overview

What is celecoxib?

Celecoxib is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, available as capsules containing 50 mg, 100 mg, 200 mg and 400 mg celecoxib USP for oral administration. The chemical name is 4-[5-(4-methylphenyl)-3-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl] benzenesulfonamide and is a diaryl-substituted pyrazole. The molecular weight is 381.38. Its molecular formula is C17H14F3N3O2S, and it has the following chemical structure:

Celecoxib USP is a white to off-white powder with a pKa of 11.1 (sulfonamide moiety). Celecoxib USP is hydrophobic (log P is 3.5) and is practically insoluble in aqueous media at physiological pH range. The inactive ingredients in celecoxib capsules include: gelatin, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, povidone, sodium lauryl sulfate, hydroxypropyl cellulose, crospovidone and titanium dioxide.

The imprinting ink of capsule shell of the 50 mg capsule contains the following inactive ingredients: shellac, propylene glycol, sodium hydroxide, titanium dioxide, povidone and FD&C Red#40 Aluminum Lake- E129.

The imprinting ink of capsule shell of the 100 mg capsule contains the following inactive ingredients: shellac, propylene glycol, strong ammonia solution and FD&C Blue#2 Aluminum Lake-E132.

The imprinting ink of capsule shell of the 200 mg capsule contains the following inactive ingredients: shellac, propylene glycol, strong ammonia solution and yellow iron oxide.

The imprinting ink of capsule shell of the 400 mg capsule contains the following inactive ingredients: shellac, propylene glycol, sodium hydroxide, povidone, titanium dioxide, FD&C Blue#1 Aluminum Lake- E133 and FD&C Yellow#5 Aluminum Lake-E102.



What does celecoxib look like?



What are the available doses of celecoxib?

Celecoxib capsules: 50 mg white opaque cap, white opaque body with 'C4' imprinted on the red band on the cap and '50mg' imprinted on the red band on the body. 100 mg white opaque cap, white opaque body with 'C5' imprinted on the blue band on the cap and '100mg' imprinted on the blue band on the body. 200 mg white opaque cap, white opaque body with 'C6' imprinted on the yellow band on the cap and '200mg' imprinted on the yellow band on the body.

400 mg white opaque cap, white opaque body with 'C7' imprinted on the green band on the cap and '400mg' imprinted on the green band on the body.

What should I talk to my health care provider before I take celecoxib?

8.1 Pregnancy

Pregnancy Category C. Pregnancy category D from 30 weeks of gestation onward. Risk Summary Use of NSAIDs, including celecoxib capsules, during the third trimester of pregnancy increases the risk of premature closure of the fetal ductus arteriosus. Avoid use of NSAIDs, including celecoxib capsules, in pregnant women starting at 30 weeks of gestation.

There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of celecoxib capsules in pregnant women. Data from observational studies regarding potential embryofetal risks of NSAID use in women in the first or second trimesters of pregnancy are inconclusive. In the general U.S. population, all clinically recognized pregnancies, regardless of drug exposure, have a background rate of 2-4% for major malformations, and 15-20% for pregnancy loss. In animal reproduction studies, embryo-fetal deaths and an increase in diaphragmatic hernias were observed in rats administered celecoxib daily during the period of organogenesis at oral doses approximately 6 times the maximum recommended human dose of 200 mg twice daily. In addition, structural abnormalities (e.g., septal defects, ribs fused, sternebrae fused and sternebrae misshapen) were observed in rabbits given daily oral doses of celecoxib during the period of organogenesis at approximately 2 times the MRHD [see Data]. Based on animal data, prostaglandins have been shown to have an important role in endometrial vascular permeability, blastocyst implantation, and decidualization. In animal studies, administration of prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors such as celecoxib, resulted in increased pre- and post-implantation loss.

Clinical Considerations Labor or Delivery There are no studies on the effects of celecoxib capsules during labor or delivery. In animal studies, NSAIDs, including celecoxib, inhibit prostaglandin synthesis, cause delayed parturition, and increase the incidence of stillbirth.

Data Human Data The available data do not establish the presence or absence of developmental toxicity related to the use of celecoxib capsules.

Animal data Celecoxib at oral doses ≥150 mg/kg/day (approximately 2 times the human exposure at 200 mg twice daily as measured by AUC0-24), caused an increased incidence of ventricular septal defects, a rare event, and fetal alterations, such as ribs fused, sternebrae fused and sternebrae misshapen when rabbits were treated throughout organogenesis. A dose-dependent increase in diaphragmatic hernias was observed when rats were given celecoxib at oral doses ≥30 mg/kg/day (approximately 6 times human exposure based on the AUC0-24 at 200 mg twice daily for RA) throughout organogenesis. In rats, exposure to celecoxib during early embryonic development resulted in pre-implantation and post-implantation losses at oral doses ≥50 mg/kg/day (approximately 6 times human exposure based on the AUC0-24 at 200 mg twice daily for RA).

Celecoxib produced no evidence of delayed labor or parturition at oral doses up to 100 mg/kg in rats (approximately 7-fold human exposure as measured by the AUC0-24 at 200 mg twice daily). The effects of celecoxib capsules on labor and delivery in pregnant women are unknown.

8.2 Lactation

Risk Summary Limited data from 3 published reports that included a total of 12 breastfeeding women showed low levels of celecoxib in breast milk. The calculated average daily infant dose was 10-40 mcg/kg/day, less than 1% of the weight-based therapeutic dose for a two-year old-child. A report of two breastfed infants 17 and 22 months of age did not show any adverse events. Caution should be exercised when celecoxib capsules are administered to a nursing woman. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for celecoxib capsules and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from the celecoxib capsules or from the underlying maternal condition.

8.3 Females and Males of Reproductive Potential

Infertility Females Based on the mechanism of action, the use of prostaglandin-mediated NSAIDs, including celecoxib capsules, may delay or prevent rupture of ovarian follicles, which has been associated with reversible infertility in some women. Published animal studies have shown that administration of prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors has the potential to disrupt prostaglandin mediated follicular rupture required for ovulation. Small studies in women treated with NSAIDs have also shown a reversible delay in ovulation. Consider withdrawal of NSAIDs, including celecoxib capsules, in women who have difficulties conceiving or who are undergoing investigation of infertility.

8.4 Pediatric Use

Celecoxib capsules are approved for relief of the signs and symptoms of Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis in patients 2 years and older. Safety and efficacy have not been studied beyond six months in children. The long-term cardiovascular toxicity in children exposed to celecoxib capsules has not been evaluated and it is unknown if long-term risks may be similar to that seen in adults exposed to celecoxib capsules or other COX-2 selective and non-selective NSAIDs [(see Boxed Warning, Warnings and Precautions (5.12), and Clinical Studies (14.3)].

The use of celecoxib in patients 2 years to 17 years of age with pauciarticular, polyarticular course JRA or in patients with systemic onset JRA was studied in a 12-week, double-blind, active controlled, pharmacokinetic, safety and efficacy study, with a 12-week open-label extension. Celecoxib has not been studied in patients under the age of 2 years, in patients with body weight less than 10 kg (22 lbs), and in patients with active systemic features. Patients with systemic onset JRA (without active systemic features) appear to be at risk for the development of abnormal coagulation laboratory tests. In some patients with systemic onset JRA, both celecoxib and naproxen were associated with mild prolongation of activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) but not prothrombin time (PT). When NSAIDs including celecoxib are used in patients with systemic onset JRA, monitor patients for signs and symptoms of abnormal clotting or bleeding, due to the risk of disseminated intravascular coagulation. Patients with systemic onset JRA should be monitored for the development of abnormal coagulation tests [see Dosage and Administration (2.4), Warnings and Precautions (5.12), Adverse Reactions (6.3), Animal Toxicology (13.2), Clinical Studies (14.3)].

Alternative therapies for treatment of JRA should be considered in pediatric patients identified to be CYP2C9 poor metabolizers [see Poor Metabolizers of CYP2C9 substrates (8.8)].

8.5 Geriatric Use

Elderly patients, compared to younger patients, are at greater risk for NSAID-associated serious cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and/or renal adverse reactions. If the anticipated benefit for the elderly patient outweighs these potential risks, start dosing at the low end of the dosing range, and monitor patients for adverse effects [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1, 5.2, 5.3,5.6, 5.13)].

Of the total number of patients who received celecoxib capsules in pre-approval clinical trials, more than 3,300 were 65-74 years of age, while approximately 1,300 additional patients were 75 years and over. No substantial differences in effectiveness were observed between these subjects and younger subjects. In clinical studies comparing renal function as measured by the GFR, BUN and creatinine, and platelet function as measured by bleeding time and platelet aggregation, the results were not different between elderly and young volunteers. However, as with other NSAIDs, including those that selectively inhibit COX-2, there have been more spontaneous post-marketing reports of fatal GI events and acute renal failure in the elderly than in younger patients [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4, 5.6)].

8.6 Hepatic Insufficiency

The daily recommended dose of celecoxib capsules in patients with moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Class B) should be reduced by 50%. The use of celecoxib capsules in patients with severe hepatic impairment is not recommended [see Dosage and Administration (2.6) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

8.7 Renal Insufficiency

Celecoxib capsules are not recommended in patients with severe renal insufficiency [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

8.8 Poor Metabolizers of CYP2C9 Substrates

In patients who are known or suspected to be poor CYP2C9 metabolizers (i.e., CYP2C9*3/*3), based on genotype or previous history/experience with other CYP2C9 substrates (such as warfarin, phenytoin) administer celecoxib capsules starting with half the lowest recommended dose. Alternative management should be considered in JRA patients identified to be CYP2C9 poor metabolizers. [see Dosage and Administration (2.6) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.5)].

How should I use celecoxib?

Celecoxib capsules are indicated

1.1 Osteoarthritis

For the management of the signs and symptoms of OA [see Clinical Studies (14.1)]

1.2 Rheumatoid Arthritis

For the management of the signs and symptoms of RA [see Clinical Studies (14.2)]

1.3 Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis

For the management of the signs and symptoms of JRA in patients 2 years and older [see Clinical Studies (14.3)]

1.4 Ankylosing Spondylitis

For the management of the signs and symptoms of AS [see Clinical Studies (14.4)]

1.5 Acute Pain

For the management of acute pain in adults [see Clinical Studies (14.5)]

1.6 Primary Dysmenorrhea

For the management of primary dysmenorrhea [see Clinical Studies (14.5)]

2.1 General Dosing Instructions

Carefully consider the potential benefits and risks of celecoxib capsules and other treatment options before deciding to use celecoxib capsules. Use the lowest effective dosage for the shortest duration consistent with individual patient treatment goals [see Warnings and Precautions (5)]. These doses can be given without regard to timing of meals.

2.2 Osteoarthritis

For OA, the dosage is 200 mg per day administered as a single dose or as 100 mg twice daily.

2.3 Rheumatoid Arthritis

For RA, the dosage is 100 to 200 mg twice daily.

2.4 Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis

For JRA, the dosage for pediatric patients (age 2 years and older) is based on weight. For patients ≥10 kg to ≤25 kg the recommended dose is 50 mg twice daily. For patients >25 kg the recommended dose is 100 mg twice daily.

For patients who have difficulty swallowing capsules, the contents of a celecoxib capsules can be added to applesauce. The entire capsule contents are carefully emptied onto a level teaspoon of cool or room temperature applesauce and ingested immediately with water. The sprinkled capsule contents on applesauce are stable for up to 6 hours under refrigerated conditions (2-8° C/ 35-45° F).

2.5 Ankylosing Spondylitis

For AS, the dosage of celecoxib capsules are 200 mg daily in single (once per day) or divided (twice per day) doses. If no effect is observed after 6 weeks, a trial of 400 mg daily may be worthwhile. If no effect is observed after 6 weeks on 400 mg daily, a response is not likely and consideration should be given to alternate treatment options.

2.6 Management of Acute Pain and Treatment of Primary Dysmenorrhea

For management of Acute Pain and Treatment of Primary Dysmenorrhea, the dosage is 400 mg initially, followed by an additional 200 mg dose if needed on the first day. On subsequent days, the recommended dose is 200 mg twice daily as needed.

2.7 Special Populations

Hepatic Impairment In patients with moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Class B), reduce the dose by 50%. The use of celecoxib capsules in patients with severe hepatic impairment is not recommended [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5), Use in Specific Populations (8.6) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

Poor Metabolizers of CYP2C9 Substrates In adult patients who are known or suspected to be poor CYP2C9 metabolizers based on genotype or previous history/experience with other CYP2C9 substrates (such as warfarin, phenytoin), initiate treatment with half of the lowest recommended dose.

In patients with JRA who are known or suspected to be poor CYP2C9 metabolizers, consider using alternative treatments. [see Use in Specific populations (8.8), and Clinical Pharmacology (12.5)].


What interacts with celecoxib?

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What are the warnings of celecoxib?

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What are the precautions of celecoxib?

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What are the side effects of celecoxib?

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What should I look out for while using celecoxib?

• Celecoxib capsules are contraindicated in the following patients: Known hypersensitivity (e.g., anaphylactic reactions and serious skin reactions) to celecoxib, any components of the drug product [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7, 5.9)]. • History of asthma, urticaria, or other allergic-type reactions after taking aspirin or other NSAIDs. Severe, sometimes fatal, anaphylactic reactions to NSAIDs, have been reported in such patients [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7, 5.8)]. • In the setting of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]. • In patients who have demonstrated allergic-type reactions to sulfonamides.

WARNING: RISK OF SERIOUS CARDIOVASCULAR AND GASTROINTESTINAL EVENTS

Cardiovascular Thrombotic Events • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) cause an increased risk of serious cardiovascular thrombotic events, including myocardial infarction, and stroke, which can be fatal. This risk may occur early in the treatment and may increase with duration of use. [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)] • Celecoxib capsules are contraindicated in the setting of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. [see Contraindications (4) and Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]

Gastrointestinal Bleeding, Ulceration, and Perforation • NSAIDs cause an increased risk of serious gastrointestinal (GI) adverse events including bleeding, ulceration, and perforation of the stomach or intestines, which can be fatal. These events can occur at any time during use and without warning symptoms. Elderly patients and patients with a prior history of peptic ulcer disease and/or GI bleeding are at greater risk for serious (GI) events. [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]

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Drug Interactions:


What might happen if I take too much celecoxib?

Symptoms following acute NSAID overdosages have been typically limited to lethargy, drowsiness, nausea, vomiting, and epigastric pain, which have been generally reversible with supportive care. Gastrointestinal bleeding has occurred. Hypertension, acute renal failure, respiratory depression, and coma have occured, but were rare [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1, 5.2, 5.4, 5.6)]. No overdoses of celecoxib capsules were reported during clinical trials. Doses up to 2400 mg/day for up to 10 days in 12 patients did not result in serious toxicity. No information is available regarding the removal of celecoxib by hemodialysis, but based on its high degree of plasma protein binding (>97%) dialysis is unlikely to be useful in overdose.

Manage patients with symptomatic and supportive care following an NSAID overdosage. There are no specific antidotes. Consider emesis and/or activated charcoal (60 to 100 grams in adults, 1 to 2 grams per kg of body weight in pediatric patients) and/or osmotic cathartic in symptomatic patients seen within four hours of ingestion or in patients with a large overdosage (5 to 10 times the recommended dosage). Forced diuresis, alkalinization of urine, hemodialysis, or hemoperfusion may not be useful due to high protein binding.

For additional information about overdosage treatment contact a poison control center (1-800-222-1222).


How should I store and handle celecoxib?

Store at Celecoxib Capsules 50 mg Size '4', White opaque cap, white opaque body with 'C4' imprinted on the red band on the cap and '50mg' imprinted on the red band on the body and are available as follows: Bottles of 60 Capsules NDC 33342-155-09 Celecoxib Capsules 100 mg Size '4', White opaque cap, white opaque body with 'C5' imprinted on the blue band on the cap and '100mg' imprinted on the blue band on the body and are available as follows: Bottles of 100 Capsules NDC 33342-156-11 Bottles of 500 Capsules NDC 33342-156-15 Unit dose blister pack of 100 Capsules NDC 33342-156-12 Celecoxib Capsules 200 mg Size '2', White opaque cap, white opaque body with 'C6' imprinted on the yellow band on the cap and '200mg' imprinted on the yellow band on the body and are available as follows: Bottles of 100 Capsules NDC 33342-157-11 Bottles of 500 Capsules NDC 33342-157-15 Unit dose blister pack of 100 Capsules NDC 33342-157-12 Celecoxib Capsules 400 mg Size '0 elongated', White opaque cap, white opaque body with 'C7' imprinted on the green band on the cap and '400mg' imprinted on the green band on the body and are available as follows: Bottles of 60 Capsules NDC 33342-158-09 Unit dose blister pack of 100 Capsules NDC 33342-158-12 Storage Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F); excursions permitted to 15° to 30°C (59° to 86°F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Celecoxib Capsules 50 mg Size '4', White opaque cap, white opaque body with 'C4' imprinted on the red band on the cap and '50mg' imprinted on the red band on the body and are available as follows: Bottles of 60 Capsules NDC 33342-155-09 Celecoxib Capsules 100 mg Size '4', White opaque cap, white opaque body with 'C5' imprinted on the blue band on the cap and '100mg' imprinted on the blue band on the body and are available as follows: Bottles of 100 Capsules NDC 33342-156-11 Bottles of 500 Capsules NDC 33342-156-15 Unit dose blister pack of 100 Capsules NDC 33342-156-12 Celecoxib Capsules 200 mg Size '2', White opaque cap, white opaque body with 'C6' imprinted on the yellow band on the cap and '200mg' imprinted on the yellow band on the body and are available as follows: Bottles of 100 Capsules NDC 33342-157-11 Bottles of 500 Capsules NDC 33342-157-15 Unit dose blister pack of 100 Capsules NDC 33342-157-12 Celecoxib Capsules 400 mg Size '0 elongated', White opaque cap, white opaque body with 'C7' imprinted on the green band on the cap and '400mg' imprinted on the green band on the body and are available as follows: Bottles of 60 Capsules NDC 33342-158-09 Unit dose blister pack of 100 Capsules NDC 33342-158-12 Storage Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F); excursions permitted to 15° to 30°C (59° to 86°F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Celecoxib Capsules 50 mg Size '4', White opaque cap, white opaque body with 'C4' imprinted on the red band on the cap and '50mg' imprinted on the red band on the body and are available as follows: Bottles of 60 Capsules NDC 33342-155-09 Celecoxib Capsules 100 mg Size '4', White opaque cap, white opaque body with 'C5' imprinted on the blue band on the cap and '100mg' imprinted on the blue band on the body and are available as follows: Bottles of 100 Capsules NDC 33342-156-11 Bottles of 500 Capsules NDC 33342-156-15 Unit dose blister pack of 100 Capsules NDC 33342-156-12 Celecoxib Capsules 200 mg Size '2', White opaque cap, white opaque body with 'C6' imprinted on the yellow band on the cap and '200mg' imprinted on the yellow band on the body and are available as follows: Bottles of 100 Capsules NDC 33342-157-11 Bottles of 500 Capsules NDC 33342-157-15 Unit dose blister pack of 100 Capsules NDC 33342-157-12 Celecoxib Capsules 400 mg Size '0 elongated', White opaque cap, white opaque body with 'C7' imprinted on the green band on the cap and '400mg' imprinted on the green band on the body and are available as follows: Bottles of 60 Capsules NDC 33342-158-09 Unit dose blister pack of 100 Capsules NDC 33342-158-12 Storage Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F); excursions permitted to 15° to 30°C (59° to 86°F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Celecoxib Capsules 50 mg Size '4', White opaque cap, white opaque body with 'C4' imprinted on the red band on the cap and '50mg' imprinted on the red band on the body and are available as follows: Bottles of 60 Capsules NDC 33342-155-09 Celecoxib Capsules 100 mg Size '4', White opaque cap, white opaque body with 'C5' imprinted on the blue band on the cap and '100mg' imprinted on the blue band on the body and are available as follows: Bottles of 100 Capsules NDC 33342-156-11 Bottles of 500 Capsules NDC 33342-156-15 Unit dose blister pack of 100 Capsules NDC 33342-156-12 Celecoxib Capsules 200 mg Size '2', White opaque cap, white opaque body with 'C6' imprinted on the yellow band on the cap and '200mg' imprinted on the yellow band on the body and are available as follows: Bottles of 100 Capsules NDC 33342-157-11 Bottles of 500 Capsules NDC 33342-157-15 Unit dose blister pack of 100 Capsules NDC 33342-157-12 Celecoxib Capsules 400 mg Size '0 elongated', White opaque cap, white opaque body with 'C7' imprinted on the green band on the cap and '400mg' imprinted on the green band on the body and are available as follows: Bottles of 60 Capsules NDC 33342-158-09 Unit dose blister pack of 100 Capsules NDC 33342-158-12 Storage Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F); excursions permitted to 15° to 30°C (59° to 86°F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Celecoxib Capsules 50 mg Size '4', White opaque cap, white opaque body with 'C4' imprinted on the red band on the cap and '50mg' imprinted on the red band on the body and are available as follows: Bottles of 60 Capsules NDC 33342-155-09 Celecoxib Capsules 100 mg Size '4', White opaque cap, white opaque body with 'C5' imprinted on the blue band on the cap and '100mg' imprinted on the blue band on the body and are available as follows: Bottles of 100 Capsules NDC 33342-156-11 Bottles of 500 Capsules NDC 33342-156-15 Unit dose blister pack of 100 Capsules NDC 33342-156-12 Celecoxib Capsules 200 mg Size '2', White opaque cap, white opaque body with 'C6' imprinted on the yellow band on the cap and '200mg' imprinted on the yellow band on the body and are available as follows: Bottles of 100 Capsules NDC 33342-157-11 Bottles of 500 Capsules NDC 33342-157-15 Unit dose blister pack of 100 Capsules NDC 33342-157-12 Celecoxib Capsules 400 mg Size '0 elongated', White opaque cap, white opaque body with 'C7' imprinted on the green band on the cap and '400mg' imprinted on the green band on the body and are available as follows: Bottles of 60 Capsules NDC 33342-158-09 Unit dose blister pack of 100 Capsules NDC 33342-158-12 Storage Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F); excursions permitted to 15° to 30°C (59° to 86°F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature].


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Clinical Information

Chemical Structure

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Clinical Pharmacology

12.1 Mechanism of Action

CELECOXIB has analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic properties. The mechanism of action of celecoxib capsules are believed to be due to inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, primarily via inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Celecoxib is a potent inhibitor of prostaglandin synthesis in vitro. Celecoxib concentrations reached during therapy have produced in vivo effects. Prostaglandins sensitize afferent nerves and potentiate the action of bradykinin in inducing pain in animal models. Prostaglandins are mediators of inflammation. Since celecoxib is an inhibitor of prostaglandin synthesis, its mode of action may be due to a decrease of prostaglandins in peripheral tissues.

12.2 Pharmacodynamics

Platelets In clinical trials using normal volunteers, celecoxib capsules at single doses up to 800 mg and multiple doses of 600 mg twice daily for up to 7 days duration (higher than recommended therapeutic doses) had no effect on reduction of platelet aggregation or increase in bleeding time. Because of its lack of platelet effects, celecoxib capsules are not a substitute for aspirin for cardiovascular prophylaxis. It is not known if there are any effects of celecoxib capsules on platelets that may contribute to the increased risk of serious cardiovascular thrombotic adverse events associated with the use of celecoxib capsules.

Fluid Retention Inhibition of PGE2 synthesis may lead to sodium and water retention through increased reabsorption in the renal medullary thick ascending loop of Henle and perhaps other segments of the distal nephron. In the collecting ducts, PGE2 appears to inhibit water reabsorption by counteracting the action of antidiuretic hormone.

12.3 Pharmacokinetics

Celecoxib exhibits dose-proportional increase in exposure after oral administration up to 200 mg twice daily and less than proportional increase at higher doses. It has extensive distribution and high protein binding. It is primarily metabolized by CYP2C9 with a half-life of approximately 11 hours.

Absorption Peak plasma levels of celecoxib occur approximately 3 hrs after an oral dose. Under fasting conditions, both peak plasma levels (Cmax) and area under the curve (AUC) are roughly dose-proportional up to 200 mg twice daily; at higher doses there are less than proportional increases in Cmax and AUC [see Food Effects]. Absolute bioavailability studies have not been conducted. With multiple dosing, steady-state conditions are reached on or before Day 5. The pharmacokinetic parameters of celecoxib in a group of healthy subjects are shown in Table 4.

Table 4 Summary of Single Dose (200 mg) Disposition Kinetics of Celecoxib in Healthy Subjects1

Mean (%CV) PK Parameters Values Cmax, ng/mL Tmax, hr Effective t1/2, hr Vss/F, L CL/F, L/hr 705(38) 2.8(37) 11.2(31) 429(34) 27.7(28)

1Subjects under fasting conditions (n=36, 19-52 yrs.)

Food Effects When celecoxib capsules were taken with a high fat meal, peak plasma levels were delayed for about 1 to 2 hours with an increase in total absorption (AUC) of 10% to 20%. Under fasting conditions, at doses above 200 mg, there is less than a proportional increase in Cmax and AUC, which is thought to be due to the low solubility of the drug in aqueous media.

Coadministration of celecoxib capsules with an aluminum- and magnesium-containing antacids resulted in a reduction in plasma celecoxib concentrations with a decrease of 37% in Cmax and 10% in AUC. Celecoxib capsules, at doses up to 200 mg twice daily, can be administered without regard to timing of meals. Higher doses (400 mg twice daily) should be administered with food to improve absorption.

In healthy adult volunteers, the overall systemic exposure (AUC) of celecoxib was equivalent when celecoxib was administered as intact capsule or capsule contents sprinkled on applesauce. There were no significant alterations in Cmax, Tmax or t1/2 after administration of capsule contents on applesauce [see Dosage and Administration (2)].

Distribution In healthy subjects, celecoxib is highly protein bound (~97%) within the clinical dose range. In vitro studies indicate that celecoxib binds primarily to albumin and, to a lesser extent, α1-acid glycoprotein. The apparent volume of distribution at steady state (Vss/F) is approximately 400 L, suggesting extensive distribution into the tissues. Celecoxib is not preferentially bound to red blood cells.

Elimination Metabolism Celecoxib metabolism is primarily mediated via CYP2C9. Three metabolites, a primary alcohol, the corresponding carboxylic acid and its glucuronide conjugate, have been identified in human plasma. These metabolites are inactive as COX-1 or COX-2 inhibitors.

Excretion Celecoxib is eliminated predominantly by hepatic metabolism with little (
Specific Populations Geriatric At steady state, elderly subjects (over 65 years old) had a 40% higher Cmax and a 50% higher AUC compared to the young subjects. In elderly females, celecoxib Cmax and AUC are higher than those for elderly males, but these increases are predominantly due to lower body weight in elderly females. Dose adjustment in the elderly is not generally necessary. However, for patients of less than 50 kg in body weight, initiate therapy at the lowest recommended dose [see Dosage and Administration (2.7) and Use in Specific Populations (8.5)].

Pediatric The steady state pharmacokinetics of celecoxib administered as an investigational oral suspension was evaluated in 152 JRA patients 2 years to 17 years of age weighing ≥10 kg with pauciarticular or polyarticular course JRA and in patients with systemic onset JRA. Population pharmacokinetic analysis indicated that the oral clearance (unadjusted for body weight) of celecoxib increases less than proportionally to increasing weight, with 10 kg and 25 kg patients predicted to have 40% and 24% lower clearance, respectively, compared with a 70 kg adult RA patient.

Twice-daily administration of 50 mg capsules to JRA patients weighing ≥12 to ≤25 kg and 100 mg capsules to JRA patients weighing >25 kg should achieve plasma concentrations similar to those observed in a clinical trial that demonstrated the non-inferiority of celecoxib to naproxen 7.5 mg/kg twice daily (see Dosage and Administration (2.4). Celecoxib has not been studied in JRA patients under the age of 2 years, in patients with body weight less than 10 kg (22 lbs), or beyond 24 weeks.

Race Meta-analysis of pharmacokinetic studies has suggested an approximately 40% higher AUC of celecoxib in Blacks compared to Caucasians. The cause and clinical significance of this finding is unknown.

Hepatic Impairment A pharmacokinetic study in subjects with mild (Child-Pugh Class A) and moderate (Child-Pugh Class B) hepatic impairment has shown that steady-state celecoxib AUC is increased about 40% and 180%, respectively, above that seen in healthy control subjects. Therefore, the daily recommended dose of celecoxib capsules should be reduced by approximately 50% in patients with moderate (Child-Pugh Class B) hepatic impairment. Patients with severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Class C) have not been studied. The use of celecoxib capsules in patients with severe hepatic impairment is not recommended [see Dosage and Administration (2.6) and Use in Specific Populations (8.6)].

Renal Impairment In a cross-study comparison, celecoxib AUC was approximately 40% lower in patients with chronic renal insufficiency (GFR 35-60 mL/min) than that seen in subjects with normal renal function. No significant relationship was found between GFR and celecoxib clearance. Patients with severe renal insufficiency have not been studied. Similar to other NSAIDs, celecoxib capsules are not recommended in patients with severe renal insufficiency [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)].

Drug Interaction Studies

In vitro studies indicate that celecoxib is not an inhibitor of cytochrome P450 2C9, 2C19 or 3A4.

In vivo studies have shown the following: Aspirin When NSAIDs were administered with aspirin, the protein binding of NSAIDs were reduced, although the clearance of free NSAID was not altered. The clinical significance of this interaction is not known. See Table 3 for clinically significant drug interactions of NSAIDs with aspirin [see Drug Interactions (7)].

Lithium In a study conducted in healthy subjects, mean steady-state lithium plasma levels increased approximately 17% in subjects receiving lithium 450 mg twice daily with celecoxib capsules 200 mg twice daily as compared to subjects receiving lithium alone [see Drug Interactions (7)].

Fluconazole Concomitant administration of fluconazole at 200 mg once daily resulted in a two-fold increase in celecoxib plasma concentration. This increase is due to the inhibition of celecoxib metabolism via P450 2C9 by fluconazole [see Drug Interactions (7)].

Other Drugs The effects of celecoxib on the pharmacokinetics and/or pharmacodynamics of glyburide, ketoconazole, [see Drug Interactions (7)], phenytoin, and tolbutamide have been studied in vivo and clinically important interactions have not been found.

12.5 Pharmacogenomics

CYP2C9 activity is reduced in individuals with genetic polymorphisms that lead to reduced enzyme activity, such as those homozygous for the CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3 polymorphisms. Limited data from 4 published reports that included a total of 8 subjects with the homozygous CYP2C9*3/*3 genotype showed celecoxib systemic levels that were 3- to 7-fold higher in these subjects compared to subjects with CYP2C9*1/*1 or *I/*3 genotypes. The pharmacokinetics of celecoxib have not been evaluated in subjects with other CYP2C9 polymorphisms, such as *2, *5, *6, *9 and *11. It is estimated that the frequency of the homozygous *3/*3 genotype is 0.3% to 1.0% in various ethnic groups. [see Dosage and Administration (2.6), Use in Specific Populations (8.8)].

Non-Clinical Toxicology
• Celecoxib capsules are contraindicated in the following patients: Known hypersensitivity (e.g., anaphylactic reactions and serious skin reactions) to celecoxib, any components of the drug product [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7, 5.9)]. • History of asthma, urticaria, or other allergic-type reactions after taking aspirin or other NSAIDs. Severe, sometimes fatal, anaphylactic reactions to NSAIDs, have been reported in such patients [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7, 5.8)]. • In the setting of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]. • In patients who have demonstrated allergic-type reactions to sulfonamides.

WARNING: RISK OF SERIOUS CARDIOVASCULAR AND GASTROINTESTINAL EVENTS

Cardiovascular Thrombotic Events • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) cause an increased risk of serious cardiovascular thrombotic events, including myocardial infarction, and stroke, which can be fatal. This risk may occur early in the treatment and may increase with duration of use. [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)] • Celecoxib capsules are contraindicated in the setting of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. [see Contraindications (4) and Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]

Gastrointestinal Bleeding, Ulceration, and Perforation • NSAIDs cause an increased risk of serious gastrointestinal (GI) adverse events including bleeding, ulceration, and perforation of the stomach or intestines, which can be fatal. These events can occur at any time during use and without warning symptoms. Elderly patients and patients with a prior history of peptic ulcer disease and/or GI bleeding are at greater risk for serious (GI) events. [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]

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5.1 Cardiovascular Thrombotic Events

Clinical trials of several COX-2 selective and nonselective NSAIDs of up to three years duration have shown an increased risk of serious cardiovascular (CV) thrombotic events, including myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke, which can be fatal. Based on available data, it is unclear that the risk for CV thrombotic events is similar for all NSAIDs. The relative increase in serious CV thrombotic events over baseline conferred by NSAID use appears to be similar in those with and without known CV disease or risk factors for CV disease. However, patients with known CV disease or risk factors had a higher absolute incidence of excess serious CV thrombotic events, due to their increased baseline rate. Some observational studies found that this increased risk of serious CV thrombotic events began as early as the first weeks of treatment. The increase in CV thrombotic risk has been observed most consistently at higher doses.

In the APC (Adenoma Prevention with Celecoxib) trial, the hazard ratio for the composite endpoint of cardiovascular death, MI, or stroke was 3.4 (95% CI 1.4 – 8.5) for celecoxib capsules 400 mg twice daily and 2.8 (95% CI 1.1 – 7.2) with celecoxib capsules 200 mg twice daily compared to placebo. Cumulative rates for this composite endpoint over 3 years were 3.0% (20/671 subjects) and 2.5% (17/685 subjects), respectively, compared to 0.9% (6/679 subjects) with placebo treatment. The increases in both celecoxib dose groups versus placebo-treated patients were mainly due to an increased incidence of myocardial infarction [see Clinical Studies (14.6)].

To minimize the potential risk for an adverse CV event in NSAID-treated patients, use the lowest effective dose for the shortest duration possible. Physicians and patients should remain alert for the development of such events, throughout the entire treatment course, even in the absence of previous CV symptoms. Patients should be informed about the symptoms of serious CV events and the steps to take if they occur.

There is no consistent evidence that concurrent use of aspirin mitigates the increased risk of serious CV thrombotic events associated with NSAID use. The concurrent use of aspirin and an NSAID, such as celecoxib, increases the risk of serious gastrointestinal (GI) events [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].

Status Post Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) Surgery Two large, controlled clinical trials of a COX-2 selective NSAID for the treatment of pain in the first 10-14 days following CABG surgery found an increased incidence of myocardial infarction and stroke. NSAIDs are contraindicated in the setting of CABG [see Contraindications (4)].

Post-MI Patients Observational studies conducted in the Danish National Registry have demonstrated that patients treated with NSAIDs in the post-MI period were at increased risk of reinfarction, CV-related death, and all-cause mortality beginning in the first week of treatment. In this same cohort, the incidence of death in the first year post-MI was 20 per 100 person years in NSAID-treated patients compared to 12 per 100 person years in non-NSAID exposed patients. Although the absolute rate of death declined somewhat after the first year post-MI, the increased relative risk of death in NSAID users persisted over at least the next four years of follow-up.

Avoid the use of celecoxib capsules in patients with a recent MI unless the benefits are expected to outweigh the risk of recurrent CV thrombotic events. If celecoxib capsules are used in patients with a recent MI, monitor patients for signs of cardiac ischemia.

5.2 Gastrointestinal Bleeding, Ulceration, and Perforation

NSAIDs, including celecoxib cause serious gastrointestinal (GI) adverse events including inflammation, bleeding, ulceration, and perforation of the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, or large intestine, which can be fatal. These serious adverse events can occur at any time, with or without warning symptoms, in patients treated with celecoxib capsules. Only one in five patients who develop a serious upper GI adverse event on NSAID therapy is symptomatic. Upper GI ulcers, gross bleeding, or perforation caused by NSAIDs occurred in approximately 1% of patients treated for 3-6 months, and in about 2%-4% of patients treated for one year. However, even short-term NSAID therapy is not without risk.

Risk Factors for GI Bleeding, Ulceration, and Perforation Patients with a prior history of peptic ulcer disease and/or GI bleeding who used NSAIDs had a greater than 10-fold increased risk for developing a GI bleed compared to patients without these risk factors. Other factors that increase the risk of GI bleeding in patients treated with NSAIDs include longer duration of NSAID therapy; concomitant use of oral corticosteroids, aspirin, anticoagulants; or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs); smoking; use of alcohol; older age; and poor general health status. Most postmarketing reports of fatal GI events occurred in elderly or debilitated patients. Additionally, patients with advanced liver disease and/or coagulopathy are at increased risk for GI bleeding.

Complicated and symptomatic ulcer rates were 0.78% at nine months for all patients in the CLASS trial, and 2.19% for the subgroup on low-dose ASA. Patients 65 years of age and older had an incidence of 1.40% at nine months, 3.06% when also taking ASA [see Clinical Studies (14.6)].

Strategies to Minimize the GI Risks in NSAID-treated patients: • Use the lowest effective dosage for the shortest possible duration. • Avoid administration of more than one NSAID at a time. • Avoid use in patients at higher risk unless benefits are expected to outweigh the increased risk of bleeding. For such patients, as well as those with active GI bleeding, consider alternate therapies other than NSAIDs. • Remain alert for signs and symptoms of GI ulceration and bleeding during NSAID therapy. • If a serious GI adverse event is suspected, promptly initiate evaluation and treatment, and discontinue celecoxib capsules until a serious GI adverse event is ruled out. • In the setting of concomitant use of low-dose aspirin for cardiac prophylaxis, monitor patients more closely for evidence of GI bleeding [see Drug Interactions (7)].

5.3 Hepatotoxicity

Elevations of ALT or AST (three or more times the upper limit of normal [ULN]) have been reported in approximately 1% of NSAID-treated patients in clinical trials. In addition, rare, sometimes fatal, cases of severe hepatic injury, including fulminant hepatitis, liver necrosis, and hepatic failure have been reported.

Elevations of ALT or AST (less than three times ULN) may occur in up to 15% of patients treated with NSAIDs including celecoxib.

In controlled clinical trials of celecoxib capsules, the incidence of borderline elevations (greater than or equal to 1.2 times and less than 3 times the upper limit of normal) of liver associated enzymes was 6% for celecoxib capsules and 5% for placebo, and approximately 0.2% of patients taking celecoxib capsules and 0.3% of patients taking placebo had notable elevations of ALT and AST.

Inform patients of the warning signs and symptoms of hepatotoxicity (e.g., nausea, fatigue, lethargy, diarrhea, pruritus, jaundice, right upper quadrant tenderness, and "flu-like" symptoms). If clinical signs and symptoms consistent with liver disease develop, or if systemic manifestations occur (e.g., eosinophilia, rash, etc.), discontinue celecoxib capsules immediately, and perform a clinical evaluation of the patient.

5.4 Hypertension

NSAIDs, including celecoxib capsules can lead to new onset of hypertension or worsening of preexisting hypertension, either of which may contribute to the increased incidence of CV events. Patients taking angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, thiazide diuretics or loop diuretics may have impaired response to these therapies when taking NSAIDs [see Drug Interactions (7)].

The rates of hypertension from the CLASS trial in the celecoxib capsules, ibuprofen and diclofenac-treated patients were 2.4%, 4.2% and 2.5%, respectively [see Clinical Studies (14.6)].

Monitor blood pressure (BP) during the initiation of NSAID treatment and throughout the course of therapy.

5.5 Heart Failure and Edema

The Coxib and traditional NSAID Trialists’ Collaboration meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials demonstrated an approximately twofold increase in hospitalizations for heart failure in COX-2 selective-treated patients and nonselective NSAID-treated patients compared to placebo-treated patients. In a Danish National Registry study of patients with heart failure, NSAID use increased the risk of MI, hospitalization for heart failure, and death.

Additionally, fluid retention and edema have been observed in some patients treated with NSAIDs. Use of celecoxib may blunt the CV effects of several therapeutic agents used to treat these medical conditions (e.g., diuretics, ACE inhibitors, or angiotensin receptor blockers [ARBs]) [see Drug Interactions (7)].

In the CLASS study [see Clinical Studies (14.6)], the Kaplan-Meier cumulative rates at 9 months of peripheral edema in patients on celecoxib capsules 400 mg twice daily (4-fold and 2-fold the recommended OA and RA doses, respectively), ibuprofen 800 mg three times daily and diclofenac 75 mg twice daily were 4.5%, 6.9% and 4.7%, respectively.

Avoid the use of celecoxib capsules in patients with severe heart failure unless the benefits are expected to outweigh the risk of worsening heart failure. If celecoxib capsules are used in patients with severe heart failure, monitor patients for signs of worsening heart failure.

5.6 Renal Toxicity and Hyperkalemia

Renal Toxicity Long-term administration of NSAIDs has resulted in renal papillary necrosis and other renal injury.

Renal toxicity has also been seen in patients in whom renal prostaglandins have a compensatory role in the maintenance of renal perfusion. In these patients, administration of an NSAID may cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation and, secondarily, in renal blood flow, which may precipitate overt renal decompensation. Patients at greatest risk of this reaction are those with impaired renal function, dehydration, hypovolemia, heart failure, liver dysfunction, those taking diuretics, ACE-inhibitors or the ARBs, and the elderly. Discontinuation of NSAID therapy is usually followed by recovery to the pretreatment state.

No information is available from controlled clinical studies regarding the use of celecoxib capsules in patients with advanced renal disease. The renal effects of celecoxib capsules may hasten the progression of renal dysfunction in patients with preexisting renal disease.

Correct volume status in dehydrated or hypovolemic patients prior to initiating celecoxib capsules. Monitor renal function in patients with renal or hepatic impairment, heart failure, dehydration, or hypovolemia during use of celecoxib capsules [see Drug Interactions (7)]. Avoid the use of celecoxib capsules in patients with advanced renal disease unless the benefits are expected to outweigh the risk of worsening renal function. If celecoxib capsules are used in patients with advanced renal disease, monitor patients for signs of worsening renal function.

Hyperkalemia Increases in serum potassium concentration, including hyperkalemia, have been reported with use of NSAIDs, even in some patients without renal impairment. In patients with normal renal function, these effects have been attributed to a hyporeninemic- hypoadosteronism state.

5.7 Anaphylactic Reactions

Celecoxib has been associated with anaphylactic reactions in patients with and without known hypersensitivity to celecoxib and in patients with aspirin sensitive asthma. Celecoxib capsules are a sulfonamide and both NSAIDs and sulfonamides may cause allergic type reactions including anaphylactic symptoms and life-threatening or less severe asthmatic episodes in certain susceptible people [see Contraindications (4) and Warnings and Precautions (5.8)].

Seek emergency help if any anaphylactic reaction occurs.

5.8 Exacerbation of Asthma Related to Aspirin Sensitivity

A subpopulation of patients with asthma may have aspirin-sensitive asthma which may include chronic rhinosinusitis complicated by nasal polyps; severe, potentially fatal bronchospasm; and/or intolerance to aspirin and other NSAIDs. Because cross-reactivity between aspirin and other NSAIDs has been reported in such aspirin-sensitive patients, celecoxib capsules are contraindicated in patients with this form of aspirin sensitivity [see Contraindications (4)]. When celecoxib capsules are used in patients with preexisting asthma (without known aspirin sensitivity), monitor patients for changes in the signs and symptoms of asthma.

5.9 Serious Skin Reactions

Serious skin reactions have occurred following treatment with celecoxib capsules, including erythema multiforme, exfoliative dermatitis, Stevens-Johnson Syndrome (SJS), toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS), and acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP). These serious events may occur without warning and can be fatal.

Inform patients about the signs and symptoms of serious skin reactions, and to discontinue the use of celecoxib capsules at the first appearance of skin rash or any other sign of hypersensitivity. Celecoxib capsules are contraindicated in patients with previous serious skin reactions to NSAIDs [see Contraindications (4)].

5.10 Premature Closure of Fetal Ductus Arteriosus

Celecoxib may cause premature closure of the ductus arteriosus. Avoid use of NSAIDs, including celecoxib capsules, in pregnant women starting at 30 weeks of gestation (third trimester) [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1)].

5.11 Hematologic Toxicity

Anemia has occurred in NSAID-treated patients. This may be due to occult or gross blood loss, fluid retention, or an incompletely described effect on erythropoiesis. If a patient treated with celecoxib capsules has any signs or symptoms of anemia, monitor hemoglobin or hematocrit.

In controlled clinical trials the incidence of anemia was 0.6% with celecoxib capsules and 0.4% with placebo. Patients on long-term treatment with celecoxib capsules should have their hemoglobin or hematocrit checked if they exhibit any signs or symptoms of anemia or blood loss.

NSAIDs, including celecoxib capsules, may increase the risk of bleeding events. Co-morbid conditions such as coagulation disorders or concomitant use of warfarin, other anticoagulants, antiplatelet agents (e.g., aspirin), serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) may increase this risk. Monitor these patients for signs of bleeding [see Drug Interactions (7)].

5.12 Masking of Inflammation and Fever

The pharmacological activity of celecoxib capsules in reducing inflammation, and possibly fever, may diminish the utility of diagnostic signs in detecting infections.

5.13 Laboratory Monitoring

Because serious GI bleeding, hepatotoxicity, and renal injury can occur without warning symptoms or signs, consider monitoring patients on long-term NSAID treatment with a CBC and a chemistry profile periodically [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2, 5.3,5.6)].

In controlled clinical trials, elevated BUN occurred more frequently in patients receiving celecoxib capsules compared with patients on placebo. This laboratory abnormality was also seen in patients who received comparator NSAIDs in these studies. The clinical significance of this abnormality has not been established.

5.14 Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC)

Because of the risk of disseminated intravascular coagulation with use of celecoxib capsules in pediatric patients with systemic onset JRA, monitor patients for signs and symptoms of abnormal clotting or bleeding, and inform patients and their caregivers to report symptoms as soon as possible.

The following adverse reactions are discussed in greater detail in other sections of the labeling: • Cardiovascular Thrombotic Events [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)] • GI Bleeding, Ulceration and Perforation [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)] • Hepatotoxicity [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)] • Hypertension [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)] • Heart Failure and Edema [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)] • Renal Toxicity and Hyperkalemia [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)] • Anaphylactic Reactions [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)] • Serious Skin Reactions [see Warnings and Precautions (5.9)] • Hematologic Toxicity [see Warnings and Precautions (5.11)]

6.1 Clinical Trials Experience

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice. The adverse reaction information from clinical trials does, however, provide a basis for identifying the adverse events that appear to be related to drug use and for approximating rates.

Of the celecoxib capsules-treated patients in the pre-marketing controlled clinical trials, approximately 4,250 were patients with OA, approximately 2,100 were patients with RA, and approximately 1,050 were patients with post-surgical pain. More than 8,500 patients received a total daily dose of celecoxib capsules of 200 mg (100 mg twice daily or 200 mg once daily) or more, including more than 400 treated at 800 mg (400 mg twice daily). Approximately 3,900 patients received celecoxib capsules at these doses for 6 months or more; approximately 2,300 of these have received it for 1 year or more and 124 of these have received it for 2 years or more.

Pre-marketing Controlled Arthritis Trials Table 1 lists all adverse events, regardless of causality, occurring in ≥2% of patients receiving celecoxib capsules from 12 controlled studies conducted in patients with OA or RA that included a placebo and/or a positive control group. Since these 12 trials were of different durations, and patients in the trials may not have been exposed for the same duration of time, these percentages do not capture cumulative rates of occurrence.

Table 1: Adverse Events Occurring in ≥2% of Celecoxib Patients from Pre-marketing Controlled Arthritis Trials

CBX = Celecoxib 100 mg to 200 mg twice daily or 200 mg once daily; NAP = Naproxen 500 mg twice daily; DCF = Diclofenac 75 mg twice daily; IBU = Ibuprofen 800 mg three times daily.

In placebo- or active-controlled clinical trials, the discontinuation rate due to adverse events was 7.1% for patients receiving celecoxib capsules and 6.1% for patients receiving placebo. Among the most common reasons for discontinuation due to adverse events in the celecoxib capsules treatment groups were dyspepsia and abdominal pain (cited as reasons for discontinuation in 0.8% and 0.7% of celecoxib capsules patients, respectively). Among patients receiving placebo, 0.6% discontinued due to dyspepsia and 0.6% withdrew due to abdominal pain.

The following adverse reactions occurred in 0.1 - 1.9% of patients treated with celecoxib capsules (100 mg to 200 mg twice daily or 200 mg once daily): Gastrointestinal: Constipation, diverticulitis, dysphagia, eructation, esophagitis, gastritis, gastroenteritis, gastroesophageal reflux, hemorrhoids, hiatal hernia, melena, dry mouth, stomatitis, tenesmus, vomiting Cardiovascular: Aggravated hypertension, angina pectoris, coronary artery disorder, myocardial infarction

General: Hypersensitivity, allergic reaction, chest pain, cyst NOS, edema generalized, face edema, fatigue, fever, hot flushes, influenza-like symptoms, pain, peripheral pain

Central, peripheral: Leg cramps, hypertonia, hypoesthesia,

nervous system: migraine, paresthesia, vertigo

Hearing and vestibular: Deafness, tinnitus Heart rate and rhythm: Palpitation, tachycardia Liver and biliary: Hepatic enzyme increased (including SGOT increased, SGPT increased)

Metabolic and nutritional: BUN increased, CPK increased, hypercholesterolemia, hyperglycemia, hypokalemia, NPN increased, creatinine increased, alkaline phosphatase increased, weight increased

Musculoskeletal: Arthralgia, arthrosis, myalgia, synovitis, tendinitis Platelets (bleeding or clotting): Ecchymosis, epistaxis, thrombocythemia,

Psychiatric: Anorexia, anxiety, appetite increased, depression, nervousness, somnolence

Hemic: Anemia Respiratory: Bronchitis, bronchospasm, bronchospasm aggravated, cough, dyspnea, laryngitis, pneumonia

Skin and appendages: Alopecia, dermatitis, photosensitivity reaction, pruritus, rash erythematous, rash maculopapular, skin disorder, skin dry, sweating increased, urticaria

Application site disorders: Cellulitis, dermatitis contact Urinary: Albuminuria, cystitis, dysuria, hematuria, micturition frequency, renal calculus

The following serious adverse events (causality not evaluated) occurred in
Gastrointestinal: Intestinal obstruction, intestinal perforation, gastrointestinal bleeding, colitis with bleeding, esophageal perforation, pancreatitis, ileus

General: Sepsis, sudden death Liver and biliary: Cholelithiasis Hemic and lymphatic: Thrombocytopenia Nervous: Ataxia, suicide [see Drug Interactions (7.1)] Renal: Acute renal failure

The Celecoxib Long-Term Arthritis Safety Study [see Special Studies (14.6)] Hematological Events: The incidence of clinically significant decreases in hemoglobin (>2 g/dL) was lower in patients on celecoxib capsules 400 mg twice daily (0.5%) compared to patients on either diclofenac 75 mg twice daily (1.3%) or ibuprofen 800 mg three times daily 1.9%. The lower incidence of events with celecoxib capsules was maintained with or without aspirin use [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.2)].

Withdrawals/Serious Adverse Events: Kaplan-Meier cumulative rates at 9 months for withdrawals due to adverse events for celecoxib capsules, diclofenac and ibuprofen were 24%, 29%, and 26%, respectively. Rates for serious adverse events (i.e., causing hospitalization or felt to be life-threatening or otherwise medically significant), regardless of causality, were not different across treatment groups (8%, 7%, and 8%, respectively).

Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis Study In a 12-week, double-blind, active-controlled study, 242 JRA patients 2 years to 17 years of age were treated with celecoxib or naproxen; 77 JRA patients were treated with celecoxib 3 mg/kg twice daily, 82 patients were treated with celecoxib 6 mg/kg twice daily, and 83 patients were treated with naproxen 7.5 mg/kg twice daily. The most commonly occurring (≥5%) adverse events in celecoxib treated patients were headache, fever (pyrexia), upper abdominal pain, cough, nasopharyngitis, abdominal pain, nausea, arthralgia, diarrhea and vomiting. The most commonly occurring (≥5%) adverse experiences for naproxen-treated patients were headache, nausea, vomiting, fever, upper abdominal pain, diarrhea, cough, abdominal pain, and dizziness (Table 2). Compared with naproxen, celecoxib at doses of 3 and 6 mg/kg twice daily had no observable deleterious effect on growth and development during the course of the 12-week double-blind study. There was no substantial difference in the number of clinical exacerbations of uveitis or systemic features of JRA among treatment groups.

In a 12-week, open-label extension of the double-blind study described above, 202 JRA patients were treated with celecoxib 6 mg/kg twice daily. The incidence of adverse events was similar to that observed during the double-blind study; no unexpected adverse events of clinical importance emerged.

Table 2: Adverse Events Occurring in ≥5% of JRA Patients in Any Treatment Group, by System Organ Class (% of patients with events)

* Abnormal laboratory tests, which include: Prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time, Bacteriuria NOS present, Blood creatine phosphokinase increased, Blood culture positive, Blood glucose increased, Blood pressure increased, Blood uric acid increased, Hematocrit decreased, Hematuria present, Hemoglobin decreased, Liver function tests NOS abnormal, Proteinuria present, Transaminase NOS increased, Urine analysis abnormal NOS

Other Pre-Approval Studies Adverse Events from Ankylosing Spondylitis Studies: A total of 378 patients were treated with celecoxib capsules in placebo- and active-controlled AS studies. Doses up to 400 mg once daily were studied. The types of adverse events reported in the AS studies were similar to those reported in the OA/RA studies.

Adverse Events from Analgesia and Dysmenorrhea Studies: Approximately 1,700 patients were treated with celecoxib capsules in analgesia and dysmenorrhea studies. All patients in post-oral surgery pain studies received a single dose of study medication. Doses up to 600 mg/day of celecoxib capsules were studied in primary dysmenorrhea and post-orthopedic surgery pain studies. The types of adverse events in the analgesia and dysmenorrhea studies were similar to those reported in arthritis studies. The only additional adverse event reported was post-dental extraction alveolar osteitis (dry socket) in the post-oral surgery pain studies.

The APC and PreSAP Trials Adverse reactions from long-term, placebo-controlled polyp prevention studies: Exposure to celecoxib capsules in the APC and PreSAP trials was 400 to 800 mg daily for up to 3 years [see Special Studies Adenomatous Polyp Prevention Studies (14.6)].

Some adverse reactions occurred in higher percentages of patients than in the arthritis pre-marketing trials (treatment durations up to 12 weeks; see Adverse events from celecoxib capsules pre-marketing controlled arthritis trials, above). The adverse reactions for which these differences in patients treated with celecoxib capsules were greater as compared to the arthritis pre-marketing trials were as follows:

The following additional adverse reactions occurred in ≥0.1% and
Nervous system disorders: Cerebral infarction Eye disorders: Vitreous floaters, conjunctival hemorrhage Ear and labyrinth: Labyrinthitis Cardiac disorders: Angina unstable, aortic valve incompetence, coronary artery atherosclerosis, sinus bradycardia, ventricular hypertrophy Vascular disorders: Deep vein thrombosis Reproductive system and breast disorders: Ovarian cyst Investigations: Blood potassium increased, blood sodium increased, blood testosterone decreased Injury, poisoning and procedural complications: Epicondylitis, tendon rupture

6.2 Postmarketing Experience

The following adverse reactions have been identified during post approval use of celecoxib capsules. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure

Cardiovascular: Vasculitis, deep venous thrombosis General: Anaphylactoid reaction, angioedema Liver and biliary: Liver necrosis, hepatitis, jaundice, hepatic failure Hemic and lymphatic: Agranulocytosis, aplastic anemia, pancytopenia, leucopenia Metabolic: Hypoglycemia, hyponatremia Nervous: Aseptic meningitis, ageusia, anosmia, fatal intracranial hemorrhage Renal: Interstitial nephritis

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Reference

This information is obtained from the National Institute of Health's Standard Packaging Label drug database.
"https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/"

While we update our database periodically, we cannot guarantee it is always updated to the latest version.

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Clonazepam Description Each single-scored tablet, for oral administration, contains 0.5 mg, 1 mg, or 2 mg Clonazepam, USP, a benzodiazepine. Each tablet also contains corn starch, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, and povidone. Clonazepam tablets USP 0.5 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake. Clonazepam tablets USP 1 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake, as well as FD&C Blue No. 1 Aluminum Lake. Chemically, Clonazepam, USP is 5-(o-chlorophenyl)-1,3-dihydro-7-nitro-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one. It is a light yellow crystalline powder. It has the following structural formula: C15H10ClN3O3 M.W. 315.72
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A total of 440 drugs (1549 brand and generic names) are known to interact with Imbruvica (ibrutinib). 228 major drug interactions (854 brand and generic names) 210 moderate drug interactions (691 brand and generic names) 2 minor drug interactions (4 brand and generic names) Show all medications in the database that may interact with Imbruvica (ibrutinib).