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Cephalexin

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Overview

What is Cephalexin?

Cephalexin, USP is a semisynthetic cephalosporin antibiotic intended for oral administration. It is 7-(D-α-Amino-α-phenylacetamido)-3-methyl-3-cephem-4-carboxylic acid monohydrate.

Cephalexin has the molecular formula CHNOS•HO and the molecular weight is 365.41.

Cephalexin has the following structural formula:

The nucleus of cephalexin is related to that of other cephalosporin antibiotics. The compound is a zwitterion; i.e., the molecule contains both a basic and an acidic group. The isoelectric point of cephalexin in water is approximately 4.5 to 5.

The crystalline form of cephalexin which is available is a monohydrate. It is a white crystalline solid having a bitter taste. Solubility in water is low at room temperature; 1 or 2 mg/mL may be dissolved readily, but higher concentrations are obtained with increasing difficulty.

The cephalosporins differ from penicillins in the structure of the bicyclic ring system. Cephalexin has a D-phenylglycyl group as substituent at the 7-amino position and an unsubstituted methyl group at the 3-position.

After mixing, each 5 mL of cephalexin for oral suspension, USP, will contain cephalexin monohydrate equivalent to 125 mg (360 μmol) or 250 mg (720 μmol) of cephalexin. The suspensions also contain the following inactive ingredients: strawberry powder, methylcellulose, sodium lauryl sulfate, sucrose and FD&C Red No. 40.

Cephalexin for oral suspension, USP is a white to off-white powder with strawberry flavor. After reconstitution a pink colored suspension is formed with strawberry flavor.



What does Cephalexin look like?



What are the available doses of Cephalexin?

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What should I talk to my health care provider before I take Cephalexin?

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How should I use Cephalexin?

Cephalexin for oral suspension is indicated for the treatment of the following infections when caused by susceptible strains of the designated microorganisms:

Respiratory tract infections caused by and (Penicillin is the usual drug of choice in the treatment and prevention of streptococcal infections, including the prophylaxis of rheumatic fever. Cephalexin is generally effective in the eradication of streptococci from the nasopharynx; however, substantial data establishing the efficacy of cephalexin in the subsequent prevention of rheumatic fever are not available at present.)

Otitis media due to , , , , and

Skin and skin structure infections caused by and/or

Bone infections caused by and/or

Genitourinary tract infections, including acute prostatitis, caused by , , and

Note

To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of cephalexin and other antibacterial drugs, cephalexin should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.

Cephalexin for oral suspension is administered orally.


What interacts with Cephalexin?

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What are the warnings of Cephalexin?

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What are the precautions of Cephalexin?

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What are the side effects of Cephalexin?

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What should I look out for while using Cephalexin?

Cephalexin for oral suspension is contraindicated in patients with known allergy to the cephalosporin group of antibiotics.

BEFORE THERAPY WITH CEPHALEXIN IS INSTITUTED, CAREFUL INQUIRY SHOULD BE MADE TO DETERMINE WHETHER THE PATIENT HAS HAD PREVIOUS HYPERSENSITIVITY REACTIONS TO CEPHALEXIN, CEPHALOSPORINS, PENICILLINS, OR OTHER DRUGS. IF THIS PRODUCT IS TO BE GIVEN TO PENICILLIN-SENSITIVE PATIENTS, CAUTION SHOULD BE EXERCISED BECAUSE CROSS-HYPERSENSITIVITY AMONG BETA-LACTAM ANTIBIOTICS HAS BEEN CLEARLY DOCUMENTED AND MAY OCCUR IN UP TO 10% OF PATIENTS WITH A HISTORY OF PENICILLIN ALLERGY. IF AN ALLERGIC REACTION TO CEPHALEXIN OCCURS, DISCONTINUE THE DRUG. SERIOUS ACUTE HYPERSENSITIVITY REACTIONS MAY REQUIRE TREATMENT WITH EPINEPHRINE AND OTHER EMERGENCY MEASURES, INCLUDING OXYGEN, INTRAVENOUS FLUIDS, INTRAVENOUS ANTIHISTAMINES, CORTICOSTEROIDS, PRESSOR AMINES AND AIRWAY MANAGEMENT, AS CLINICALLY INDICATED.

There is some clinical and laboratory evidence of partial cross-allergenicity of the penicillins and the cephalosporins. Patients have been reported to have had severe reactions (including anaphylaxis) to both drugs.

Any patient who has demonstrated some form of allergy, particularly to drugs, should receive antibiotics cautiously. No exception should be made with regard to cephalexin for oral suspension. Pseudomembranous colitis has been reported with nearly all antibacterial agents, including cephalexin, and may range from mild to life threatening. Therefore, it is important to consider this diagnosis in patients who present with diarrhea subsequent to the administration of antibacterial agents.

Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon and may permit overgrowth of clostridia. Studies indicate that a toxin produced by Clostridium difficile is a primary cause of “antibiotic-associated” colitis.

After the diagnosis of pseudomembranous colitis has been established, therapeutic measures should be initiated. Mild cases of pseudomembranous colitis usually respond to drug discontinuation alone. In moderate to severe cases, consideration should be given to management with fluids and electrolytes, protein supplementation, and treatment with an antibacterial drug clinically effective against colitis.


What might happen if I take too much Cephalexin?


How should I store and handle Cephalexin?

Store at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted to 15-30°C (59-86°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature].Keep out of reach of children.Store at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted to 15-30°C (59-86°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature].Keep out of reach of children.Cephalexin For Oral Suspension, USP, is a white to off-white powder with strawberry flavor. After reconstitution a pink colored suspension is formed with strawberry flavor and is available in: The 125 mg per 5 mL oral suspension is available as follows: The 250 mg per 5 mL oral suspension is available as follows: After mixing, store in a refrigerator. May be kept for 14 days without significant loss of potency. Shake well before using. Keep tightly closed. Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F). [see USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Cephalexin For Oral Suspension, USP, is a white to off-white powder with strawberry flavor. After reconstitution a pink colored suspension is formed with strawberry flavor and is available in: The 125 mg per 5 mL oral suspension is available as follows: The 250 mg per 5 mL oral suspension is available as follows: After mixing, store in a refrigerator. May be kept for 14 days without significant loss of potency. Shake well before using. Keep tightly closed. Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F). [see USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Cephalexin For Oral Suspension, USP, is a white to off-white powder with strawberry flavor. After reconstitution a pink colored suspension is formed with strawberry flavor and is available in: The 125 mg per 5 mL oral suspension is available as follows: The 250 mg per 5 mL oral suspension is available as follows: After mixing, store in a refrigerator. May be kept for 14 days without significant loss of potency. Shake well before using. Keep tightly closed. Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F). [see USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Cephalexin For Oral Suspension, USP, is a white to off-white powder with strawberry flavor. After reconstitution a pink colored suspension is formed with strawberry flavor and is available in: The 125 mg per 5 mL oral suspension is available as follows: The 250 mg per 5 mL oral suspension is available as follows: After mixing, store in a refrigerator. May be kept for 14 days without significant loss of potency. Shake well before using. Keep tightly closed. Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F). [see USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Cephalexin For Oral Suspension, USP, is a white to off-white powder with strawberry flavor. After reconstitution a pink colored suspension is formed with strawberry flavor and is available in: The 125 mg per 5 mL oral suspension is available as follows: The 250 mg per 5 mL oral suspension is available as follows: After mixing, store in a refrigerator. May be kept for 14 days without significant loss of potency. Shake well before using. Keep tightly closed. Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F). [see USP Controlled Room Temperature].


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Clinical Information

Chemical Structure

No Image found
Clinical Pharmacology

Cephalexin is acid stable and may be given without regard to meals. It is rapidly absorbed after oral administration. Following doses of 250 mg, 500 mg, and 1 g, average peak serum levels of approximately 9, 18, and 32 mcg/mL respectively were obtained at 1 hour. Measurable levels were present 6 hours after administration. Cephalexin is excreted in the urine by glomerular filtration and tubular secretion. Studies showed that over 90% of the drug was excreted unchanged in the urine within 8 hours. During this period, peak urine concentrations following the 250-mg, 500-mg, and 1-g doses were approximately 1000, 2200, and 5000 mcg/mL respectively.

Non-Clinical Toxicology
Cephalexin for oral suspension is contraindicated in patients with known allergy to the cephalosporin group of antibiotics.

BEFORE THERAPY WITH CEPHALEXIN IS INSTITUTED, CAREFUL INQUIRY SHOULD BE MADE TO DETERMINE WHETHER THE PATIENT HAS HAD PREVIOUS HYPERSENSITIVITY REACTIONS TO CEPHALEXIN, CEPHALOSPORINS, PENICILLINS, OR OTHER DRUGS. IF THIS PRODUCT IS TO BE GIVEN TO PENICILLIN-SENSITIVE PATIENTS, CAUTION SHOULD BE EXERCISED BECAUSE CROSS-HYPERSENSITIVITY AMONG BETA-LACTAM ANTIBIOTICS HAS BEEN CLEARLY DOCUMENTED AND MAY OCCUR IN UP TO 10% OF PATIENTS WITH A HISTORY OF PENICILLIN ALLERGY. IF AN ALLERGIC REACTION TO CEPHALEXIN OCCURS, DISCONTINUE THE DRUG. SERIOUS ACUTE HYPERSENSITIVITY REACTIONS MAY REQUIRE TREATMENT WITH EPINEPHRINE AND OTHER EMERGENCY MEASURES, INCLUDING OXYGEN, INTRAVENOUS FLUIDS, INTRAVENOUS ANTIHISTAMINES, CORTICOSTEROIDS, PRESSOR AMINES AND AIRWAY MANAGEMENT, AS CLINICALLY INDICATED.

There is some clinical and laboratory evidence of partial cross-allergenicity of the penicillins and the cephalosporins. Patients have been reported to have had severe reactions (including anaphylaxis) to both drugs.

Any patient who has demonstrated some form of allergy, particularly to drugs, should receive antibiotics cautiously. No exception should be made with regard to cephalexin for oral suspension. Pseudomembranous colitis has been reported with nearly all antibacterial agents, including cephalexin, and may range from mild to life threatening. Therefore, it is important to consider this diagnosis in patients who present with diarrhea subsequent to the administration of antibacterial agents.

Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon and may permit overgrowth of clostridia. Studies indicate that a toxin produced by Clostridium difficile is a primary cause of “antibiotic-associated” colitis.

After the diagnosis of pseudomembranous colitis has been established, therapeutic measures should be initiated. Mild cases of pseudomembranous colitis usually respond to drug discontinuation alone. In moderate to severe cases, consideration should be given to management with fluids and electrolytes, protein supplementation, and treatment with an antibacterial drug clinically effective against colitis.

Prescribing cephalexin for oral suspension in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria.

Patients should be followed carefully so that any side effects or unusual manifestations of drug idiosyncrasy may be detected. If an allergic reaction to cephalexin for oral suspension occurs, the drug should be discontinued and the patient treated with the usual agents (e.g., epinephrine or other pressor amines, antihistamines, or corticosteroids).

Prolonged use of cephalexin for oral suspension may result in the overgrowth of nonsusceptible organisms. Careful observation of the patient is essential. If superinfection occurs during therapy, appropriate measures should be taken.

Positive direct Coombs' tests have been reported during treatment with the cephalosporin antibiotics. In hematologic studies or in transfusion cross-matching procedures when antiglobulin tests are performed on the minor side or in Coombs' testing of newborns whose mothers have received cephalosporin antibiotics before parturition, it should be recognized that a positive Coombs' test may be due to the drug.

Cephalexin for oral suspension should be administered with caution in the presence of markedly impaired renal function. Under such conditions, careful clinical observation and laboratory studies should be made because safe dosage may be lower than that usually recommended.

Indicated surgical procedures should be performed in conjunction with antibiotic therapy.

Broad-spectrum antibiotics should be prescribed with caution in individuals with a history of gastrointestinal disease, particularly colitis.

Cephalosporins may be associated with a fall in prothrombin activity. Those at risk include patients with renal or hepatic impairment, or poor nutritional state, as well as patients receiving a protracted course of antimicrobial therapy, and patients previously stabilized on anticoagulant therapy. Prothrombin time should be monitored in patients at risk and exogenous vitamin K administered as indicated.

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Reference

This information is obtained from the National Institute of Health's Standard Packaging Label drug database.
"https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/"

While we update our database periodically, we cannot guarantee it is always updated to the latest version.

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Professional

Clonazepam Description Each single-scored tablet, for oral administration, contains 0.5 mg, 1 mg, or 2 mg Clonazepam, USP, a benzodiazepine. Each tablet also contains corn starch, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, and povidone. Clonazepam tablets USP 0.5 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake. Clonazepam tablets USP 1 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake, as well as FD&C Blue No. 1 Aluminum Lake. Chemically, Clonazepam, USP is 5-(o-chlorophenyl)-1,3-dihydro-7-nitro-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one. It is a light yellow crystalline powder. It has the following structural formula: C15H10ClN3O3 M.W. 315.72
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Tips

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Interactions

Interactions

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