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Chlordiazepoxide Hydrochloride/Clidinium Bromide

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Overview

What is Chlordiazepoxide Hydrochloride/Clidinium Bromide?

Chlordiazepoxide Hydrochloride/Clidinium Bromide combines in a single capsule formulation the antianxiety action of chlordiazepoxide hydrochloride and the anticholinergic/spasmolytic effects of clidinium bromide.

Each Chlordiazepoxide Hydrochloride/Clidinium Bromide capsule contains active ingredients 5 mg chlordiazepoxide hydrochloride and 2.5 mg clidinium bromide. Each capsule also contains inactive ingredients lactose monohydrate, pregelatinized starch, talc. Gelatin capsule shells may contain titanium dioxide with the following dye systems: D&C Yellow #10, FD&C Green #3 and gelatin.

Chlordiazepoxide hydrochloride is a versatile, therapeutic agent of proven value for the relief of anxiety and tension. It is indicated when anxiety, tension or apprehension are significant components of the clinical profile. It is among the safer of the effective psychopharmacologic compounds.

Chlordiazepoxide hydrochloride is 7-chloro-2-methylamino-5-phenyl-3H-1,4-benzodiazepine 4-oxide hydrochloride. A colorless, crystalline substance, it is soluble in water. It is unstable in solution and the powder must be protected from light. The molecular weight is 336.22. The structural formula of chlordiazepoxide hydrochloride is as follows:

Clidinium bromide is a synthetic anticholinergic agent which has been shown in experimental and clinical studies to have a pronounced antispasmodic and antisecretory effect on the gastrointestinal tract. Structurally clidinium bromide is:



What does Chlordiazepoxide Hydrochloride/Clidinium Bromide look like?



What are the available doses of Chlordiazepoxide Hydrochloride/Clidinium Bromide?

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What should I talk to my health care provider before I take Chlordiazepoxide Hydrochloride/Clidinium Bromide?

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How should I use Chlordiazepoxide Hydrochloride/Clidinium Bromide?

Chlordiazepoxide Hydrochloride/Clidinium Bromide is indicated to control the emotional and somatic factors in gastrointestinal disorders. Chlordiazepoxide Hydrochloride/Clidinium Bromide may also be used as adjunctive therapy in the treatment of peptic ulcer and in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (irritable colon, spastic colon, mucous colitis) and acute enterocolitis.

Because of the varied individual responses to tranquilizers and anticholinergics, the optimum dosage of Chlordiazepoxide Hydrochloride/Clidinium Bromide varies with the diagnosis and response of the individual patient. The dosage, therefore, should be individualized for maximum beneficial effects. The usual maintenance dose is 1 or 2 capsules, 3 or 4 times a day administered before meals and at bedtime.


What interacts with Chlordiazepoxide Hydrochloride/Clidinium Bromide?

Chlordiazepoxide Hydrochloride/Clidinium Bromide is contraindicated in the presence of glaucoma (since the anticholinergic component may produce some degree of mydriasis) and in patients with prostatic hypertrophy and benign bladder neck obstruction. It is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to chlordiazepoxide hydrochloride and/or clidinium bromide.



What are the warnings of Chlordiazepoxide Hydrochloride/Clidinium Bromide?

Symptoms associated with serotonin syndrome may include the following combination of signs and symptoms: mental status changes (e.g., agitation, hallucinations, delirium, and coma), autonomic instability (e.g., tachycardia, labile blood pressure, dizziness, diaphoresis, flushing, hyperthermia), neuromuscular symptoms (e.g., tremor, rigidity, myoclonus, hyperreflexia, incoordination), seizures, with or without gastrointestinal symptoms (e.g., nausea, vomiting, diarrhea). Patients should be monitored for the emergence of serotonin syndrome, especially with concomitant use of ondansetron and other serotonergic drugs. If symptoms of serotonin syndrome occur, discontinue ondansetron and initiate supportive treatment. Patients should be informed of the increased risk of serotonin syndrome, especially if ondansetron is used concomitantly with other serotonergic drugs (see and ).

Concomitant use of benzodiazepines, including Chlordiazepoxide Hydrochloride/Clidinium Bromide, and opioids may result in profound sedation, respiratory depression, coma, and death. Because of these risks, reserve concomitant prescribing of these drugs for use in patients for who alternative treatment options are inadequate.

Observational studies have demonstrated that concomitant use of opioid analgesics and benzodiazepines increases the risk of drug-related mortality compared to use of opioids alone. If a decision is made to prescribe Chlordiazepoxide Hydrochloride/Clidinium Bromide capsules concomitantly with opioids, prescribe the lowest effective dosages and minimum durations of concomitant use, and follow patients closely for signs and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation.

Advise both patients and caregivers about the risks of respiratory depression and sedation when Chlordiazepoxide Hydrochloride/Clidinium Bromide is used with opioids (see ).

As in the case of other preparations containing CNS-acting drugs, patients receiving Chlordiazepoxide Hydrochloride/Clidinium Bromide should be cautioned about possible combined effects with opioids, alcohol and other CNS depressants. For the same reason, they should be cautioned against hazardous occupations requiring complete mental alertness, such as operating machinery or driving a motor vehicle.

Usage in Pregnancy

An increased risk of congenital malformations associated with the use of minor tranquilizers (chlordiazepoxide, diazepam and meprobamate) during the first trimester of pregnancy has been suggested in several studies. Because use of these drugs is rarely a matter of urgency, their use during this period should almost always be avoided. The possibility that a woman of childbearing potential may be pregnant at the time of institution of therapy should be considered. Patients should be advised that if they become pregnant during therapy or intend to become pregnant they should communicate with their physicians about the desirability of discontinuing the drug.

As with all anticholinergic drugs, an inhibiting effect on lactation may occur (see ).


What are the precautions of Chlordiazepoxide Hydrochloride/Clidinium Bromide?

In debilitated patients, it is recommended that the dosage be limited to the smallest effective amount to preclude the development of ataxia, oversedation or confusion (not more than 2 Chlordiazepoxide Hydrochloride/Clidinium Bromide capsules per day initially, to be increased gradually as needed and tolerated). In general, the concomitant administration of Chlordiazepoxide Hydrochloride/Clidinium Bromide and other psychotropic agents is not recommended. If such combination therapy seems indicated, careful consideration should be given to the pharmacology of the agents to be employed - particularly when the known potentiating compounds such as the MAO inhibitors and phenothiazines are to be used. The usual precautions in treating patients with impaired renal or hepatic function should be observed.

Paradoxical reactions to chlordiazepoxide hydrochloride, e.g., excitement, stimulation and acute rage, have been reported in psychiatric patients and should be watched for during Chlordiazepoxide Hydrochloride/Clidinium Bromide therapy. The usual precautions are indicated when chlordiazepoxide hydrochloride is used in the treatment of anxiety states where there is any evidence of impending depression; it should be borne in mind that suicidal tendencies may be present and protective measures may be necessary. Although clinical studies have not established a cause and effect relationship, physicians should be aware that variable effects on blood coagulation have been reported very rarely in patients receiving oral anticoagulants and chlordiazepoxide hydrochloride.

Information for Patients

Inform patients and caregivers that potentially fatal additive effects may occur if Chlordiazepoxide Hydrochloride/Clidinium Bromide is used with opioids or other CNS depressants, including alcohol, and not to use these concomitantly unless supervised by a health care provider (see and ).

To assure the safe and effective use of benzodiazepines, patients should be informed that, since benzodiazepines may produce psychological and physical dependence, it is advisable that they consult with their physician before either increasing the dose or abruptly discontinuing this drug.

Drug Interactions

The concomitant use of benzodiazepines and opioids increases the risk of respiratory depression because of actions at different receptor sites in the CNS that control respiration. Benzodiazepines interact at GABAA sites and opioids interact primarily at mu receptors. When benzodiazepines and opioids are combined, the potential for benzodiazepines to significantly worsen opioid-related respiratory depression exists. Limit dosage and duration of concomitant use of benzodiazepines and opioids, and follow patients closely for respiratory depression and sedation.

Pediatric Use

Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established.

Geriatric Use

Geriatric subjects may be particularly prone to experiencing drowsiness, ataxia and confusion while receiving Chlordiazepoxide Hydrochloride/Clidinium Bromide. These effects can usually be avoided with proper dosage adjustment, although they have occasionally been observed even at the lower dosage ranges. Dosing in geriatric subjects should be initiated cautiously (no more than 2 capsules per day) and increased gradually if needed and tolerated (see ). Chlordiazepoxide Hydrochloride/Clidinium Bromide is contraindicated in the presence of glaucoma, prostatic hypertrophy and benign bladder neck obstruction (see ).


What are the side effects of Chlordiazepoxide Hydrochloride/Clidinium Bromide?

No side effects or manifestation not seen with either compound alone have been reported with the administration of Chlordiazepoxide Hydrochloride/Clidinium Bromide. However, since the capsule contains chlordiazepoxide hydrochloride and clidinium bromide, the possibility of untoward effects which may be seen with either of these two compounds cannot be excluded.

When chlordiazepoxide hydrochloride has been used alone the necessity of discontinuing therapy because of undesirable effects has been rare. Drowsiness, ataxia and confusion have been reported in some patients – particularly the elderly and debilitated. While these effects can be avoided in almost all instances by proper dosage adjustment, they have occasionally been observed at the lower dosage ranges. In a few instances syncope has been reported.

Other adverse reactions reported during therapy with chlordiazepoxide hydrochloride include isolated instances of skin eruptions, edema, minor menstrual irregularities, nausea and constipation, extrapyramidal symptoms, as well as increased and decreased libido. Such side effects have been infrequent and are generally controlled with reduction of dosage. Changes in EEG patterns (low-voltage fast activity) have been observed in patients during and after chlordiazepoxide hydrochloride treatment.

Blood dyscrasias, including agranulocytosis, jaundice and hepatic dysfunction have occasionally been reported during therapy with chlordiazepoxide hydrochloride. When chlordiazepoxide hydrochloride treatment is protracted, periodic blood counts and liver function tests are advisable.

Adverse effects reported with use of Chlordiazepoxide Hydrochloride/Clidinium Bromide are those typical of anticholinergic agents, i.e., dryness of the mouth, blurring of vision, urinary hesitancy and constipation. Constipation has occurred most often when Chlordiazepoxide Hydrochloride/Clidinium Bromide therapy has been combined with other spasmolytic agents and/or low residue diet.

To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Virtus Pharmaceuticals OPCO II, LLC at 1-855-255-6076 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch.


What should I look out for while using Chlordiazepoxide Hydrochloride/Clidinium Bromide?

Chlordiazepoxide Hydrochloride/Clidinium Bromide is contraindicated in the presence of glaucoma (since the anticholinergic component may produce some degree of mydriasis) and in patients with prostatic hypertrophy and benign bladder neck obstruction. It is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to chlordiazepoxide hydrochloride and/or clidinium bromide.

Concomitant use of benzodiazepines, including Chlordiazepoxide Hydrochloride/Clidinium Bromide, and opioids may result in profound sedation, respiratory depression, coma, and death. Because of these risks, reserve concomitant prescribing of these drugs for use in patients for who alternative treatment options are inadequate.

Observational studies have demonstrated that concomitant use of opioid analgesics and benzodiazepines increases the risk of drug-related mortality compared to use of opioids alone. If a decision is made to prescribe Chlordiazepoxide Hydrochloride/Clidinium Bromide capsules concomitantly with opioids, prescribe the lowest effective dosages and minimum durations of concomitant use, and follow patients closely for signs and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation.

Advise both patients and caregivers about the risks of respiratory depression and sedation when Chlordiazepoxide Hydrochloride/Clidinium Bromide is used with opioids (see ).

As in the case of other preparations containing CNS-acting drugs, patients receiving Chlordiazepoxide Hydrochloride/Clidinium Bromide should be cautioned about possible combined effects with opioids, alcohol and other CNS depressants. For the same reason, they should be cautioned against hazardous occupations requiring complete mental alertness, such as operating machinery or driving a motor vehicle.


What might happen if I take too much Chlordiazepoxide Hydrochloride/Clidinium Bromide?

Manifestations of chlordiazepoxide hydrochloride overdosage include somnolence, confusion, coma and diminished reflexes. Respiration, pulse and blood pressure should be monitored, as in all cases of drug overdosage, although, in general, these effects have been minimal following chlordiazepoxide hydrochloride overdosage.

While the signs and symptoms of Chlordiazepoxide Hydrochloride/Clidinium Bromide overdosage may be produced by either of its components, usually such symptoms will be overshadowed by the anticholinergic actions of clidinium bromide. The symptoms of overdosage of clidinium bromide are excessive dryness of mouth, blurring of vision, urinary hesitancy and constipation.

General supportive measures should be employed, along with immediate gastric lavage. Administer physostigmine 0.5 to 2 mg at a rate of no more than 1 mg per minute. This may be repeated in 1 to 4 mg doses if arrhythmias, convulsions or deep coma recur. Intravenous fluids should be administered and an adequate airway maintained. Hypotension may be combated by the use of levarterenol or metaraminol. Methylphenidate or caffeine and sodium benzoate may be given to combat CNS-depressive effects. Dialysis is of limited value. Should excitation occur, barbiturates should not be used. As with the management of intentional overdosage with any drug, it should be borne in mind that multiple agents may have been ingested.

Withdrawal symptoms of the barbiturate type have occurred after the discontinuation of benzodiazepines (see ).


How should I store and handle Chlordiazepoxide Hydrochloride/Clidinium Bromide?

ArrayChlordiazepoxide Hydrochloride/Clidinium Bromide capsules are light green opaque capsules with "VP302" imprinted on the cap of capsule, each containing 5 mg chlordiazepoxide hydrochloride and 2.5 mg clidinium bromide.Bottle of 100 capsules (NDC 76439-302-10).Rx onlyChlordiazepoxide Hydrochloride/Clidinium Bromide capsules are light green opaque capsules with "VP302" imprinted on the cap of capsule, each containing 5 mg chlordiazepoxide hydrochloride and 2.5 mg clidinium bromide.Bottle of 100 capsules (NDC 76439-302-10).Rx onlyChlordiazepoxide Hydrochloride/Clidinium Bromide capsules are light green opaque capsules with "VP302" imprinted on the cap of capsule, each containing 5 mg chlordiazepoxide hydrochloride and 2.5 mg clidinium bromide.Bottle of 100 capsules (NDC 76439-302-10).Rx only


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Clinical Information

Chemical Structure

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Clinical Pharmacology

Non-Clinical Toxicology
Chlordiazepoxide Hydrochloride/Clidinium Bromide is contraindicated in the presence of glaucoma (since the anticholinergic component may produce some degree of mydriasis) and in patients with prostatic hypertrophy and benign bladder neck obstruction. It is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to chlordiazepoxide hydrochloride and/or clidinium bromide.

Concomitant use of benzodiazepines, including Chlordiazepoxide Hydrochloride/Clidinium Bromide, and opioids may result in profound sedation, respiratory depression, coma, and death. Because of these risks, reserve concomitant prescribing of these drugs for use in patients for who alternative treatment options are inadequate.

Observational studies have demonstrated that concomitant use of opioid analgesics and benzodiazepines increases the risk of drug-related mortality compared to use of opioids alone. If a decision is made to prescribe Chlordiazepoxide Hydrochloride/Clidinium Bromide capsules concomitantly with opioids, prescribe the lowest effective dosages and minimum durations of concomitant use, and follow patients closely for signs and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation.

Advise both patients and caregivers about the risks of respiratory depression and sedation when Chlordiazepoxide Hydrochloride/Clidinium Bromide is used with opioids (see ).

As in the case of other preparations containing CNS-acting drugs, patients receiving Chlordiazepoxide Hydrochloride/Clidinium Bromide should be cautioned about possible combined effects with opioids, alcohol and other CNS depressants. For the same reason, they should be cautioned against hazardous occupations requiring complete mental alertness, such as operating machinery or driving a motor vehicle.

The concomitant use of benzodiazepines and opioids increases the risk of respiratory depression because of actions at different receptor sites in the CNS that control respiration. Benzodiazepines interact at GABAA sites and opioids interact primarily at mu receptors. When benzodiazepines and opioids are combined, the potential for benzodiazepines to significantly worsen opioid-related respiratory depression exists. Limit dosage and duration of concomitant use of benzodiazepines and opioids, and follow patients closely for respiratory depression and sedation.

In debilitated patients, it is recommended that the dosage be limited to the smallest effective amount to preclude the development of ataxia, oversedation or confusion (not more than 2 Chlordiazepoxide Hydrochloride/Clidinium Bromide capsules per day initially, to be increased gradually as needed and tolerated). In general, the concomitant administration of Chlordiazepoxide Hydrochloride/Clidinium Bromide and other psychotropic agents is not recommended. If such combination therapy seems indicated, careful consideration should be given to the pharmacology of the agents to be employed - particularly when the known potentiating compounds such as the MAO inhibitors and phenothiazines are to be used. The usual precautions in treating patients with impaired renal or hepatic function should be observed.

Paradoxical reactions to chlordiazepoxide hydrochloride, e.g., excitement, stimulation and acute rage, have been reported in psychiatric patients and should be watched for during Chlordiazepoxide Hydrochloride/Clidinium Bromide therapy. The usual precautions are indicated when chlordiazepoxide hydrochloride is used in the treatment of anxiety states where there is any evidence of impending depression; it should be borne in mind that suicidal tendencies may be present and protective measures may be necessary. Although clinical studies have not established a cause and effect relationship, physicians should be aware that variable effects on blood coagulation have been reported very rarely in patients receiving oral anticoagulants and chlordiazepoxide hydrochloride.

No side effects or manifestation not seen with either compound alone have been reported with the administration of Chlordiazepoxide Hydrochloride/Clidinium Bromide. However, since the capsule contains chlordiazepoxide hydrochloride and clidinium bromide, the possibility of untoward effects which may be seen with either of these two compounds cannot be excluded.

When chlordiazepoxide hydrochloride has been used alone the necessity of discontinuing therapy because of undesirable effects has been rare. Drowsiness, ataxia and confusion have been reported in some patients – particularly the elderly and debilitated. While these effects can be avoided in almost all instances by proper dosage adjustment, they have occasionally been observed at the lower dosage ranges. In a few instances syncope has been reported.

Other adverse reactions reported during therapy with chlordiazepoxide hydrochloride include isolated instances of skin eruptions, edema, minor menstrual irregularities, nausea and constipation, extrapyramidal symptoms, as well as increased and decreased libido. Such side effects have been infrequent and are generally controlled with reduction of dosage. Changes in EEG patterns (low-voltage fast activity) have been observed in patients during and after chlordiazepoxide hydrochloride treatment.

Blood dyscrasias, including agranulocytosis, jaundice and hepatic dysfunction have occasionally been reported during therapy with chlordiazepoxide hydrochloride. When chlordiazepoxide hydrochloride treatment is protracted, periodic blood counts and liver function tests are advisable.

Adverse effects reported with use of Chlordiazepoxide Hydrochloride/Clidinium Bromide are those typical of anticholinergic agents, i.e., dryness of the mouth, blurring of vision, urinary hesitancy and constipation. Constipation has occurred most often when Chlordiazepoxide Hydrochloride/Clidinium Bromide therapy has been combined with other spasmolytic agents and/or low residue diet.

To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Virtus Pharmaceuticals OPCO II, LLC at 1-855-255-6076 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch.

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Reference

This information is obtained from the National Institute of Health's Standard Packaging Label drug database.
"https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/"

While we update our database periodically, we cannot guarantee it is always updated to the latest version.

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Clonazepam Description Each single-scored tablet, for oral administration, contains 0.5 mg, 1 mg, or 2 mg Clonazepam, USP, a benzodiazepine. Each tablet also contains corn starch, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, and povidone. Clonazepam tablets USP 0.5 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake. Clonazepam tablets USP 1 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake, as well as FD&C Blue No. 1 Aluminum Lake. Chemically, Clonazepam, USP is 5-(o-chlorophenyl)-1,3-dihydro-7-nitro-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one. It is a light yellow crystalline powder. It has the following structural formula: C15H10ClN3O3 M.W. 315.72
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Interactions

Interactions

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