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colistimethate

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Overview

What is Coly-Mycin?

Coly-Mycin® M Parenteral (Colistimethate for Injection, USP) is a sterile parenteral antibiotic product which, when reconstituted (see ), is suitable for intramuscular or intravenous administration.

Each vial contains colistimethate sodium or pentasodium colistinmethanesulfonate (150 mg colistin base activity).

Colistimethate sodium is a polypeptide antibiotic with an approximate molecular weight of 1750. The empirical formula is CHNNaOS and the structural formula is represented below:



What does Coly-Mycin look like?



What are the available doses of Coly-Mycin?

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What should I talk to my health care provider before I take Coly-Mycin?

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How should I use Coly-Mycin?

Coly-Mycin M Parenteral is indicated for the treatment of acute or chronic infections due to sensitive strains of certain gram-negative bacilli. It is particularly indicated when the infection is caused by sensitive strains of . This antibiotic is not indicated for infections due to or . Coly-Mycin M Parenteral has proven clinically effective in treatment of infections due to the following gram-negative organisms:

Coly-Mycin M Parenteral may be used to initiate therapy in serious infections that are suspected to be due to gram-negative organisms and in the treatment of infections due to susceptible gram-negative pathogenic bacilli.

To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of Coly-Mycin M and other antibacterial drugs, Coly-Mycin M should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.

Important:


What interacts with Coly-Mycin?

The use of Coly-Mycin M Parenteral is contraindicated for patients with a history of sensitivity to the drug or any of its components.



What are the warnings of Coly-Mycin?

Cases of tinnitus and reversible or irreversible hearing impairment and deafness have been reported. Reports usually indicate that FUROSEMIDE TABLET ototoxicity is associated with rapid injection, severe renal impairment, the use of higher than recommended doses, hypoproteinemia or concomitant therapy with aminoglycoside antibiotics, ethacrynic acid, or other ototoxic drugs. If the physician elects to use high dose parenteral therapy, controlled intravenous infusion is advisable (for adults, an infusion rate not exceeding 4 mg FUROSEMIDE TABLET per minute has been used). (See

Maximum daily dose calculated from colistin base activity should not exceed 5 mg/kg/day with normal renal function.

Transient neurological disturbances may occur. These include circumoral paresthesia or numbness, tingling or formication of the extremities, generalized pruritus, vertigo, dizziness, and slurring of speech. For these reasons, patients should be warned not to drive vehicles or use hazardous machinery while on therapy. Reduction of dosage may alleviate symptoms. Therapy need not be discontinued, but such patients should be observed with particular care.

Nephrotoxicity can occur and is probably a dose-dependent effect of colistimethate sodium. These manifestations of nephrotoxicity are reversible following discontinuation of the antibiotic.

Overdosage can result in renal insufficiency, muscle weakness, and apnea (see section). See subsection for use concomitantly with other antibiotics and curariform drugs.

Respiratory arrest has been reported following intramuscular administration of colistimethate sodium. Impaired renal function increases the possibility of apnea and neuromuscular blockade following administration of colistimethate sodium. Therefore, it is important to follow recommended dosing guidelines. See section for use in renal impairment.

If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibiotic use not directed against may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibiotic treatment of , and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.


What are the precautions of Coly-Mycin?

General

Since Coly-Mycin M Parenteral is eliminated mainly by renal excretion, it should be used with caution when the possibility of impaired renal function exists. The decline in renal function with advanced age should be considered.

When actual renal impairment is present, Coly-Mycin M Parenteral may be used, but the greatest caution should be exercised and the dosage should be reduced in proportion to the extent of the impairment. Administration of amounts of Coly-Mycin M Parenteral in excess of renal excretory capacity will lead to high serum levels and can result in further impairment of renal function, initiating a cycle which, if not recognized, can lead to acute renal insufficiency, renal shutdown, and further concentration of the antibiotic to toxic levels in the body. At this point, interference of nerve transmission at neuromuscular junctions may occur and result in muscle weakness and apnea (see section).

Signs indicating the development of impaired renal function include: diminishing urine output, rising BUN and serum creatinine and decreased creatinine clearance. Therapy with Coly-Mycin M Parenteral should be discontinued immediately if signs of impaired renal function occur. However, if it is necessary to reinstate the drug, dosing should be adjusted accordingly after drug plasma levels have fallen (see section).

Prescribing Coly-Mycin M in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria.

Drug Interactions

Certain other antibiotics (aminoglycosides and polymyxin) have also been reported to interfere with the nerve transmission at the neuromuscular junction. Based on this reported activity, they should not be given concomitantly with Coly-Mycin M Parenteral except with the greatest caution.

Curariform muscle relaxants (e.g., tubocurarine) and other drugs, including ether, succinylcholine, gallamine, decamethonium and sodium citrate, potentiate the neuromuscular blocking effect and should be used with extreme caution in patients being treated with Coly-Mycin M Parenteral.

Sodium cephalothin may enhance the nephrotoxicity of Coly-Mycin M Parenteral. The concomitant use of sodium cephalothin and Coly-Mycin M Parenteral should be avoided.

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

Long-term animal carcinogenicity studies and genetic toxicology studies have not been performed with colistimethate sodium. There were no adverse effects on fertility or reproduction in rats at doses of 9.3 mg/kg/day (0.30 times the maximum daily human dose when based on mg/m).

Pregnancy

Nursing Mothers

It is not known whether colistimethate sodium is excreted in human breast milk. However, colistin sulphate is excreted in human breast milk. Therefore, caution should be exercised when colistimethate sodium is administered to nursing women.

Geriatric Use

Clinical studies of colistimethate sodium did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy. This drug is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of toxic reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function.

Pediatric Use

In clinical studies, colistimethate sodium was administered to the pediatric population (neonates, infants, children and adolescents). Although adverse reactions appear to be similar in the adult and pediatric populations, subjective symptoms of toxicity may not be reported by pediatric patients. Close clinical monitoring of pediatric patients is recommended.

Information for Patients

Patients should be counseled that antibacterial drugs including Coly-Mycin M should only be used to treat bacterial infections. They do not treat viral infections (e.g., the common cold). When Coly-Mycin M is prescribed to treat a bacterial infection, patients should be told that although it is common to feel better early in the course of therapy, the medication should be taken exactly as directed. Skipping doses or not completing the full course of therapy may (1) decrease the effectiveness of the immediate treatment and (2) increase the likelihood that bacteria will develop resistance and will not be treatable by Coly-Mycin M or other antibacterial drugs in the future.

Diarrhea is a common problem caused by antibiotics which usually ends when the antibiotic is discontinued. Sometimes after starting treatment with antibiotics, patients can develop watery and bloody stools (with or without stomach cramps and fever) even as late as two or more months after having taken the last dose of the antibiotic. If this occurs, patients should contact their physician as soon as possible.


What are the side effects of Coly-Mycin?

The following adverse reactions have been reported:

Gastrointestinal:

Nervous System:

Integumentary:

Body as a Whole:

Laboratory Deviations:

Respiratory System:

Renal System:

For medical advice about adverse reactions contact your medical professional. To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Par Pharmaceutical at 1-800-828-9393 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch.


What should I look out for while using Coly-Mycin?

The use of Coly-Mycin M Parenteral is contraindicated for patients with a history of sensitivity to the drug or any of its components.

Maximum daily dose calculated from colistin base activity should not exceed 5 mg/kg/day with normal renal function.

Transient neurological disturbances may occur. These include circumoral paresthesia or numbness, tingling or formication of the extremities, generalized pruritus, vertigo, dizziness, and slurring of speech. For these reasons, patients should be warned not to drive vehicles or use hazardous machinery while on therapy. Reduction of dosage may alleviate symptoms. Therapy need not be discontinued, but such patients should be observed with particular care.

Nephrotoxicity can occur and is probably a dose-dependent effect of colistimethate sodium. These manifestations of nephrotoxicity are reversible following discontinuation of the antibiotic.

Overdosage can result in renal insufficiency, muscle weakness, and apnea (see section). See subsection for use concomitantly with other antibiotics and curariform drugs.

Respiratory arrest has been reported following intramuscular administration of colistimethate sodium. Impaired renal function increases the possibility of apnea and neuromuscular blockade following administration of colistimethate sodium. Therefore, it is important to follow recommended dosing guidelines. See section for use in renal impairment.

Clostridium difficile

C. difficile

C. difficile

C. difficile

If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibiotic use not directed against may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibiotic treatment of , and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.


What might happen if I take too much Coly-Mycin?

Overdosage with colistimethate sodium can cause neuromuscular blockade characterized by paresthesia, lethargy, confusion, dizziness, ataxia, nystagmus, disorders of speech and apnea. Respiratory muscle paralysis may lead to apnea, respiratory arrest and death. Overdosage with the drug can also cause acute renal failure, manifested as decreased urine output and increases in serum concentrations of BUN and creatinine.

As in any case of overdose, colistimethate sodium therapy should be discontinued and general supportive measures should be utilized.

It is unknown whether colistimethate sodium can be removed by hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis in overdose cases.


How should I store and handle Coly-Mycin?

Store at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted to 15-30°C (59-86°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature].Keep out of reach of children.Store at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted to 15-30°C (59-86°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature].Keep out of reach of children.Coly-Mycin M Parenteral is supplied in vials containing colistimethate sodium (equivalent to 150 mg colistin base activity per vial) as a white to slightly yellow lyophilized cake.NDC 42023-107-01: one individual vial.NDC 42023-107-06: six vials per carton.Coly-Mycin M Parenteral is supplied in vials containing colistimethate sodium (equivalent to 150 mg colistin base activity per vial) as a white to slightly yellow lyophilized cake.NDC 42023-107-01: one individual vial.NDC 42023-107-06: six vials per carton.


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Clinical Information

Chemical Structure

No Image found
Clinical Pharmacology

Typical serum and urine levels following a single 150 mg dose of Coly-Mycin M Parenteral IM or IV in normal adult subjects are shown in Figure 1.

Higher serum levels were obtained at 10 minutes following IV administration. Serum concentration declined with a half-life of 2–3 hours following either intravenous or intramuscular administration in adults and in the pediatric population, including premature infants.

Average urine levels ranged from about 270 mcg/mL at 2 hours to about 15 mcg/mL at 8 hours after intravenous administration and from 200 to about 25 mcg/mL during a similar period following intramuscular administration.

Non-Clinical Toxicology
The use of Coly-Mycin M Parenteral is contraindicated for patients with a history of sensitivity to the drug or any of its components.

Maximum daily dose calculated from colistin base activity should not exceed 5 mg/kg/day with normal renal function.

Transient neurological disturbances may occur. These include circumoral paresthesia or numbness, tingling or formication of the extremities, generalized pruritus, vertigo, dizziness, and slurring of speech. For these reasons, patients should be warned not to drive vehicles or use hazardous machinery while on therapy. Reduction of dosage may alleviate symptoms. Therapy need not be discontinued, but such patients should be observed with particular care.

Nephrotoxicity can occur and is probably a dose-dependent effect of colistimethate sodium. These manifestations of nephrotoxicity are reversible following discontinuation of the antibiotic.

Overdosage can result in renal insufficiency, muscle weakness, and apnea (see section). See subsection for use concomitantly with other antibiotics and curariform drugs.

Respiratory arrest has been reported following intramuscular administration of colistimethate sodium. Impaired renal function increases the possibility of apnea and neuromuscular blockade following administration of colistimethate sodium. Therefore, it is important to follow recommended dosing guidelines. See section for use in renal impairment.

Clostridium difficile

C. difficile

C. difficile

C. difficile

If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibiotic use not directed against may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibiotic treatment of , and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.

Certain other antibiotics (aminoglycosides and polymyxin) have also been reported to interfere with the nerve transmission at the neuromuscular junction. Based on this reported activity, they should not be given concomitantly with Coly-Mycin M Parenteral except with the greatest caution.

Curariform muscle relaxants (e.g., tubocurarine) and other drugs, including ether, succinylcholine, gallamine, decamethonium and sodium citrate, potentiate the neuromuscular blocking effect and should be used with extreme caution in patients being treated with Coly-Mycin M Parenteral.

Sodium cephalothin may enhance the nephrotoxicity of Coly-Mycin M Parenteral. The concomitant use of sodium cephalothin and Coly-Mycin M Parenteral should be avoided.

Since Coly-Mycin M Parenteral is eliminated mainly by renal excretion, it should be used with caution when the possibility of impaired renal function exists. The decline in renal function with advanced age should be considered.

When actual renal impairment is present, Coly-Mycin M Parenteral may be used, but the greatest caution should be exercised and the dosage should be reduced in proportion to the extent of the impairment. Administration of amounts of Coly-Mycin M Parenteral in excess of renal excretory capacity will lead to high serum levels and can result in further impairment of renal function, initiating a cycle which, if not recognized, can lead to acute renal insufficiency, renal shutdown, and further concentration of the antibiotic to toxic levels in the body. At this point, interference of nerve transmission at neuromuscular junctions may occur and result in muscle weakness and apnea (see section).

Signs indicating the development of impaired renal function include: diminishing urine output, rising BUN and serum creatinine and decreased creatinine clearance. Therapy with Coly-Mycin M Parenteral should be discontinued immediately if signs of impaired renal function occur. However, if it is necessary to reinstate the drug, dosing should be adjusted accordingly after drug plasma levels have fallen (see section).

Prescribing Coly-Mycin M in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria.

The following adverse reactions have been reported:

Gastrointestinal:

Nervous System:

Integumentary:

Body as a Whole:

Laboratory Deviations:

Respiratory System:

Renal System:

For medical advice about adverse reactions contact your medical professional. To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Par Pharmaceutical at 1-800-828-9393 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch.

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Reference

This information is obtained from the National Institute of Health's Standard Packaging Label drug database.
"https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/"

While we update our database periodically, we cannot guarantee it is always updated to the latest version.

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Professional

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Tips

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Interactions

Interactions

A total of 440 drugs (1549 brand and generic names) are known to interact with Imbruvica (ibrutinib). 228 major drug interactions (854 brand and generic names) 210 moderate drug interactions (691 brand and generic names) 2 minor drug interactions (4 brand and generic names) Show all medications in the database that may interact with Imbruvica (ibrutinib).