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iothalamate meglumine

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Overview

What is Conray?

Conray is a sterile aqueous solution intended for use as a diagnostic radiopaque medium. Conray contains 60% w/v iothalamate meglumine, which is 1-deoxy-1-(methylamino)-D-glucitol 5-acetamido-2,4,6 triiodo-N-methylisophthalamate (salt), and has the following structural formula:

Each milliliter contains 600 mg of iothalamate meglumine, 0.09 mg edetate calcium disodium as a stabilizer and 0.125 mg of monobasic sodium phosphate as a buffer. The solution provides 28.2% (282 mg/mL) organically bound iodine. Conray has an osmolarity of approximately 1000 mOsmol per liter, an osmolality of approximately 1400 mOsmol per kilogram and is, therefore, hypertonic under conditions of use. The viscosity (cps) is approximately 6 at 25°C and 4 at 37°C. The pH is 6.5 to 7.7.

Conray is a clear solution containing no undissolved solids. Crystallization does not occur at normal room temperatures. It is supplied in containers from which the air has been displaced by nitrogen.



What does Conray look like?



What are the available doses of Conray?

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What should I talk to my health care provider before I take Conray?

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How should I use Conray?

Conray is indicated for use in excretory urography, cerebral angiography, peripheral arteriography, venography, arthrography, direct cholangiography, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, contrast enhancement of computed tomographic brain images, cranial computerized angiotomography, intravenous digital subtraction angiography and arterial digital subtraction angiography.

Conray may also be used for enhancement of computed tomographic scans performed for detection and evaluation of lesions in the liver, pancreas, kidneys, abdominal aorta, mediastinum, abdominal cavity and retroperitoneal space. Continuous or multiple scans separated by intervals of 1 to 3 seconds during the first 30 to 90 seconds post-injection of the contrast medium (dynamic CT scanning) may provide enhancement of diagnostic significance, and may be of benefit in establishing diagnoses of certain lesions in these sites with greater assurance than is possible with CT alone, and in supplying additional features of the lesions. In other cases, the contrast agent may allow visualization of lesions not seen with CT alone, or may help to define suspicious lesions seen with unenhanced CT (see ). Subsets of patients in whom delayed body CT scans might be helpful have not been identified. Inconsistent results have been reported and abnormal and normal tissues may be isodense during the time frame used for delayed CT scanning. The risks of such indiscriminate use of contrast media are well known and such use is not recommended. At present, consistent results have been documented using dynamic CT techniques only.

It is advisable that Conray be at or close to body temperature when injected.

The patient should be instructed to omit the meal that precedes the examination. Appropriate premedication, which may include a barbiturate, tranquilizer or analgesic drug, may be administered prior to the examination.

A preliminary film is recommended to check the position of the patient and the x-ray exposure factors.

If a minor reaction occurs during administration, the injection should be slowed or stopped until the reaction has subsided. If a major reaction occurs, the injection should be discontinued immediately.

Under no circumstances should either corticosteroids or antihistamines be mixed in the same syringe with the contrast medium because of a potential for chemical incompatibility.

Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration.


What interacts with Conray?

Refer to PRECAUTIONS, General, concerning hypersensitivity. Conray should not be used for myelography. Arthrography should not be performed if infection is present in or near the joint. Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography is contraindicated in patients with coagulation defects and prolonged prothrombin times. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography is contraindicated during an acute attack of pancreatitis or during severe clinically evident cholangitis and in patients in whom endoscopy is prohibited.



What are the warnings of Conray?

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What are the precautions of Conray?

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What are the side effects of Conray?

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What should I look out for while using Conray?

Refer to PRECAUTIONS, General, concerning hypersensitivity. Conray should not be used for myelography. Arthrography should not be performed if infection is present in or near the joint. Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography is contraindicated in patients with coagulation defects and prolonged prothrombin times. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography is contraindicated during an acute attack of pancreatitis or during severe clinically evident cholangitis and in patients in whom endoscopy is prohibited.


What might happen if I take too much Conray?

Overdosage may occur. The adverse effects of overdosage are life-threatening and affect mainly the pulmonary and cardiovascular system. The symptoms may include cyanosis, bradycardia, acidosis, pulmonary hemorrhage, convulsions, coma and cardiac arrest. Treatment of an overdose is directed toward the support of all vital functions and prompt institution of symptomatic therapy.

Iothalamate salts are dialyzable.

The intravenous LD value of various concentrations of Iothalamate Meglumine (in grams of iodine/kilogram body weight) varied from 5.7 to 8.9 g/kg in mice and 9.8 to 11.2 g/kg in rats. The LD values decrease as the rate of injection increases.


How should I store and handle Conray?

Store at 20°-25°C (68°-77°F) (see USP Controlled Room Temperature).Keep tightly closed. Dispense in a tight container, as defined in the USP.Store at 20°-25°C (68°-77°F) (see USP Controlled Room Temperature).Keep tightly closed. Dispense in a tight container, as defined in the USP.


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Clinical Information

Chemical Structure

No Image found
Clinical Pharmacology

When used for contrast enhancement in computed tomographic brain scanning, the degree of enhancement is directly related to the amount of iodine administered. Rapid injection of the entire dose yields peak blood iodine concentrations immediately following the injection, which fall rapidly over the next five to ten minutes. This can be accounted for by the dilution in the vascular and extracellular fluid compartments which causes an initial sharp fall in plasma concentration. Equilibration with the extracellular compartments is reached by about ten minutes; thereafter, the fall becomes exponential. Maximum contrast enhancement frequently occurs after peak blood iodine levels are reached. The delay in maximum contrast enhancement can range from five to forty minutes, depending on the peak iodine levels achieved and the cell type of the lesion. This lag suggests that the contrast enhancement of the image is at least in part dependent on the accumulation of iodine within the lesion and outside the blood pool.

In brain scanning, the contrast medium (Conray) does not accumulate in normal brain tissue due to the presence of the “blood brain barrier.” The increase in x-ray absorption in the normal brain is due to the presence of the contrast agent within the blood pool. A break in the blood brain barrier, such as occurs in malignant tumors of the brain, allows accumulation of contrast medium within the interstitial tumor tissue; adjacent normal brain tissue does not contain the contrast medium.

The image enhancement of non-tumoral lesions, such as arteriovenous malformations and aneurysms, is dependent on the iodine content of the circulating blood pool.

When used for cranial computerized angiotomography, rapid bolus injection and/or infusion combined with rapid CT scanning will provide clear delineation of the cerebral vessels.

Non-Clinical Toxicology
Refer to PRECAUTIONS, General, concerning hypersensitivity. Conray should not be used for myelography. Arthrography should not be performed if infection is present in or near the joint. Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography is contraindicated in patients with coagulation defects and prolonged prothrombin times. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography is contraindicated during an acute attack of pancreatitis or during severe clinically evident cholangitis and in patients in whom endoscopy is prohibited.

The following drug interactions were studied with ketoprofen doses of 200 mg/day. The possibility of increased interaction should be kept in mind when ketoprofen capsule doses greater than 50 mg as a single dose or 200 mg of ketoprofen per day are used concomitantly with highly bound drugs.

Diagnostic procedures which involve the use of iodinated intra-vascular contrast agents should be carried out under the direction of personnel skilled and experienced in the particular procedure to be performed. All procedures utilizing contrast media carry a definite risk of producing adverse reactions. While most reactions may be minor, life threatening and fatal reactions may occur without warning. The risk-benefit factor should always be carefully evaluated before such a procedure is undertaken. A fully equipped emergency cart, or equivalent supplies and equipment, and personnel competent in recognizing and treating adverse reactions of all severity, or situations which may arise as a result of the procedure, should be immediately available at all times. If a serious reaction should occur, immediately discontinue administration. Since severe delayed reactions have been known to occur, emergency facilities and competent personnel should be available for at least 30 to 60 minutes after administration (see ).

Preparatory dehydration is dangerous and may contribute to acute renal failure in infants, young children, the elderly, patients with pre-existing renal insufficiency, patients with advanced vascular disease and diabetic patients.

Severe reactions to contrast media often resemble allergic responses. This has prompted the use of several provocative pretesting methods, none of which can be relied on to predict severe reactions. No conclusive relationship between severe reactions and antigen-antibody reactions or other manifestations of allergy has been established. The possibility of an idiosyncratic reaction in patients who have previously received a contrast medium without ill effect should always be considered. Prior to the injection of any contrast medium, the patient should be questioned to obtain a medical history with emphasis on allergy and hypersensitivity. A positive history of bronchial asthma or allergy, including food, a family history of allergy, or a previous reaction or hypersensitivity to a contrast agent, may imply a greater than usual risk. Such a history, by suggesting histamine sensitivity and consequently proneness to reactions, may be more accurate than pre-testing in predicting the potential for reaction, although not necessarily the severity or type of reaction in the individual case. A positive history of this type does not arbitrarily contraindicate the use of a contrast agent, when a diagnostic procedure is thought essential, but does call for caution (see ).

Prophylactic therapy including corticosteroids and antihistamines should be considered for patients who present with a strong allergic history, a previous reaction to a contrast medium, or a positive pretest, since the incidence of reaction in these patients is two to three times that of the general population. Adequate doses of corticosteroids should be started early enough prior to contrast medium injection to be effective and should continue through the time of injection and for 24 hours after injection. Antihistamines should be administered within 30 minutes of the contrast medium injection. Recent reports indicate that such pre-treatment does not prevent serious life-threatening reactions, but may reduce both their incidence and severity. A separate syringe should be used for these injections.

General anesthesia may be indicated in the performance of some procedures in young or uncooperative children and in selected adult patients; however, a higher incidence of adverse reactions has been reported in these patients. This may be attributable to the inability of the patient to identify untoward symptoms, or to the hypotensive effect of anesthesia, which can prolong the circulation time and increase the duration of contact of the contrast agent.

Angiography should be avoided whenever possible in patients with homocystinuria because of the risk of inducing thrombosis and embolism.

Adverse reactions to injectable contrast media fall into two categories: chemotoxic reactions and idiosyncratic reactions.

Chemotoxic reactions result from the physio-chemical properties of the contrast media, the dose and speed of injection. All hemodynamic disturbances and injuries to organs or vessels perfused by the contrast medium are included in this category.

Idiosyncratic reactions include all other reactions. They occur more frequently in patients 20 to 40 years old. Idiosyncratic reactions may or may not be dependent on the amount of dose injected, the speed of injection, the mode of injection and the radiographic procedure. Idiosyncratic reactions are subdivided into minor, intermediate and severe. The minor reactions are self-limited and of short duration; the severe reactions are life-threatening and treatment is urgent and mandatory.

Fatalities have been reported following the administration of iodine-containing contrast agents. Based upon clinical literature, the incidence of death is reported to range from one in 10,000 (0.01 percent) to less than one in 100,000 (0.001 percent).

The following adverse reactions have been observed in conjunction with the use of iodine-containing contrast agents.

The most frequent

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Reference

This information is obtained from the National Institute of Health's Standard Packaging Label drug database.
"https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/"

While we update our database periodically, we cannot guarantee it is always updated to the latest version.

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Clonazepam Description Each single-scored tablet, for oral administration, contains 0.5 mg, 1 mg, or 2 mg Clonazepam, USP, a benzodiazepine. Each tablet also contains corn starch, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, and povidone. Clonazepam tablets USP 0.5 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake. Clonazepam tablets USP 1 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake, as well as FD&C Blue No. 1 Aluminum Lake. Chemically, Clonazepam, USP is 5-(o-chlorophenyl)-1,3-dihydro-7-nitro-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one. It is a light yellow crystalline powder. It has the following structural formula: C15H10ClN3O3 M.W. 315.72
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Tips

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Interactions

Interactions

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