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dantrolene sodium

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Overview

What is dantrolene sodium?

The chemical formula of is hydrated 1-[[[5-(4-nitrophenyl)-2-furanyl]methylene]amino]-2, 4-imidazolidinedione sodium salt. It is an orange powder, slightly soluble in water, but due to its slightly acidic nature the solubility increases somewhat in alkaline solution. The anhydrous salt has a molecular weight of 336. The hydrated salt contains approximately 15% water (3-1/2 moles) and has a molecular weight of 399. The structural formula for the hydrated salt is:

Dantrolene sodium

Inactive Ingredients:



What does dantrolene sodium look like?



What are the available doses of dantrolene sodium?

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What should I talk to my health care provider before I take dantrolene sodium?

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How should I use dantrolene sodium?

Dantrolene sodium

Dantrolene sodium

If improvement occurs, it will ordinarily occur within the dosage titration (see ), and will be manifested by a decrease in the severity of spasticity and the ability to resume a daily function not quite attainable without

Occasionally, subtle but meaningful improvement in spasticity may occur with therapy. In such instances, information regarding improvement should be solicited from the patient and those who are in constant daily contact and attendance with him. Brief withdrawal of for a period of 2 to 4 days will frequently demonstrate exacerbation of the manifestations of spasticity and may serve to confirm a clinical impression.

A decision to continue the administration of on a long-term basis is justified if introduction of the drug into the patient's regimen:

Prior to the administration of , consideration should be given to the potential response to treatment. A decrease in spasticity sufficient to allow a daily function not otherwise attainable should be the therapeutic goal of treatment with . Refer to section for description of response to be anticipated.

It is important to establish a therapeutic goal (regain and maintain a specific function such as therapeutic exercise program, utilization of braces, transfer maneuvers, etc.) before beginning therapy. Dosage should be increased until the maximum performance compatible with the dysfunction due to underlying disease is achieved. No further increase in dosage is then indicated.


What interacts with dantrolene sodium?

Active hepatic disease, such as hepatitis and cirrhosis, is a contraindication for use of . is contraindicated where spasticity is utilized to sustain upright posture and balance in locomotion or whenever spasticity is utilized to obtain or maintain increased function.



What are the warnings of dantrolene sodium?

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It is important to recognize that fatal and non-fatal liver disorders of an idiosyncratic or hypersensitivity type may occur with therapy.

At the start of therapy, it is desirable to do liver function studies (SGOT, SGPT, alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin) for a baseline or to establish whether there is pre-existing liver disease. If baseline liver abnormalities exist and are confirmed, there is a clear possibility that the potential for hepatotoxicity could be enhanced, although such a possibility has not yet been established.

Liver function studies (e.g., SGOT or SGPT) should be performed at appropriate intervals during therapy. If such studies reveal abnormal values, therapy should generally be discontinued. Only where benefits of the drug have been of major importance to the patient, should reinitiation or continuation of therapy be considered. Some patients have revealed a return to normal laboratory values in the face of continued therapy while others have not.

If symptoms compatible with hepatitis, accompanied by abnormalities in liver function tests or jaundice appear, should be discontinued. If caused by and detected early, the abnormalities in liver function characteristically have reverted to normal when the drug was discontinued.

Dantrolene sodium

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

Long-term safety of in humans has not been established. Chronic studies in rats, dogs, and monkeys at dosages greater than 30 mg/kg/day showed growth or weight depression and signs of hepatopathy and possible occlusion nephropathy, all of which were reversible upon cessation of treatment. Sprague-Dawley female rats fed dantrolene sodium for 18 months at dosage levels of 15, 30, and 60 mg/kg/day showed an increased incidence of benign and malignant mammary tumors compared with concurrent controls. At the highest dose level, there was an increase in the incidence of benign lymphatic neoplasms. In a 30-month study at the same dose levels also in Sprague-Dawley rats, dantrolene sodium produced a decrease in the time of onset of mammary neoplasms. Female rats at the highest dose level showed an increased incidence of hepatic lymphangiomas and hepatic angiosarcomas.

The only drug-related effect seen in a 30-month study in Fischer-344 rats was a dose-related reduction in the time of onset of mammary and testicular tumors. A 24-month study in HaM/ICR mice revealed no evidence of carcinogenic activity. Carcinogenicity in humans cannot be fully excluded, so that this possible risk of chronic administration must be weighed against the benefits of the drug (i.e., after a brief trial) for the individual patient.

Dantrolene sodium has produced positive results in the Ames S. Typhimurium bacterial mutagenesis assay in the presence and absence of a liver activating system.

Pregnancy

Adequate animal reproduction studies have not been conducted with . It is also not known whether can cause fatal harm when administered to a pregnant woman or can affect reproduction capacity. should be given to a pregnant woman only if clearly needed.

Labor and Delivery

In one non-randomized open-label study, 21 term pregnant patients received prophylactic oral 100 mg per day for 2 to 10 days prior to delivery. Dantrolene readily crossed the placenta with maternal and fetal whole blood levels approximately equal at delivery; neonatal levels then fell approximately 50% per day for 2 days before declining sharply. No neonatal respiratory and neuromuscular side effects were detected at low dose. More data, at higher doses, are needed before more definitive conclusions can be made.

Nursing Mothers

Dantrolene sodium

Usage in Pediatric Patients

The long-term safety of in pediatric patients under the age of 5 years has not been established. Because of the possibility that adverse effects of the drug could become apparent only after many years, a benefit-risk consideration of the long-term use of is particularly important in pediatric patients.

Geriatric Use

Clinical studies of did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience in the literature has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy. As with all patients receiving , it is recommended that elderly patients receive the lowest dose compatible with the optimal response. Spontaneous reports suggest a higher proportion of hepatic events with fatal outcome in elderly patients receiving . However, the majority of these cases were complicated with confounding factors such as intercurrent illnesses and/or concomitant potentially hepatotoxic medications (for hepatotoxicity details and its management see and Sections).

Drug Interactions

Drowsiness may occur with therapy, and the concomitant administration of CNS depressants such as sedatives and tranquilizing agents may result in further drowsiness.

While a definite drug interaction with estrogen therapy has not yet been established, caution should be observed if the two drugs are to be given concomitantly. Hepatotoxicity has occurred more often in women over 35 years of age receiving concomitant estrogen therapy.

Cardiovascular collapse in patients treated simultaneously with verapamil and dantrolene sodium is rare. The combination of therapeutic doses of intravenous dantrolene sodium and verapamil in halothane/α-chloralose anesthetized swine has resulted in ventricular fibrillation and cardiovascular collapse in association with marked hyperkalemia. Until the relevance of these findings to humans is established, the combination of dantrolene sodium and calcium channel blockers is not recommended during the management of malignant hyperthermia.

Administration of may potentiate vecuronium-induced neuromuscular block.


What are the precautions of dantrolene sodium?

Dantrolene sodium

Datrolene sodium

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Information for Patients

Patients should be cautioned against driving a motor vehicle or participating in hazardous occupations while taking . Caution should be exercised in the concomitant administration of tranquilizing agents.

Dantrolene sodium


What are the side effects of dantrolene sodium?

The most frequently occurring side effects of have been drowsiness, dizziness, weakness, general malaise, fatigue, and diarrhea. These are generally transient, occurring early in treatment, and can often be obviated by beginning with a low dose and increasing dosage gradually until an optimal regimen is established. Diarrhea may be severe and may necessitate temporary withdrawal of therapy. If diarrhea recurs upon readministration of , therapy should probably be withdrawn permanently.

Other less frequent side effects, listed according to system, are:

Gastrointestinal:

Hepatobiliary:

Neurologic:

Cardiovascular:

Hematologic:

Psychiatric:

Urogenital:

Integumentary:

Musculoskeletal:

Respiratory:

Special Senses:

Hypersensitivity:

Other:

The published literature has included some reports of use in patients with Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS). capsules are not indicated for the treatment of NMS and patients may expire despite treatment with capsules.

For medical advice about adverse reactions contact your medical professional. To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact JHP at 1-866-923-2547 or MEDWATCH at 1-800-FDA-1088 (1-800-332-1088) or http://www.fda.gov/medwatch/.


What should I look out for while using dantrolene sodium?

Active hepatic disease, such as hepatitis and cirrhosis, is a contraindication for use of . is contraindicated where spasticity is utilized to sustain upright posture and balance in locomotion or whenever spasticity is utilized to obtain or maintain increased function.

It is important to recognize that fatal and non-fatal liver disorders of an idiosyncratic or hypersensitivity type may occur with therapy.

At the start of therapy, it is desirable to do liver function studies (SGOT, SGPT, alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin) for a baseline or to establish whether there is pre-existing liver disease. If baseline liver abnormalities exist and are confirmed, there is a clear possibility that the potential for hepatotoxicity could be enhanced, although such a possibility has not yet been established.

Liver function studies (e.g., SGOT or SGPT) should be performed at appropriate intervals during therapy. If such studies reveal abnormal values, therapy should generally be discontinued. Only where benefits of the drug have been of major importance to the patient, should reinitiation or continuation of therapy be considered. Some patients have revealed a return to normal laboratory values in the face of continued therapy while others have not.

If symptoms compatible with hepatitis, accompanied by abnormalities in liver function tests or jaundice appear, should be discontinued. If caused by and detected early, the abnormalities in liver function characteristically have reverted to normal when the drug was discontinued.

Dantrolene sodium

dantrolene sodium

Dantrolene sodium


What might happen if I take too much dantrolene sodium?

Symptoms which may occur in case of overdose include, but are not limited to, muscular weakness and alterations in the state of consciousness (e.g. lethargy, coma), vomiting, diarrhea, and crystalluria. For acute overdose, general supportive measures should be employed along with immediate gastric lavage.

Intravenous fluids should be administered in fairly large quantities to avert the possibility of crystalluria. An adequate airway should be maintained and artificial resuscitation equipment should be at hand. Electrocardiographic monitoring should be instituted, and the patient carefully observed. To date, no experience has been reported with dialysis and its value in dantrolene sodium overdose is not known.


How should I store and handle dantrolene sodium?

Store lyophilized Activase at controlled room temperature not to exceed 30°C (86°F), or under refrigeration (2-8°C/36-46°F). Protect the lyophilized material during extended storage from excessive exposure to light. If stored between 2-30°C (36-86°F), Activase may be used within 8 hours following reconstitution. Discard any unused solution after administration is complete.Do not use beyond the expiration date stamped on the vial.Store lyophilized Activase at controlled room temperature not to exceed 30°C (86°F), or under refrigeration (2-8°C/36-46°F). Protect the lyophilized material during extended storage from excessive exposure to light. If stored between 2-30°C (36-86°F), Activase may be used within 8 hours following reconstitution. Discard any unused solution after administration is complete.Do not use beyond the expiration date stamped on the vial.Dantrolene sodium


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Clinical Information

Chemical Structure

No Image found
Clinical Pharmacology

In isolated nerve-muscle preparation, has been shown to produce relaxation by affecting the contractile response of the skeletal muscle at a site beyond the myoneural junction, directly on the muscle itself. In skeletal muscle, dissociates the excitation-contraction coupling, probably by interfering with the release of Ca from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. This effect appears to be more pronounced in fast muscle fibers as compared to slow ones, but generally affects both. A central nervous system effect occurs, with drowsiness, dizziness, and generalized weakness occasionally present. Although does not appear to directly affect the CNS, the extent of its indirect effect is unknown. The absorption of after oral administration in humans is incomplete and slow but consistent, and dose-related blood levels are obtained. The duration and intensity of skeletal muscle relaxation is related to the dosage and blood levels. The mean biologic half-life of in adults is 8.7 hours after a 100-mg dose. Specific metabolic pathways in the degradation and elimination of in human subjects have been established. Metabolic patterns are similar in adults and pediatric patients. In addition to the parent compound, dantrolene, which is found in measurable amounts in blood and urine, the major metabolites noted in body fluids are the 5-hydroxy analog and the acetamido analog. Since is probably metabolized by hepatic microsomal enzymes, enhancement of its metabolism by other drugs is possible. However, neither phenobarbital nor diazepam appears to affect metabolism.

Clinical experience in the management of fulminant human malignant hyperthermia, as well as experiments conducted in malignant hyperthermia susceptible swine, have revealed that the administration of intravenous dantrolene, combined with indicated supportive measures, is effective in reversing the hypermetabolic process of malignant hyperthermia. Known differences between human and swine malignant hyperthermia are minor. The prophylactic administration of oral or intravenous dantrolene to malignant hyperthermia susceptible swine will attenuate or prevent the development of signs of malignant hyperthermia in a manner dependent upon the dosage of dantrolene administered and the intensity of the malignant hyperthermia triggering stimulus. Limited clinical experience with the administration of oral dantrolene to patients judged malignant hyperthermia susceptible, when combined with clinical experience in the use of intravenous dantrolene for the treatment of malignant hyperthermia and data derived from the above cited animal model experiments, suggests that oral dantrolene will also attenuate or prevent the development of signs of human malignant hyperthermia, provided that currently accepted practices in the management of such patients are adhered to (see ); intravenous dantrolene should also be available for use should the signs of malignant hyperthermia appear.

Non-Clinical Toxicology
Active hepatic disease, such as hepatitis and cirrhosis, is a contraindication for use of . is contraindicated where spasticity is utilized to sustain upright posture and balance in locomotion or whenever spasticity is utilized to obtain or maintain increased function.

It is important to recognize that fatal and non-fatal liver disorders of an idiosyncratic or hypersensitivity type may occur with therapy.

At the start of therapy, it is desirable to do liver function studies (SGOT, SGPT, alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin) for a baseline or to establish whether there is pre-existing liver disease. If baseline liver abnormalities exist and are confirmed, there is a clear possibility that the potential for hepatotoxicity could be enhanced, although such a possibility has not yet been established.

Liver function studies (e.g., SGOT or SGPT) should be performed at appropriate intervals during therapy. If such studies reveal abnormal values, therapy should generally be discontinued. Only where benefits of the drug have been of major importance to the patient, should reinitiation or continuation of therapy be considered. Some patients have revealed a return to normal laboratory values in the face of continued therapy while others have not.

If symptoms compatible with hepatitis, accompanied by abnormalities in liver function tests or jaundice appear, should be discontinued. If caused by and detected early, the abnormalities in liver function characteristically have reverted to normal when the drug was discontinued.

Dantrolene sodium

dantrolene sodium

Dantrolene sodium

Additive anticholinergic effects may result from concomitant use with antipsychotics, tricyclic antidepressants, and other drugs with anticholinergic effects. Concomitant administration with antacids may interfere with the absorption of methscopolamine bromide.

Dantrolene sodium

Datrolene sodium

The most frequently occurring side effects of have been drowsiness, dizziness, weakness, general malaise, fatigue, and diarrhea. These are generally transient, occurring early in treatment, and can often be obviated by beginning with a low dose and increasing dosage gradually until an optimal regimen is established. Diarrhea may be severe and may necessitate temporary withdrawal of therapy. If diarrhea recurs upon readministration of , therapy should probably be withdrawn permanently.

Other less frequent side effects, listed according to system, are:

Gastrointestinal:

Hepatobiliary:

Neurologic:

Cardiovascular:

Hematologic:

Psychiatric:

Urogenital:

Integumentary:

Musculoskeletal:

Respiratory:

Special Senses:

Hypersensitivity:

Other:

The published literature has included some reports of use in patients with Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS). capsules are not indicated for the treatment of NMS and patients may expire despite treatment with capsules.

For medical advice about adverse reactions contact your medical professional. To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact JHP at 1-866-923-2547 or MEDWATCH at 1-800-FDA-1088 (1-800-332-1088) or http://www.fda.gov/medwatch/.

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Reference

This information is obtained from the National Institute of Health's Standard Packaging Label drug database.
"https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/"

While we update our database periodically, we cannot guarantee it is always updated to the latest version.

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Professional

Clonazepam Description Each single-scored tablet, for oral administration, contains 0.5 mg, 1 mg, or 2 mg Clonazepam, USP, a benzodiazepine. Each tablet also contains corn starch, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, and povidone. Clonazepam tablets USP 0.5 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake. Clonazepam tablets USP 1 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake, as well as FD&C Blue No. 1 Aluminum Lake. Chemically, Clonazepam, USP is 5-(o-chlorophenyl)-1,3-dihydro-7-nitro-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one. It is a light yellow crystalline powder. It has the following structural formula: C15H10ClN3O3 M.W. 315.72
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Tips

Tips

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Interactions

Interactions

A total of 440 drugs (1549 brand and generic names) are known to interact with Imbruvica (ibrutinib). 228 major drug interactions (854 brand and generic names) 210 moderate drug interactions (691 brand and generic names) 2 minor drug interactions (4 brand and generic names) Show all medications in the database that may interact with Imbruvica (ibrutinib).