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Detrol

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Overview

What is Detrol?

DETROL Tablets contain tolterodine tartrate. The active moiety, tolterodine, is a muscarinic receptor antagonist. The chemical name of tolterodine tartrate is (R)-2-[3-[bis(1-methylethyl)-amino]1-phenylpropyl]-4-methylphenol [R-(R*,R*)]-2,3dihydroxybutanedioate (1:1) (salt). The empirical formula of tolterodine tartrate is CHNO, and its molecular weight is 475.6. The structural formula of tolterodine tartrate is represented below:

Tolterodine tartrate is a white, crystalline powder. The pKa value is 9.87 and the solubility in water is 12 mg/mL. It is soluble in methanol, slightly soluble in ethanol, and practically insoluble in toluene. The partition coefficient (Log D) between n-octanol and water is 1.83 at pH 7.3.

DETROL Tablets for oral administration contain 1 or 2 mg of tolterodine tartrate. The inactive ingredients are colloidal anhydrous silica, calcium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate, cellulose microcrystalline, hypromellose, magnesium stearate, sodium starch glycolate (pH 3.0 to 5.0), stearic acid, and titanium dioxide.



What does Detrol look like?



What are the available doses of Detrol?

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What should I talk to my health care provider before I take Detrol?

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How should I use Detrol?

DETROL Tablets are indicated for the treatment of overactive bladder with symptoms of urge urinary incontinence, urgency, and frequency.

The initial recommended dose of DETROL Tablets is 2 mg twice daily. The dose may be lowered to 1 mg twice daily based on individual response and tolerability. For patients with significantly reduced hepatic or renal function or who are currently taking drugs that are potent inhibitors of CYP3A4, the recommended dose of DETROL is 1 mg twice daily (see and ).


What interacts with Detrol?

DETROL Tablets are contraindicated in patients with urinary retention, gastric retention, or uncontrolled narrow-angle glaucoma. DETROL is also contraindicated in patients who have demonstrated hypersensitivity to the drug or its ingredients, or to fesoterodine fumarate extended-release tablets which, like DETROL, are metabolized to 5-hydroxymethyl tolterodine.



What are the warnings of Detrol?

If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibiotic use not directed against may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibiotic treatment of , and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.


What are the precautions of Detrol?

General

Risk of Urinary Retention and Gastric Retention

DETROL Tablets should be administered with caution to patients with clinically significant bladder outflow obstruction because of the risk of urinary retention and to patients with gastrointestinal obstructive disorders, such as pyloric stenosis, because of the risk of gastric retention (see ).

Decreased Gastrointestinal Motility

DETROL, like other antimuscarinic drugs, should be used with caution in patients with decreased gastrointestinal motility.

Controlled Narrow-Angle Glaucoma

DETROL should be used with caution in patients being treated for narrow-angle glaucoma.

Central Nervous System (CNS) Effects

Detrol is associated with anticholinergic central nervous system (CNS) effects including dizziness and somnolence (see ). Patients should be monitored for signs of anticholinergic CNS effects, particularly after beginning treatment or increasing the dose. Advise patients not to drive or operate heavy machinery until the drug's effects have been determined. If a patient experiences anticholinergic CNS effects, dose reduction or drug discontinuation should be considered.

Reduced Hepatic and Renal Function

For patients with significantly reduced hepatic function or renal function, the recommended dose of DETROL is 1 mg twice daily (see ).

Myasthenia Gravis

DETROL should be used with caution in patients with myasthenia gravis, a disease characterized by decreased cholinergic activity at the neuromuscular junction.

Patients with Congenital or Acquired QT Prolongation

In a study of the effect of tolterodine immediate release tablets on the QT interval (see), the effect on the QT interval appeared greater for 8 mg/day (two times the therapeutic dose) compared to 4 mg/day and was more pronounced in CYP2D6 poor metabolizers (PM) than extensive metabolizers (EMs). The effect of tolterodine 8 mg/day was not as large as that observed after four days of therapeutic dosing with the active control moxifloxacin. However, the confidence intervals overlapped. These observations should be considered in clinical decisions to prescribe DETROL for patients with a known history of QT prolongation or patients who are taking Class IA (e.g., quinidine, procainamide) or Class III (e.g., amiodarone, sotalol) antiarrhythmic medications (see ). There has been no association of Torsade de Pointes in the international post-marketing experience with DETROL or DETROL LA.

Information for Patients

Patients should be informed that antimuscarinic agents such as DETROL may produce the following effects: blurred vision, dizziness, or drowsiness. Patients should be advised to exercise caution in decisions to engage in potentially dangerous activities until the drug's effects have been determined.

Drug Interactions

Ketoconazole, an inhibitor of the drug metabolizing enzyme CYP3A4, significantly increased plasma concentrations of tolterodine when coadministered to subjects who were poor metabolizers (see and ). For patients receiving ketoconazole or other potent CYP3A4 inhibitors such as other azole antifungals (e.g., itraconazole, miconazole) or macrolide antibiotics (e.g., erythromycin, clarithromycin) or cyclosporine or vinblastine, the recommended dose of DETROL is 1 mg twice daily (see ).

Drug-Laboratory-Test Interactions

Interactions between tolterodine and laboratory tests have not been studied.

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

Carcinogenicity studies with tolterodine were conducted in mice and rats. At the maximum tolerated dose in mice (30 mg/kg/day), female rats (20 mg/kg/day), and male rats (30 mg/kg/day), AUC values obtained for tolterodine were 355, 291, and 462 µg∙h/L, respectively. In comparison, the human AUC value for a 2 mg dose administered twice daily is estimated at 34 µg∙h/L. Thus, tolterodine exposure in the carcinogenicity studies was 9- to 14-fold higher than expected in humans. No increase in tumors was found in either mice or rats.

No mutagenic effects of tolterodine were detected in a battery of tests, including bacterial mutation assays (Ames test) in 4 strains of and in 2 strains of a gene mutation assay in L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells, and chromosomal aberration tests in human lymphocytes. Tolterodine was also negative in the bone marrow micronucleus test in the mouse.

In female mice treated for 2 weeks before mating and during gestation with 20 mg/kg/day (corresponding to AUC value of about 500 µg∙h/L), neither effects on reproductive performance or fertility were seen. Based on AUC values, the systemic exposure was about 15-fold higher in animals than in humans. In male mice, a dose of 30 mg/kg/day did not induce any adverse effects on fertility.

Pregnancy

Tolterodine, administered at oral doses of 20 mg/kg/day (approximately 14 times the human exposure), showed no anomalies or malformations in mice. When given at doses of 30 to 40 mg/kg/day, tolterodine has been shown to be embryolethal, reduce fetal weight, and increase the incidence of fetal abnormalities (cleft palate, digital abnormalities, intra-abdominal hemorrhage, and various skeletal abnormalities, primarily reduced ossification) in mice. At these doses, the AUC values were about 20- to 25-fold higher than in humans. Rabbits treated subcutaneously at a dose of 0.8 mg/kg/day achieved an AUC of 100 µg∙h/L, which is about 3-fold higher than that resulting from the human dose. This dose did not result in any embryotoxicity or teratogenicity. There are no studies of tolterodine in pregnant women. Therefore, DETROL should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit for the mother justifies the potential risk to the fetus.

Nursing Mothers

Tolterodine is excreted into the milk in mice. Offspring of female mice treated with tolterodine 20 mg/kg/day during the lactation period had slightly reduced body weight gain. The offspring regained the weight during the maturation phase. It is not known whether tolterodine is excreted in human milk; therefore, DETROL should not be administered during nursing. A decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue DETROL in nursing mothers.

Pediatric Use

Efficacy in the pediatric population has not been demonstrated.

Two pediatric phase 3 randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, 12-week studies were conducted using tolterodine extended release (DETROL LA) capsules. A total of 710 pediatric patients (486 on DETROL LA and 224 on placebo) aged 5–10 years with urinary frequency and urge urinary incontinence were studied. The percentage of patients with urinary tract infections was higher in patients treated with DETROL LA (6.6%) compared to patients who received placebo (4.5%). Aggressive, abnormal, and hyperactive behavior and attention disorders occurred in 2.9% of children treated with DETROL LA compared to 0.9% of children treated with placebo.

Geriatric Use

Of the 1120 patients who were treated in the four Phase 3, 12-week clinical studies of DETROL, 474 (42%) were 65 to 91 years of age. No overall differences in safety were observed between the older and younger patients (see ).


What are the side effects of Detrol?

The Phase 2 and 3 clinical trial program for DETROL Tablets included 3071 patients who were treated with DETROL (N=2133) or placebo (N=938). The patients were treated with 1, 2, 4, or 8 mg/day for up to 12 months. No differences in the safety profile of tolterodine were identified based on age, gender, race, or metabolism.

The data described below reflect exposure to DETROL 2 mg bid in 986 patients and to placebo in 683 patients exposed for 12 weeks in five Phase 3, controlled clinical studies. Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice. The adverse reaction information from clinical trials does, however, provide a basis for identifying the adverse events that appear to be related to drug use and approximating rates.

Sixty-six percent of patients receiving DETROL 2 mg bid reported adverse events versus 56% of placebo patients. The most common adverse events reported by patients receiving DETROL were dry mouth, headache, constipation, vertigo/dizziness, and abdominal pain. Dry mouth, constipation, abnormal vision (accommodation abnormalities), urinary retention, and xerophthalmia are expected side effects of antimuscarinic agents.

Dry mouth was the most frequently reported adverse event for patients treated with DETROL 2 mg bid in the Phase 3 clinical studies, occurring in 34.8% of patients treated with DETROL and 9.8% of placebo-treated patients. One percent of patients treated with DETROL discontinued treatment due to dry mouth.

The frequency of discontinuation due to adverse events was highest during the first 4 weeks of treatment. Seven percent of patients treated with DETROL 2 mg bid discontinued treatment due to adverse events versus 6% of placebo patients. The most common adverse events leading to discontinuation of DETROL were dizziness and headache.

Three percent of patients treated with DETROL 2 mg bid reported a serious adverse event versus 4% of placebo patients. Significant ECG changes in QT and QTc have not been demonstrated in clinical-study patients treated with DETROL 2 mg bid. Table 5 lists the adverse events reported in 1% or more of the patients treated with DETROL 2 mg bid in the 12-week studies. The adverse events are reported regardless of causality.

Table 5. Incidence (%) of Adverse Events Exceeding Placebo Rate and Reported in >1% of Patients Treated with DETROL Tablets (2 mg bid) in 12-week, Phase 3 Clinical Studies
Body SystemAdverse Event% DETROLN=986 % PlaceboN=683
Autonomic Nervousaccommodation abnormal2  1
dry mouth35  10
Generalchest pain2  1
fatigue4  3
headache7  5
influenza-like symptoms3  2
Central/Peripheral Nervousvertigo/dizziness5  3
Gastrointestinalabdominal pain5  3
constipation7  4
diarrhea4  3
dyspepsia4  1
Urinarydysuria2  1
Skin/Appendagesdry skin1  0
Musculoskeletalarthralgia2  1
Visionxerophthalmia3  2
Psychiatricsomnolence3  2
Metabolic/Nutritionalweight gain1  0
Resistance Mechanisminfection1  0


Post-marketing Surveillance

The following events have been reported in association with tolterodine use in worldwide post-marketing experience:  anaphylaxis and angioedema;  tachycardia, palpitations, peripheral edema;  confusion, disorientation, memory impairment, hallucinations.

Reports of aggravation of symptoms of dementia (e.g., confusion, disorientation, delusion) have been reported after tolterodine therapy was initiated in patients taking cholinesterase inhibitors for the treatment of dementia.

Because these spontaneously reported events are from the worldwide post-marketing experience, the frequency of events and the role of tolterodine in their causation cannot be reliably determined.


What should I look out for while using Detrol?

DETROL Tablets are contraindicated in patients with urinary retention, gastric retention, or uncontrolled narrow-angle glaucoma. DETROL is also contraindicated in patients who have demonstrated hypersensitivity to the drug or its ingredients, or to fesoterodine fumarate extended-release tablets which, like DETROL, are metabolized to 5-hydroxymethyl tolterodine.

Anaphylaxis and angioedema requiring hospitalization and emergency medical treatment have occurred with the first or subsequent doses of DETROL. In the event of difficulty in breathing, upper airway obstruction, or fall in blood pressure, DETROL should be discontinued and appropriate therapy promptly provided.


What might happen if I take too much Detrol?

A 27-month-old child who ingested 5 to 7 DETROL Tablets 2 mg was treated with a suspension of activated charcoal and was hospitalized overnight with symptoms of dry mouth. The child fully recovered.


How should I store and handle Detrol?

Store ADASUVE at room temperature, 15° to 30°C (59° to 86°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Keep out of reach of children.Keep ADASUVE in pouch until time of use. ADASUVE contains a lithium battery. Dispose of ADASUVE in accordance with all federal, state and local laws.Store ADASUVE at room temperature, 15° to 30°C (59° to 86°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Keep out of reach of children.Keep ADASUVE in pouch until time of use. ADASUVE contains a lithium battery. Dispose of ADASUVE in accordance with all federal, state and local laws.Store ADASUVE at room temperature, 15° to 30°C (59° to 86°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Keep out of reach of children.Keep ADASUVE in pouch until time of use. ADASUVE contains a lithium battery. Dispose of ADASUVE in accordance with all federal, state and local laws.Store ADASUVE at room temperature, 15° to 30°C (59° to 86°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Keep out of reach of children.Keep ADASUVE in pouch until time of use. ADASUVE contains a lithium battery. Dispose of ADASUVE in accordance with all federal, state and local laws.DETROL Tablets 1 mgDETROL Tablets 2 mgDETROL Tablets 1 mgDETROL Tablets 2 mg


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Clinical Information

Chemical Structure

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Clinical Pharmacology

Tolterodine is a competitive muscarinic receptor antagonist. Both urinary bladder contraction and salivation are mediated via cholinergic muscarinic receptors.

After oral administration, tolterodine is metabolized in the liver, resulting in the formation of the 5-hydroxymethyl derivative, a major pharmacologically active metabolite. The 5-hydroxymethyl metabolite, which exhibits an antimuscarinic activity similar to that of tolterodine, contributes significantly to the therapeutic effect. Both tolterodine and the 5-hydroxymethyl metabolite exhibit a high specificity for muscarinic receptors, since both show negligible activity or affinity for other neurotransmitter receptors and other potential cellular targets, such as calcium channels.

Tolterodine has a pronounced effect on bladder function. Effects on urodynamic parameters before and 1 and 5 hours after a single 6.4 mg dose of tolterodine immediate release were determined in healthy volunteers. The main effects of tolterodine at 1 and 5 hours were an increase in residual urine, reflecting an incomplete emptying of the bladder, and a decrease in detrusor pressure. These findings are consistent with an antimuscarinic action on the lower urinary tract.

Non-Clinical Toxicology
DETROL Tablets are contraindicated in patients with urinary retention, gastric retention, or uncontrolled narrow-angle glaucoma. DETROL is also contraindicated in patients who have demonstrated hypersensitivity to the drug or its ingredients, or to fesoterodine fumarate extended-release tablets which, like DETROL, are metabolized to 5-hydroxymethyl tolterodine.

Anaphylaxis and angioedema requiring hospitalization and emergency medical treatment have occurred with the first or subsequent doses of DETROL. In the event of difficulty in breathing, upper airway obstruction, or fall in blood pressure, DETROL should be discontinued and appropriate therapy promptly provided.

The Phase 2 and 3 clinical trial program for DETROL Tablets included 3071 patients who were treated with DETROL (N=2133) or placebo (N=938). The patients were treated with 1, 2, 4, or 8 mg/day for up to 12 months. No differences in the safety profile of tolterodine were identified based on age, gender, race, or metabolism.

The data described below reflect exposure to DETROL 2 mg bid in 986 patients and to placebo in 683 patients exposed for 12 weeks in five Phase 3, controlled clinical studies. Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice. The adverse reaction information from clinical trials does, however, provide a basis for identifying the adverse events that appear to be related to drug use and approximating rates.

Sixty-six percent of patients receiving DETROL 2 mg bid reported adverse events versus 56% of placebo patients. The most common adverse events reported by patients receiving DETROL were dry mouth, headache, constipation, vertigo/dizziness, and abdominal pain. Dry mouth, constipation, abnormal vision (accommodation abnormalities), urinary retention, and xerophthalmia are expected side effects of antimuscarinic agents.

Dry mouth was the most frequently reported adverse event for patients treated with DETROL 2 mg bid in the Phase 3 clinical studies, occurring in 34.8% of patients treated with DETROL and 9.8% of placebo-treated patients. One percent of patients treated with DETROL discontinued treatment due to dry mouth.

The frequency of discontinuation due to adverse events was highest during the first 4 weeks of treatment. Seven percent of patients treated with DETROL 2 mg bid discontinued treatment due to adverse events versus 6% of placebo patients. The most common adverse events leading to discontinuation of DETROL were dizziness and headache.

Three percent of patients treated with DETROL 2 mg bid reported a serious adverse event versus 4% of placebo patients. Significant ECG changes in QT and QTc have not been demonstrated in clinical-study patients treated with DETROL 2 mg bid. Table 5 lists the adverse events reported in 1% or more of the patients treated with DETROL 2 mg bid in the 12-week studies. The adverse events are reported regardless of causality.

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Reference

This information is obtained from the National Institute of Health's Standard Packaging Label drug database.
"https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/"

While we update our database periodically, we cannot guarantee it is always updated to the latest version.

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Professional

Clonazepam Description Each single-scored tablet, for oral administration, contains 0.5 mg, 1 mg, or 2 mg Clonazepam, USP, a benzodiazepine. Each tablet also contains corn starch, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, and povidone. Clonazepam tablets USP 0.5 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake. Clonazepam tablets USP 1 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake, as well as FD&C Blue No. 1 Aluminum Lake. Chemically, Clonazepam, USP is 5-(o-chlorophenyl)-1,3-dihydro-7-nitro-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one. It is a light yellow crystalline powder. It has the following structural formula: C15H10ClN3O3 M.W. 315.72
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Tips

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Interactions

Interactions

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