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Dextromethorphan Hydrobromide and Promethazine Hydrochloride

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Overview

What is Dextromethorphan Hydrobromide and Promethazine Hydrochloride?

Each 5 mL (one teaspoonful), for oral administration contains: Dextromethorphan hydrobromide 15 mg; promethazine hydrochloride 6.25 mg. Alcohol 7.0%.

Inactive Ingredients: artificial pineapple flavor, artificial raspberry flavor, ascorbic acid, citric acid anhydrous, dehydrated alcohol, D&C Yellow No. 10, edetate disodium, FD&C Yellow No. 6, glycerin, liquid sugar, methylparaben, purified water, saccharin sodium, sodium benzoate, sodium citrate dihydrate and sodium propionate.

Dextromethorphan hydrobromide is a salt of the methyl ether of the dextrorotatory isomer of levorphanol, a narcotic analgesic. It is chemically designated as 3-Methoxy-17-methyl-9α, 13α, 14α-morphinan hydrobromide monohydrate. Dextromethorphan hydrobromide occurs as white crystals sparingly soluble in water and freely soluble in alcohol. It has a molecular weight of 370.32, a molecular formula of CHNO•HBr•HO, and the following structural formula:

Promethazine is a racemic compound. Promethazine hydrochloride, a phenothiazine derivative, is chemically designated as 10-Phenothiazine-10-ethanamine, ,, α-trimethyl-, monohydrochloride, (±)-.

Promethazine hydrochloride occurs as a white to faint yellow, practically odorless, crystalline powder which slowly oxidizes and turns blue on prolonged exposure to air. It is soluble in water and freely soluble in alcohol. It has a molecular weight of 320.88, a molecular formula of CHNS•HCl, and the following structural formula:



What does Dextromethorphan Hydrobromide and Promethazine Hydrochloride look like?



What are the available doses of Dextromethorphan Hydrobromide and Promethazine Hydrochloride?

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What should I talk to my health care provider before I take Dextromethorphan Hydrobromide and Promethazine Hydrochloride?

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How should I use Dextromethorphan Hydrobromide and Promethazine Hydrochloride?

Promethazine hydrochloride and dextromethorphan hydrobromide syrup is indicated for the temporary relief of coughs and upper respiratory symptoms associated with allergy or the common cold.

Promethazine hydrochloride and dextromethorphan hydrobromide syrup is contraindicated for children under 2 years of age

The average effective dose is given in the following table:


What interacts with Dextromethorphan Hydrobromide and Promethazine Hydrochloride?

Dextromethorphan should not be used in patients receiving a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) (see ).


Promethazine is contraindicated in comatose states, and in individuals known to be hypersensitive or to have had an idiosyncratic reaction to promethazine or to other phenothiazines.


Antihistamines are contraindicated for use in the treatment of lower respiratory tract symptoms, including asthma.



What are the warnings of Dextromethorphan Hydrobromide and Promethazine Hydrochloride?

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WARNING

PROMETHAZINE HYDROCHLORIDE SHOULD NOT BE USED IN PEDIATRIC PATIENTS LESS THAN 2 YEARS OF AGE BECAUSE OF THE POTENTIAL FOR FATAL RESPIRATORY DEPRESSION.

POSTMARKETING CASES OF RESPIRATORY DEPRESSION, INCLUDING FATALITIES, HAVE BEEN REPORTED WITH USE OF PROMETHAZINE HYDROCHLORIDE IN PEDIATRIC PATIENTS LESS THAN 2 YEARS OF AGE. A WIDE RANGE OF WEIGHT-BASED DOSES OF PROMETHAZINE HYDROCHLORIDE HAVE RESULTED IN RESPIRATORY DEPRESSION IN THESE PATIENTS.

CAUTION SHOULD BE EXERCISED WHEN ADMINISTERING PROMETHAZINE HYDROCHLORIDE TO PEDIATRIC PATIENTS 2 YEARS OF AGE AND OLDER. IT IS RECOMMENDED THAT THE LOWEST EFFECTIVE DOSE OF PROMETHAZINE HYDROCHLORIDE BE USED IN PEDIATRIC PATIENTS 2 YEARS OF AGE AND OLDER AND CONCOMITANT ADMINISTRATION OF OTHER DRUGS WITH RESPIRATORY DEPRESSANT EFFECTS BE AVOIDED.

Dextromethorphan

Administration of dextromethorphan may be accompanied by histamine release and should be used with caution in atopic children.

Promethazine

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Promethazine may impair the mental and/or physical abilities required for the performance of potentially hazardous tasks, such as driving a vehicle or operating machinery. The impairment may be amplified by concomitant use of other central-nervous-system depressants such as alcohol, sedatives/hypnotics (including barbiturates), narcotics, narcotic analgesics, general anesthetics, tricyclic antidepressants, and tranquilizers; therefore such agents should either be eliminated or given in reduced dosage in the presence of promethazine HCl (see and ).

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Promethazine may lead to potentially fatal respiratory depression.

Use of Promethazine in patients with compromised respiratory function (e.g., COPD, sleep apnea) should be avoided.

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Promethazine may lower seizure threshold. It should be used with caution in persons with seizure disorders or in persons who are using concomitant medications, such as narcotics or local anesthetics, which may also affect seizure threshold.

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Promethazine should be used with caution in patients with bone-marrow depression. Leukopenia and agranulocytosis have been reported, usually when promethazine HCl has been used in association with other known marrow-toxic agents.

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A potentially fatal symptom complex sometimes referred to as Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS) has been reported in association with promethazine HCl alone or in combination with antipsychotic drugs. Clinical manifestations of NMS are hyperpyrexia, muscle rigidity, altered mental status and evidence of autonomic instability (irregular pulse or blood pressure, tachycardia, diaphoresis and cardiac dysrhythmias).

The diagnostic evaluation of patients with this syndrome is complicated. In arriving at a diagnosis, it is important to identify cases where the clinical presentation includes both serious medical illness (e.g. pneumonia, systemic infection, etc.) and untreated or inadequately treated extrapyramidal signs and symptoms (EPS). Other important considerations in the differential diagnosis include central anticholinergic toxicity, heat stroke, drug fever and primary central nervous system (CNS) pathology.

The management of NMS should include 1) immediate discontinuation of promethazine HCl, antipsychotic drugs, if any, and other drugs not essential to concurrent therapy, 2) intensive symptomatic treatment and medical monitoring, and 3) treatment of any concomitant serious medical problems for which specific treatments are available. There is no general agreement about specific pharmacological treatment regimens for uncomplicated NMS.

Since recurrences of NMS have been reported with phenothiazines, the reintroduction of promethazine HCl should be carefully considered.

Use In Pediatric Patients

PROMETHAZINE PRODUCTS ARE CONTRAINDICATED FOR USE IN PEDIATRIC PATIENTS LESS THAN TWO YEARS OF AGE.

CAUTION SHOULD BE EXERCISED WHEN ADMINISTERING PROMETHAZINE PRODUCTS TO PEDIATRIC PATIENTS 2 YEARS OF AGE AND OLDER BECAUSE OF THE POTENTIAL FOR FATAL RESPIRATORY DEPRESSION. RESPIRATORY DEPRESSION AND APNEA, SOMETIMES ASSOCIATED WITH DEATH, ARE STRONGLY ASSOCIATED WITH PROMETHAZINE PRODUCTS AND ARE NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO INDIVIDUALIZED WEIGHT-BASED DOSING, WHICH MIGHT OTHERWISE PERMIT SAFE ADMINISTRATION. CONCOMITANT ADMINISTRATION OF PROMETHAZINE PRODUCTS WITH OTHER RESPIRATORY DEPRESSANTS HAS AN ASSOCIATION WITH RESPIRATORY DEPRESSION, AND SOMETIMES DEATH, IN PEDIATRIC PATIENTS.

ANTIEMETICS ARE NOT RECOMMENDED FOR TREATMENT OF UNCOMPLICATED VOMITING IN PEDIATRIC PATIENTS, AND THEIR USE SHOULD BE LIMITED TO PROLONGED VOMITING OF KNOWN ETIOLOGY. THE EXTRAPYRAMIDAL SYMPTOMS WHICH CAN OCCUR SECONDARY TO PROMETHAZINE HYDROCHLORIDE ADMINISTRATION MAY BE CONFUSED WITH THE CNS SIGNS OF UNDIAGNOSED PRIMARY DISEASE, e.g., ENCEPHALOPATHY OR REYE'S SYNDROME. THE USE OF PROMETHAZINE PRODUCTS SHOULD BE AVOIDED IN PEDIATRIC PATIENTS WHOSE SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS MAY SUGGEST REYE'S SYNDROME OR OTHER HEPATIC DISEASES.

Excessively large dosages of antihistamines, including promethazine hydrochloride, in pediatric patients may cause sudden death (see ). Hallucinations and convulsions have occurred with therapeutic doses and overdoses of promethazine hydrochloride in pediatric patients. In pediatric patients who are acutely ill associated with dehydration, there is an increased susceptibility to dystonias with the use of promethazine HCl.

Other Consideration

Administration of promethazine has been associated with reported cholestatic jaundice.


What are the precautions of Dextromethorphan Hydrobromide and Promethazine Hydrochloride?

Animal reproduction studies have not been conducted with the drug combination–promethazine and dextromethorphan. It is not known whether this drug combination can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman or can affect reproduction capacity. Promethazine and dextromethorphan should be given to a pregnant woman only if clearly needed.

General

Dextromethorphan should be used with caution in sedated patients, in the debilitated, and in patients confined to the supine position.

Drugs having anticholinergic properties should be used with caution in patients with narrow-angle glaucoma, prostatic hypertrophy, stenosing peptic ulcer, pyloroduodenal obstruction, and bladder-neck obstruction.

Promethazine should be used cautiously in persons with cardiovascular disease or with impairment of liver function.

Information For Patients

Promethazine and dextromethorphan may cause marked drowsiness or impair the mental and/or physical abilities required for the performance of potentially hazardous tasks, such as driving a vehicle or operating machinery. Ambulatory patients should be told to avoid engaging in such activities until it is known that they do not become drowsy or dizzy from promethazine and dextromethorphan therapy. Children should be supervised to avoid potential harm in bike riding or in other hazardous activities.

The concomitant use of alcohol or other central nervous system depressants, including narcotic analgesics, sedatives, hypnotics, and tranquilizers, may have an additive effect and should be avoided or their dosage reduced.

Patients should be advised to report any involuntary muscle movements.

Avoid prolonged exposure to the sun.

Drug Interactions

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Hyperpyrexia, hypotension, and death have been reported coincident with the coadministration of monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors and products containing dextromethorphan. Thus, concomitant administration of promethazine with dextromethorphan and MAO inhibitors should be avoided (see ).

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Drug/Laboratory Test Interactions

The following laboratory tests may be affected in patients who are receiving therapy with promethazine hydrochloride:

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Diagnostic pregnancy tests based on immunological reactions between HCG and anti-HCG may result in false-negative or false-positive interpretations.

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An increase in blood glucose has been reported in patients receiving promethazine.

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility

Long-term animal studies have not been performed to assess the carcinogenic potential of promethazine or of dextromethorphan. There are no animal or human data concerning the carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, or impairment of fertility with these drugs. Promethazine was nonmutagenic in the test system of Ames.

Pregnancy

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Promethazine administered to a pregnant woman within two weeks of delivery may inhibit platelet aggregation in the newborn.

Labor And Delivery

Limited data suggest that use of promethazine HCl during labor and delivery does not have an appreciable effect on the duration of labor or delivery and does not increase the risk of need for intervention in the newborn. The effect on later growth and development of the newborn is unknown. See also "".

Nursing Mothers

It is not known whether promethazine or dextromethorphan is excreted in human milk.

Caution should be exercised when promethazine and dextromethorphan is administered to a nursing woman.

Pediatric Use

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Promethazine hydrochloride and dextromethorphan hydrobromide syrup should be used with caution in pediatric patients 2 years of age and older (see ).

Geriatric Use

Clinical studies of promethazine hydrochloride and dextromethorphan hydrobromide syrup did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.

Sedating drugs may cause confusion and over-sedation in the elderly; elderly patients generally should be started on low doses of Promethazine Hydrochloride and Dextromethorphan Hydrobromide Syrup and observed closely.


What are the side effects of Dextromethorphan Hydrobromide and Promethazine Hydrochloride?

Dextromethorphan

Dextromethorphan hydrobromide occasionally causes slight drowsiness, dizziness, and gastrointestinal disturbances.

Promethazine

Central Nervous System -Drowsiness is the most prominent CNS effect of this drug. Sedation, somnolence, blurred vision, dizziness; confusion, disorientation, and extrapyramidal symptoms such as oculogyric crisis, torticollis, and tongue protrusion; lassitude, tinnitus, incoordination, fatigue, euphoria, nervousness, diplopia, insomnia, tremors, convulsive seizures, excitation, catatonic-like states, hysteria. Hallucinations have also been reported.

Cardiovascular - Increased or decreased blood pressure, tachycardia, bradycardia, faintness.

Dermatologic - Dermatitis, photosensitivity, urticaria.

Hematologic - Leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, thrombocytopenic purpura, agranulocytosis.

Gastrointestinal - Dry mouth, nausea, vomiting, jaundice.

Respiratory-Asthma, nasal stuffiness, respiratory depression (potentially fatal) and apnea (potentially fatal). (See .)

Other-Angioneurotic edema. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (potentially fatal) has also been reported. (See .)

Paradoxical Reactions - Hyperexcitability and abnormal movements have been reported in patients following a single administration of promethazine HCl. Consideration should be given to the discontinuation of promethazine HCl and to the use of other drugs if these reactions occur. Respiratory depression, nightmares, delirium, and agitated behavior have also been reported in some of these patients.


What should I look out for while using Dextromethorphan Hydrobromide and Promethazine Hydrochloride?

Dextromethorphan should not be used in patients receiving a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) (see ).

Promethazine is contraindicated in comatose states, and in individuals known to be hypersensitive or to have had an idiosyncratic reaction to promethazine or to other phenothiazines.

Antihistamines are contraindicated for use in the treatment of lower respiratory tract symptoms, including asthma.


What might happen if I take too much Dextromethorphan Hydrobromide and Promethazine Hydrochloride?


How should I store and handle Dextromethorphan Hydrobromide and Promethazine Hydrochloride?

This preparation is a clear, yellow colored syrup, containing Promethazine hydrochloride 6.25 mg/5 mL, dextromethorphan hydrobromide 15 mg/5 mL and alcohol 7 percent, and is available in 4 fluid ounce (118 mL) bottles.


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Clinical Information

Chemical Structure

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Clinical Pharmacology

Dextromethorphan is an antitussive agent and, unlike the isomeric levorphanol, it has no analgesic or addictive properties.

The drug acts centrally and elevates the threshold for coughing. It is about equal to codeine in depressing the cough reflex. In therapeutic dosage dextromethorphan does not inhibit ciliary activity.

Dextromethorphan is rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and exerts its effect in 15 to 30 minutes. The duration of action after oral administration is approximately three to six hours. Dextromethorphan is metabolized primarily by liver enzymes undergoing O-demethylation, N-demethylation, and partial conjugation with glucuronic acid and sulfate. In humans, (+)-3-hydroxy-N-methyl-morphinan, (+)-3-hydroxymorphinan, and traces of unmetabolized drug were found in urine after oral administration.

Non-Clinical Toxicology
Dextromethorphan should not be used in patients receiving a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) (see ).

Promethazine is contraindicated in comatose states, and in individuals known to be hypersensitive or to have had an idiosyncratic reaction to promethazine or to other phenothiazines.

Antihistamines are contraindicated for use in the treatment of lower respiratory tract symptoms, including asthma.

Animal reproduction studies have not been conducted with the drug combination–promethazine and dextromethorphan. It is not known whether this drug combination can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman or can affect reproduction capacity. Promethazine and dextromethorphan should be given to a pregnant woman only if clearly needed.

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Reference

This information is obtained from the National Institute of Health's Standard Packaging Label drug database.
"https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/"

While we update our database periodically, we cannot guarantee it is always updated to the latest version.

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Professional

Clonazepam Description Each single-scored tablet, for oral administration, contains 0.5 mg, 1 mg, or 2 mg Clonazepam, USP, a benzodiazepine. Each tablet also contains corn starch, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, and povidone. Clonazepam tablets USP 0.5 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake. Clonazepam tablets USP 1 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake, as well as FD&C Blue No. 1 Aluminum Lake. Chemically, Clonazepam, USP is 5-(o-chlorophenyl)-1,3-dihydro-7-nitro-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one. It is a light yellow crystalline powder. It has the following structural formula: C15H10ClN3O3 M.W. 315.72
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Interactions

Interactions

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