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Diclofenac Sodium and Misoprostol

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Overview

What is Diclofenac Sodium and Misoprostol?

Diclofenac sodium and misoprostol delayed-release tablets, USP are a combination product containing diclofenac sodium, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) with analgesic properties, and misoprostol, a gastrointestinal (GI) mucosal protective prostaglandin E analog. Diclofenac sodium and misoprostol delayed-release tablets, USP are white to off-white, round, biconvex tablets, and approximately 11 mm in diameter. Each tablet consists of an enteric-coated core containing 50 mg or 75 mg diclofenac sodium surrounded by an outer mantle containing 0.2 mg misoprostol.

Diclofenac sodium is a phenylacetic acid derivative that is a white to off-white, virtually odorless, crystalline powder. Diclofenac sodium is freely soluble in methanol, soluble in ethanol, and practically insoluble in chloroform and in dilute acid. Diclofenac sodium is sparingly soluble in water. Its chemical formula and name are: 

CHClNONa [M.W. = 318.14] 2-[(2,6-dichlorophenyl) amino] benzeneacetic acid, monosodium salt.

Misoprostol is a water-soluble, viscous liquid that contains approximately equal amounts of two diastereomers. Its chemical formula and name are:

CHO [M.W. = 382.54] (±) methyl 11α,16-dihydroxy-16-methyl-9-oxoprost-13E-en-1-oate.

Inactive ingredients in diclofenac sodium and misoprostol delayed-release tablets include: colloidal silicon dioxide; crospovidone; hydrogenated castor oil; hypromellose; lactose; magnesium stearate; methacrylic acid copolymer dispersion; microcrystalline cellulose; povidone (polyvidone) K-30; sodium hydroxide; starch (corn); talc; triethyl citrate.



What does Diclofenac Sodium and Misoprostol look like?



What are the available doses of Diclofenac Sodium and Misoprostol?

Diclofenac sodium and misoprostol delayed-release tablets, USP 50 mg/0.2 mg and 75 mg/0.2 mg ()

What should I talk to my health care provider before I take Diclofenac Sodium and Misoprostol?

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How should I use Diclofenac Sodium and Misoprostol?

Diclofenac sodium and misoprostol delayed-release tablets are indicated for treatment of the signs and symptoms of osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis in patients at high risk of developing NSAID-induced gastric and duodenal ulcers and their complications. For a list of factors that may increase the risk of NSAID-induced gastric and duodenal ulcers and their complications

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Carefully consider the potential benefits and risks of diclofenac sodium and misoprostol delayed-release tablets and other treatment options before deciding to use diclofenac sodium and misoprostol delayed-release tablets. Use the lowest effective dosage for the shortest duration consistent with individual patient treatment goals

After observing the response to initial therapy with diclofenac sodium and misoprostol delayed-release tablets, the dose and frequency should be adjusted to suit an individual patient’s needs.

For the relief of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis, the dosage is given below.

Diclofenac sodium and misoprostol delayed-release tablets are administered as diclofenac sodium and misoprostol delayed-release tablets (50 mg diclofenac sodium/0.2 mg misoprostol) or as diclofenac sodium and misoprostol delayed-release tablets (75 mg diclofenac sodium/0.2 mg misoprostol).

Note: See

section below.

For osteoarthritis, the dosage for maximal GI mucosal protection is diclofenac sodium and misoprostol delayed-release tablets 50 mg/0.2 mg three times a day. For patients who experience intolerance, diclofenac sodium and misoprostol delayed-release tablets 75 mg/0.2 mg two times a day or diclofenac sodium and misoprostol delayed-release tablets 50 mg/0.2 mg two times a day can be used, but are less effective in preventing ulcers. This fixed combination product, diclofenac sodium and misoprostol delayed-release tablets, is not recommended for patients who would not receive the appropriate dose of both ingredients. Doses of the components delivered with these regimens are as follows:

For rheumatoid arthritis, the dosage is diclofenac sodium and misoprostol delayed-release tablets 50 mg/0.2 mg three or four times a day. For patients who experience intolerance, diclofenac sodium and misoprostol delayed-release tablets 75 mg/0.2 mg two times a day or diclofenac sodium and misoprostol delayed-release tablets 50 mg/0.2 mg two times a day can be used, but are less effective in preventing ulcers. This fixed combination product, diclofenac sodium and misoprostol delayed-release tablets, is not recommended for patients who would not receive the appropriate dose of both ingredients. Doses of the components delivered with these regimens are as follows:

Special Dosing Considerations:

Diclofenac sodium and misoprostol delayed-release tablets contain misoprostol, which provides protection against gastric and duodenal ulcers

For gastric ulcer prevention, the 200 mcg four and three times a day regimens are therapeutically equivalent, but more protective than the two times a day regimen. For duodenal ulcer prevention, the four times a day regimen is more protective than the three or two times a day regimens. However, the four times a day regimen is less well tolerated than the three times a day regimen because of usually self-limited diarrhea related to the misoprostol dose

, and the two times a day regimen may be better tolerated than three times a day in some patients.

Dosages may be individualized using the separate products (misoprostol and diclofenac), after which the patient may be changed to the appropriate dose of diclofenac sodium and misoprostol delayed-release tablets. If clinically indicated, misoprostol co-therapy with diclofenac sodium and misoprostol delayed-release tablets, or use of the individual components to optimize the misoprostol dose and/or frequency of administration, may be appropriate. The total dose of misoprostol should not exceed 800 mcg/day, and no more than 200 mcg of misoprostol should be administered at any one time. Doses of diclofenac higher than 150 mg/day in osteoarthritis or higher than 225 mg/day in rheumatoid arthritis are not recommended.

When concomitant use of CYP2C9 inhibitors is necessary, the total daily dose of diclofenac should not exceed the lowest recommended dose of diclofenac sodium and misoprostol delayed-release tablets 50 mg/0.2 mg two times a day.

For additional information, it may be helpful to refer to the package inserts for misoprostol and diclofenac.


What interacts with Diclofenac Sodium and Misoprostol?

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What are the warnings of Diclofenac Sodium and Misoprostol?

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What are the precautions of Diclofenac Sodium and Misoprostol?

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What are the side effects of Diclofenac Sodium and Misoprostol?

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What should I look out for while using Diclofenac Sodium and Misoprostol?

Diclofenac sodium and misoprostol is contraindicated in the following patients:

● Known hypersensitivity (e.g., anaphylactic reactions and serious skin reactions) to diclofenac sodium/misoprostol, other prostaglandins, or any components of the drug product

● History of asthma, urticaria, or other allergic-type reactions after taking aspirin or other NSAIDs. Severe, sometimes fatal, anaphylactic reactions to NSAIDs have been reported in such patients

● In the setting of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery

● Pregnancy. Use of diclofenac sodium and misoprostol delayed-release tablets during pregnancy can result in maternal and fetal harm, including abortion, premature birth, birth defects, and uterine rupture

● Active gastrointestinal bleeding



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What might happen if I take too much Diclofenac Sodium and Misoprostol?

The toxic dose of diclofenac sodium and misoprostol has not been determined. However, signs of overdosage from the components of the product have been described.

Diclofenac

Symptoms following acute NSAID overdosages have been typically limited to lethargy, drowsiness, nausea, vomiting, and epigastric pain, which have been generally reversible with supportive care. Gastrointestinal bleeding has occurred. Hypertension, acute renal failure, respiratory depression, and coma have occurred, but were rare .

Clinical signs that may suggest diclofenac sodium overdose include GI complaints, confusion, drowsiness, or general hypotonia.

Manage patients with symptomatic and supportive care following an NSAID overdosage. There are no specific antidotes. Consider emesis and/or activated charcoal (60 to 100 grams in adults, 1 to 2 grams per kg of body weight in pediatric patients) and/or osmotic cathartic in symptomatic patients seen within four hours of ingestion or in patients with a large overdosage (5 to 10 times the recommended dosage). Forced diuresis, alkalinization of urine, hemodialysis, or hemoperfusion may not be useful due to high protein binding.

Misoprostol

The toxic dose of misoprostol in humans has not been determined. Cumulative total daily doses of 1600 mcg have been tolerated, with only symptoms of GI discomfort being reported. Clinical signs that may indicate an overdose are sedation, tremor, convulsions, dyspnea, abdominal pain, diarrhea, fever, palpitations, hypotension, or bradycardia.

Diclofenac Sodium and Misoprostol

Symptoms of overdosage with diclofenac sodium and misoprostol should be treated with supportive therapy. In case of acute overdosage, gastric lavage is recommended. Induced diuresis may be beneficial because diclofenac sodium and misoprostol metabolites are excreted in the urine. The effect of dialysis or hemoperfusion on the elimination of diclofenac sodium (99% protein bound) and misoprostol acid remains unproven. The use of oral activated charcoal may help to reduce the absorption of diclofenac sodium and misoprostol. 

For additional information about overdosage treatment contact a poison control center (1-800-222-1222).


How should I store and handle Diclofenac Sodium and Misoprostol?

Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature].Preserve in tight, light-resistant containers as defined in the USP.Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature].Preserve in tight, light-resistant containers as defined in the USP.Diclofenac sodium and misoprostol delayed-release tablets, USP are supplied in dosage strengths of either 50 mg diclofenac sodium/0.2 mg misoprostol or 75 mg diclofenac sodium/0.2 mg misoprostol. The 50 mg/0.2 mg dosage strength are white to off white, round, biconvex tablets, plain on one side and debossed with “” on the other side. The 75 mg/0.2 mg dosage strength are white to off white, round, biconvex tablets, plain on one side and debossed with “” on the other side.Bottle of 60 - 68788-9290-6Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature], in a dry area.Diclofenac sodium and misoprostol delayed-release tablets, USP are supplied in dosage strengths of either 50 mg diclofenac sodium/0.2 mg misoprostol or 75 mg diclofenac sodium/0.2 mg misoprostol. The 50 mg/0.2 mg dosage strength are white to off white, round, biconvex tablets, plain on one side and debossed with “” on the other side. The 75 mg/0.2 mg dosage strength are white to off white, round, biconvex tablets, plain on one side and debossed with “” on the other side.Bottle of 60 - 68788-9290-6Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature], in a dry area.Diclofenac sodium and misoprostol delayed-release tablets, USP are supplied in dosage strengths of either 50 mg diclofenac sodium/0.2 mg misoprostol or 75 mg diclofenac sodium/0.2 mg misoprostol. The 50 mg/0.2 mg dosage strength are white to off white, round, biconvex tablets, plain on one side and debossed with “” on the other side. The 75 mg/0.2 mg dosage strength are white to off white, round, biconvex tablets, plain on one side and debossed with “” on the other side.Bottle of 60 - 68788-9290-6Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature], in a dry area.


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Clinical Information

Chemical Structure

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Clinical Pharmacology

Diclofenac/misoprostol is a combination product containing diclofenac, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) with analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties, and misoprostol, a GI mucosal protective prostaglandin E analog.

Diclofenac

The mechanism of action of diclofenac, like that of other NSAIDs, is not completely understood but involves inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX-1 and COX-2).

Diclofenac is a potent inhibitor of prostaglandin (PG) synthesis . Diclofenac concentrations reached during therapy have produced effects. Prostaglandins sensitize afferent nerves and potentiate the action of bradykinin in inducing pain in animal models. Prostaglandins are mediators of inflammation. Because diclofenac is an inhibitor of prostaglandin synthesis, its mode of action may be due to a decrease of prostaglandins in peripheral tissues.

Misoprostol

Misoprostol is a synthetic prostaglandin E analog with gastric antisecretory and mucosal protective properties. NSAIDs inhibit prostaglandin synthesis. A deficiency of prostaglandins within the gastric and duodenal mucosa may lead to diminishing bicarbonate and mucus secretion and may contribute to the mucosal damage caused by NSAIDs.

Misoprostol can increase bicarbonate and mucus production, but it has been shown at doses 200 mcg and above that are also antisecretory. It is therefore not possible to differentiate whether the ability of misoprostol to reduce the risk of gastric and duodenal ulcers is the result of its antisecretory effect, its mucosal protective effect, or both.

In vitro

Receptor-site affinity for misoprostol correlates well with an indirect index of antisecretory activity. It is likely that these specific receptors allow misoprostol taken with food to be effective topically, despite the lower serum concentrations attained.

Misoprostol, over the range of 50 to 200 mcg, inhibits basal and nocturnal gastric acid secretion, and acid secretion in response to a variety of stimuli, including meals, histamine, pentagastrin, and coffee. Activity is apparent 30 minutes after oral administration and persists for at least 3 hours. In general, the effects of 50 mcg were modest and shorter-lived, and only the 200 mcg dose had substantial effects on nocturnal secretion or on histamine- and meal-stimulated secretion.

Misoprostol also produces a moderate decrease in pepsin concentration during basal conditions, but not during histamine stimulation. It has no significant effect on fasting or postprandial gastrin nor intrinsic factor output.

Non-Clinical Toxicology
Diclofenac sodium and misoprostol is contraindicated in the following patients:

● Known hypersensitivity (e.g., anaphylactic reactions and serious skin reactions) to diclofenac sodium/misoprostol, other prostaglandins, or any components of the drug product

● History of asthma, urticaria, or other allergic-type reactions after taking aspirin or other NSAIDs. Severe, sometimes fatal, anaphylactic reactions to NSAIDs have been reported in such patients

● In the setting of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery

● Pregnancy. Use of diclofenac sodium and misoprostol delayed-release tablets during pregnancy can result in maternal and fetal harm, including abortion, premature birth, birth defects, and uterine rupture

● Active gastrointestinal bleeding

Cyclobenzaprine may have life-threatening interactions with MAO inhibitors (see ). Postmarketing cases of serotonin syndrome have been reported during combined use of cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride and other drugs, such as SSRIs, SNRIs, TCAs, tramadol, bupropion, meperidine, verapamil, or MAO inhibitors. If concomitant treatment with cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride and other serotonergic drugs is clinically warranted, careful observation is advised, particularly during treatment initiation or dose increases (see ).

Cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride may enhance the effects of alcohol, barbiturates, and other CNS depressants.

Tricyclic antidepressants may block the antihypertensive action of guanethidine and similarly acting compounds.

Tricyclic antidepressants may enhance the seizure risk in patients taking tramadol.

Array

Clinical trials of several COX-2 selective and nonselective NSAIDs of up to three years duration have shown an increased risk of serious cardiovascular (CV) thrombotic events, including myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke, which can be fatal. Based on available data, it is unclear that the risk for CV thrombotic events is similar for all NSAIDs. The relative increase in serious CV thrombotic events over baseline conferred by NSAID use appears to be similar in those with and without known CV disease or risk factors for CV disease. However, patients with known CV disease or risk factors had a higher absolute incidence of excess serious CV thrombotic events, due to their increased baseline rate. Some observational studies found that this increased risk of serious CV thrombotic events began as early as the first weeks of treatment. The increase in CV thrombotic risk has been observed most consistently at higher doses.

To minimize the potential risk for an adverse CV event in NSAID-treated patients, use the lowest effective dose for the shortest duration possible. Physicians and patients should remain alert for the development of such events, throughout the entire treatment course, even in the absence of previous CV symptoms. Patients should be informed about the symptoms of serious CV events and the steps to take if they occur.

There is no consistent evidence that concurrent use of aspirin mitigates the increased risk of serious CV thrombotic events associated with NSAID use. The concurrent use of aspirin and an NSAID, such as diclofenac, increases the risk of serious gastrointestinal (GI) events

.

Status Post Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) Surgery

Two large, controlled clinical trials of a COX-2 selective NSAID for the treatment of pain in the first 10 to 14 days following CABG surgery found an increased incidence of myocardial infarction and stroke. NSAIDs are contraindicated in the setting of CABG

.

Post-MI Patients

Observational studies conducted in the Danish National Registry have demonstrated that patients treated with NSAIDs in the post-MI period were at increased risk of reinfarction, CV-related death, and all-cause mortality beginning in the first week of treatment. In this same cohort, the incidence of death in the first year post-MI was 20 per 100 person years in NSAID-treated patients compared to 12 per 100 person years in non-NSAID exposed patients. Although the absolute rate of death declined somewhat after the first year post-MI, the increased relative risk of death in NSAID users persisted over at least the next four years of follow-up.

Avoid the use of diclofenac sodium and misoprostol in patients with a recent MI unless the benefits are expected to outweigh the risk of recurrent CV thrombotic events. If diclofenac sodium and misoprostol is used in patients with a recent MI, monitor patients for signs of cardiac ischemia.

The following adverse reactions are discussed in greater detail in other sections of the labeling:

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Reference

This information is obtained from the National Institute of Health's Standard Packaging Label drug database.
"https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/"

While we update our database periodically, we cannot guarantee it is always updated to the latest version.

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Professional

Clonazepam Description Each single-scored tablet, for oral administration, contains 0.5 mg, 1 mg, or 2 mg Clonazepam, USP, a benzodiazepine. Each tablet also contains corn starch, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, and povidone. Clonazepam tablets USP 0.5 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake. Clonazepam tablets USP 1 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake, as well as FD&C Blue No. 1 Aluminum Lake. Chemically, Clonazepam, USP is 5-(o-chlorophenyl)-1,3-dihydro-7-nitro-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one. It is a light yellow crystalline powder. It has the following structural formula: C15H10ClN3O3 M.W. 315.72
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Tips

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Interactions

Interactions

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