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Diclofenac Sodium

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Overview

What is Diclofenac Sodium Topical Solution?

Diclofenac Sodium topical solution 1.5% w/w is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, available as a clear, colorless to faintly pink-orange solution for topical application.

Diclofenac Sodium topical solution contains 1.5% w/w of diclofenac sodium, a benzeneacetic acid derivative that is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), designated chemically as 2-[(2,6-dichlorophenyl) amino]-benzeneacetic acid, monosodium salt. It is a white or slightly yellowish crystalline powder, slightly hygroscopic, and odorless that is freely soluble in methanol, soluble in alcohol, slightly soluble in acetone and sparingly soluble in water. The molecular weight is 318.14. Its molecular formula is CHClNNaO and it has the following structural formula:

Each 1 mL of solution contains 16.05 mg of diclofenac sodium. The inactive ingredients in Diclofenac Sodium topical solution, 1.5% w/w include: dimethyl sulfoxide USP (DMSO, 45.5% w/w), propylene glycol, alcohol, glycerin and purified water.



What does Diclofenac Sodium Topical Solution look like?



What are the available doses of Diclofenac Sodium Topical Solution?

Diclofenac Sodium topical solution: 1.5% w/w

What should I talk to my health care provider before I take Diclofenac Sodium Topical Solution?

How should I use Diclofenac Sodium Topical Solution?

Diclofenac Sodium topical solution, 1.5% w/w is indicated for the treatment of signs and symptoms of osteoarthritis of the knee(s)

Use the lowest effective dosage for the shortest duration consistent with individual patient treatment goals

For the relief of the signs and symptoms of osteoarthritis of the knee(s), the recommended dose is 40 drops per knee, 4 times a day. Apply Diclofenac Sodium topical solution, 1.5% w/w to clean, dry skin.

To avoid spillage, dispense Diclofenac Sodium topical solution, 1.5% w/w 10 drops at a time either directly onto the knee or first into the hand and then onto the knee. Spread Diclofenac Sodium topical solution, 1.5% w/w evenly around front, back and sides of the knee. Repeat this procedure until 40 drops have been applied and the knee is completely covered with solution.

To treat the other knee, if symptomatic, repeat the procedure.

Application of Diclofenac Sodium topical solution, 1.5% w/w in an amount exceeding or less than the recommended dose has not been studied and is therefore not recommended.


What interacts with Diclofenac Sodium Topical Solution?

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What are the warnings of Diclofenac Sodium Topical Solution?

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What are the precautions of Diclofenac Sodium Topical Solution?

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What are the side effects of Diclofenac Sodium Topical Solution?

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What should I look out for while using Diclofenac Sodium Topical Solution?

Diclofenac Sodium topical solution, 1.5% w/w is contraindicated in the following patients:

Cardiovascular Thrombotic Events

Gastrointestinal Bleeding, Ulceration, and Perforation


What might happen if I take too much Diclofenac Sodium Topical Solution?

Symptoms following acute NSAID overdosages have been typically limited to lethargy, drowsiness, nausea, vomiting, and epigastric pain, which have been generally reversible with supportive care. Gastrointestinal bleeding has occurred. Hypertension, acute renal failure, respiratory depression, and coma have occurred, but were rare. .

Manage patients with symptomatic and supportive care following an NSAID overdosage. There are no specific antidotes. Emesis is not recommended due to a possibility of aspiration and subsequent respiratory irritation by DMSO contained in Diclofenac Sodium topical solution, 1.5% w/w. Consider activated charcoal (60 to 100 grams in adults, 1 to 2 grams per kg of body weight in pediatric patients) and/or osmotic cathartic in symptomatic patients seen within four hours of ingestion or in patients with a large overdosage (5 to 10 times the recommended dosage). Forced diuresis, alkalinization of urine, hemodialysis, or hemoperfusion may not be useful due to high protein binding.

For additional information about overdose treatment, contact a poison control center (1-800-222- 1222).


How should I store and handle Diclofenac Sodium Topical Solution?

Store at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted to 15-30°C (59-86°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature].Diclofenac Sodium topical solution, 1.5% w/w, is supplied as a clear, colorless to faintly pink-orange solution containing 16.05 mg of diclofenac sodium per mL of solution, in a white high density polyethylene bottle with a white low-density dropper cap.NDC Number & Size150 mL bottle NDC #50742-308-05Diclofenac Sodium topical solution, 1.5% w/w, is supplied as a clear, colorless to faintly pink-orange solution containing 16.05 mg of diclofenac sodium per mL of solution, in a white high density polyethylene bottle with a white low-density dropper cap.NDC Number & Size150 mL bottle NDC #50742-308-05Diclofenac Sodium topical solution, 1.5% w/w, is supplied as a clear, colorless to faintly pink-orange solution containing 16.05 mg of diclofenac sodium per mL of solution, in a white high density polyethylene bottle with a white low-density dropper cap.NDC Number & Size150 mL bottle NDC #50742-308-05


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Clinical Information

Chemical Structure

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Clinical Pharmacology

Diclofenac has analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic properties.

The mechanism of action of Diclofenac Sodium topical solution 1.5% w/w, like that of other NSAIDs, is not completely understood but involves inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX-1 and COX-2)

Diclofenac is a potent inhibitor of prostaglandin synthesis . Diclofenac concentrations reached during therapy have produced effects. Prostaglandins sensitize afferent nerves and potentiate the action of bradykinin in inducing pain in animal models. Prostaglandins are mediators of inflammation. Because diclofenac is an inhibitor of prostaglandin synthesis, its mode of action may be due to a decrease of prostaglandins in peripheral tissues.

Non-Clinical Toxicology
Diclofenac Sodium topical solution, 1.5% w/w is contraindicated in the following patients:

Cardiovascular Thrombotic Events

Gastrointestinal Bleeding, Ulceration, and Perforation

Acidifying Agents

Lower blood levels and efficacy of amphetamines. Increase dose based on clinical response. Examples of acidifying agents include gastrointestinal acidifying agents (e.g., guanethidine, reserpine, glutamine acid HCl, ascorbic acid) and urinary acidifying agents (e.g., ammonium chloride, sodium acid phosphate, methenamine salts).

Adrenergic Blockers

Adrenergic blockers are inhibited by amphetamines.

Alkalinizing Agents

Increase blood levels and potentiate the action of amphetamine. Co-administration of dextroamphetamine saccharate, amphetamine aspartate, dextroamphetamine sulfate and amphetamine sulfate tablets and gastrointestinal alkalinizing agents should be avoided. Examples of alkalinizing agents include gastrointestinal alkalinizing agents (e.g., sodium bicarbonate) and urinary alkalinizing agents (e.g. acetazolamide, some thiazides).

Tricyclic Antidepressants

May enhance the activity of tricyclic or sympathomimetic agents causing striking and sustained increases in the concentration of d-amphetamine in the brain; cardiovascular effects can be potentiated. Monitor frequently and adjust or use alternative therapy based on clinical response. Examples of tricyclic antidepressants include desipramine, protriptyline.

CYP2D6 Inhibitors

The concomitant use of dextroamphetamine saccharate, amphetamine aspartate, dextroamphetamine sulfate and amphetamine sulfate tablets and CYP2D6 inhibitors may increase the exposure of dextroamphetamine saccharate, amphetamine aspartate, dextroamphetamine sulfate and amphetamine sulfate tablets compared to the use of the drug alone and increase the risk of serotonin syndrome. Initiate with lower doses and monitor patients for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome particularly during dextroamphetamine saccharate, amphetamine aspartate, dextroamphetamine sulfate and amphetamine sulfate tablets initiation and after a dosage increase. If serotonin syndrome occurs, discontinue dextroamphetamine saccharate, amphetamine aspartate, dextroamphetamine sulfate and amphetamine sulfate tablets and the CYP2D6 inhibitor [see ]. Examples of CYP2D6 inhibitors include paroxetine and fluoxetine (also serotonergic drugs), quinidine, ritonavir.

Serotonergic Drugs

The concomitant use of dextroamphetamine saccharate, amphetamine aspartate, dextroamphetamine sulfate and amphetamine sulfate tablets and serotonergic drugs increases the risk of serotonin syndrome. Initiate with lower doses and monitor patients for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome, particularly during dextroamphetamine saccharate, amphetamine aspartate, dextroamphetamine sulfate and amphetamine sulfate tablets initiation or dosage increase. If serotonin syndrome occurs, discontinue dextroamphetamine saccharate, amphetamine aspartate, dextroamphetamine sulfate and amphetamine sulfate tablets and the concomitant serotonergic drug(s) [see and ]. Examples of serotonergic drugs include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI), serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRI), triptans, tricyclic antidepressants, fentanyl, lithium, tramadol, tryptophan, buspirone, St. John's Wort.

MAO Inhibitors

Concomitant use of MAOIs and CNS stimulants can cause hypertensive crisis.  Potential outcomes include death, stroke, myocardial infarction, aortic dissection, ophthalmological complications, eclampsia, pulmonary edema, and renal failure. Do not administer dextroamphetamine saccharate, amphetamine aspartate, dextroamphetamine sulfate and amphetamine sulfate tablets concomitantly or within 14 days after discontinuing MAOI [see and ]. Examples of MAOIs include selegiline, tranylcypromine, isocarboxazid, phenelzine, linezolid, methylene blue.

Antihistamines

Amphetamines may counteract the sedative effect of antihistamines.

Antihypertensives

Amphetamines may antagonize the hypotensive effects of antihypertensives.

Chlorpromazine

Chlorpromazine blocks dopamine and norepinephrine receptors, thus inhibiting the central stimulant effects of amphetamines, and can be used to treat amphetamine poisoning.

Ethosuximide

Amphetamines may delay intestinal absorption of ethosuximide.

Haloperidol

Haloperidol blocks dopamine receptors, thus inhibiting the central stimulant effects of amphetamines.

Lithium Carbonate

The anorectic and stimulatory effects of amphetamines may be inhibited by lithium carbonate.

Meperidine

Amphetamines potentiate the analgesic effect of meperidine.

Methenamine Therapy

Urinary excretion of amphetamines is increased, and efficacy is reduced, by acidifying agents used in methenamine therapy.

Norepinephrine

Amphetamines enhance the adrenergic effect of norepinephrine.

Phenobarbital

Amphetamines may delay intestinal absorption of phenobarbital; coadministration of phenobarbital may produce a synergistic anticonvulsant action.

Phenytoin

Amphetamines may delay intestinal absorption of phenytoin; coadministration of phenytoin may produce a synergistic anticonvulsant action.

Propoxyphene

In cases of propoxyphene overdosage, amphetamine CNS stimulation is potentiated and fatal convulsions can occur.

Proton Pump Inhibitors

Time to maximum concentration (Tmax) of amphetamine is decreased compared to when administered alone. Monitor patients for changes in clinical effect and adjust therapy based on clinical response. An example of a proton pump inhibitor is omeprazole.

Veratrum Alkaloids

Amphetamines inhibit the hypotensive effect of veratrum alkaloids.

Clinical trials of several COX-2 selective and nonselective NSAIDs of up to three years duration have shown an increased risk of serious cardiovascular (CV) thrombotic events, including myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke, which can be fatal. Based on available data, it is unclear that the risk for CV thrombotic events is similar for all NSAIDs. The relative increase in serious CV thrombotic events over baseline conferred by NSAID use appears to be similar in those with and without known CV disease or risk factors for CV disease. However, patients with known CV disease or risk factors had a higher absolute incidence of excess serious CV thrombotic events, due to their increased baseline rate. Some observational studies found that this increased risk of serious CV thrombotic events began as early as the first weeks of treatment. The increase in CV thrombotic risk has been observed most consistently at higher doses.

To minimize the potential risk for an adverse CV event in NSAID-treated patients, use the lowest effective dose for the shortest duration possible. Physicians and patients should remain alert for the development of such events, throughout the entire treatment course, even in the absence of previous CV symptoms. Patients should be informed about the symptoms of serious CV events and the steps to take if they occur.

There is no consistent evidence that concurrent use of aspirin mitigates the increased risk of serious CV thrombotic events associated with NSAID use. The concurrent use of aspirin and an NSAID, such as diclofenac, increases the risk of serious gastrointestinal (GI) events

Status Post Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) Surgery

[see ].

Post-MI Patients

Avoid the use of Diclofenac Sodium topical solution, 1.5% w/w in patients with a recent MI unless the benefits are expected to outweigh the risk of recurrent CV thrombotic events. If Diclofenac Sodium topical solution, 1.5% w/w is used in patients with a recent MI, monitor patients for signs of cardiac ischemia.

The following adverse reactions are discussed in greater detail in other sections of the labeling:

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Reference

This information is obtained from the National Institute of Health's Standard Packaging Label drug database.
"https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/"

While we update our database periodically, we cannot guarantee it is always updated to the latest version.

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Professional

Clonazepam Description Each single-scored tablet, for oral administration, contains 0.5 mg, 1 mg, or 2 mg Clonazepam, USP, a benzodiazepine. Each tablet also contains corn starch, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, and povidone. Clonazepam tablets USP 0.5 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake. Clonazepam tablets USP 1 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake, as well as FD&C Blue No. 1 Aluminum Lake. Chemically, Clonazepam, USP is 5-(o-chlorophenyl)-1,3-dihydro-7-nitro-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one. It is a light yellow crystalline powder. It has the following structural formula: C15H10ClN3O3 M.W. 315.72
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Tips

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Interactions

Interactions

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