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Dicyclomine Hydrochloride

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Overview

What is Dicyclomine?

Dicyclomine hydrochloride is an antispasmodic and anticholinergic (antimuscarinic) agent available in the following form:

Each tablet, for oral administration, contains 20 mg of dicyclomine hydrochloride. They also contain the following inactive ingredients: Anhydrous Lactose, FD&C Blue No. 1 Lake, Lactose Monohydrate, Magnesium Stearate, and Microcrystalline Cellulose.

Chemically, dicyclomine hydrochloride is [bicyclohexyl]-1-carboxylic acid, 2-(diethylamino) ethylester, hydrochloride with the structural formula:

Dicyclomine hydrochloride occurs as a fine, white, crystalline, practically odorless powder with a bitter taste. It is soluble in water, freely soluble in alcohol and chloroform, and very slightly soluble in ether.



What does Dicyclomine look like?



What are the available doses of Dicyclomine?

Sorry No records found.

What should I talk to my health care provider before I take Dicyclomine?

Sorry No records found

How should I use Dicyclomine?

For the treatment of functional bowel/irritable bowel syndrome.


What interacts with Dicyclomine?


  • Obstructive uropathy

  • Obstructive disease of the gastrointestinal tract

  • Severe ulcerative colitis (See )

  • Reflux esophagitis

  • Unstable cardiovascular status in acute hemorrhage

  • Glaucoma

  • Myasthenia gravis

  • Evidence of prior hypersensitivity to dicyclomine hydrochloride or other ingredients of these formulations

  • Infants less than 6 months of age (See and )

  • Nursing Mothers (See and )



What are the warnings of Dicyclomine?

Research indicates that patients with impaired kidney function, including premature neonates, who receive parenteral levels of aluminum at greater than 4 to 5 mcg/kg/day accumulate aluminum at levels associated with central nervous system and bone toxicity. Tissue loading may occur at even lower rates of administration.

In the presence of a high environmental temperature, heat prostration can occur with drug use (fever and heat stroke due to decreased sweating). If symptoms occur, the drug should be discontinued and supportive measures instituted.

Diarrhea may be an early symptom of incomplete intestinal obstruction, especially in patients with ileostomy or colostomy. In this instance, treatment with this drug would be inappropriate and possibly harmful.

Dicyclomine hydrochloride may produce drowsiness or blurred vision. The patient should be warned not to engage in activities requiring mental alertness, such as operating a motor vehicle or other machinery or performing hazardous work while taking this drug.

Psychosis has been reported in sensitive individuals given anticholinergic drugs. CNS signs and symptoms include confusion, disorientation, short-term memory loss, hallucinations, dysarthria, ataxia, coma, euphoria, decreased anxiety, fatigue, insomnia, agitation and mannerisms, and inappropriate affect. These CNS signs and symptoms usually resolve within 12 to 24 hours after discontinuation of the drug.

DICYCLOMINE IS CONTRAINDICATED IN INFANTS LESS THAN 6 MONTHS OF AGE AND IN NURSING MOTHERS. (See and and ).

Safety and efficacy of dicyclomine hydrochloride in children have not been established.


What are the precautions of Dicyclomine?

General:

1. Autonomic neuropathy

2. Hepatic or renal disease

3. Ulcerative colitis - large doses may suppress intestinal motility to the point of producing a paralytic ileus and the use of this drug may precipitate or aggravate the serious complication of toxic megacolon (see )

4. Hyperthyroidism

5. Hypertension

6. Coronary heart disease

7. Congestive heart failure

8. Cardiac tachyarrhythmia

9. Hiatal hernia (see )

10. Known or suspected prostatic hypertrophy.

Investigate any tachycardia before administration of dicyclomine hydrochloride, since it may increase the heart rate.

With overdosage, a curare-like action may occur (i.e., neuromuscular blockade leading to muscular weakness and possible paralysis).

Information for Patients:

Dicyclomine hydrochloride is contraindicated in infants less than 6 months of age and in nursing mothers. (See and )

In the presence of a high environmental temperature, heat prostration can occur with drug use (fever and heat stroke due to decreased sweating). If symptoms occur, the drug should be discontinued and a physician contacted.

Drug Interactions:

Anticholinergics antagonize the effects of antiglaucoma agents. Anticholinergic drugs in the presence of increased intraocular pressure may be hazardous when taken concurrently with agents such as corticosteroids. (See also )

Anticholinergic agents may affect gastrointestinal absorption of various drugs, such as slowly dissolving dosage forms of digoxin; increased serum digoxin concentrations may result. Anticholinergic drugs may antagonize the effects of drugs that alter gastrointestinal motility, such as metoclopramide. Because antacids may interfere with the absorption of anticholinergic agents, simultaneous use of these drugs should be avoided.

The inhibiting effects of anticholinergic drugs on gastric hydrochloric acid secretion are antagonized by agents used to treat achlorhydria and those used to test gastric secretion.

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility:

Long-term studies in animals to determine carcinogenic potential are not known to have been conducted.

In studies in rats at doses of up to 100 mg/kg/day, dicyclomine hydrochloride produced no deleterious effects on breeding, conception, or parturition.

Pregnancy: Teratogenic Effects:

Reproduction studies have been performed in rats and rabbits at doses up to 33 times the maximum recommended human dose based on 160 mg/day (3 mg/kg) and have revealed no evidence of impaired fertility or harm to the fetus due to dicyclomine. Epidemiologic studies in pregnant women with products containing dicyclomine hydrochloride (at doses up to 40 mg/day) have not shown that dicyclomine increases the risk of fetal abnormalities if administered during the first trimester of pregnancy. There are, however, no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women at the recommended doses (80-160 mg/day). Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, dicyclomine hydrochloride as indicated for functional bowel/irritable bowel syndrome should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.

Nursing Mothers:

Pediatric Use:

Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established.

ADVERSE REACTIONS

Controlled clinical trials have provided frequency information for reported adverse effects of dicyclomine hydrochloride listed in a decreasing order of frequency. (See )

Not all of the following adverse reactions have been reported with dicyclomine hydrochloride. Adverse reactions are included here that have been reported for pharmacologically similar drugs with anticholinergic/antispasmodic action.

Gastrointestinal:

Central Nervous System:

Ophthalmologic:

Dermatologic/Allergic:

Genitourinary:

Cardiovascular:

Respiratory:

Other:

DRUG ABUSE AND DEPENDENCE

Abuse and/or dependence on dicyclomine for anticholinergic effects have been rarely reported.

OVERDOSAGE:

Signs and Symptoms:

A 37-year old female reported numbness on the left side, cold fingertips, blurred vision, abdominal and flank pain, decreased appetite, dry mouth, and nervousness following ingestion of 320 mg daily (four 20 mg tablets QID) for four days. These events resolved after discontinuing the dicyclomine.

Oral LD

50

50

Minimum Human Lethal Dose/Maximum Human Dose Recorded:

In three of the infants who died following administration of dicyclomine hydrochloride (see ), the blood concentrations of drug were 200, 220, and 505 ng/mL, respectively.

Dialysis:

Treatment:

DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

DOSAGE MUST BE ADJUSTED TO INDIVIDUAL PATIENT NEEDS. (See )

Adults-Oral

The only oral dose clearly shown to be effective is 160 mg per day (in 4 equally divided doses). Since this dose is associated with a significant incidence of side effects, it is prudent to begin with 80 mg per day (in 4 equally divided doses). Depending upon the patient's response during the first week of therapy, the dose should be increased to 160 mg per day unless side effects limit dosage escalation.

If efficacy is not achieved within 2 weeks or side effects require doses below 80 mg per day, the drug should be discontinued. Documented safety data are not available for doses above 80 mg daily for periods longer than 2 weeks.


What are the side effects of Dicyclomine?

Sorry No records found


What should I look out for while using Dicyclomine?

In the presence of a high environmental temperature, heat prostration can occur with drug use (fever and heat stroke due to decreased sweating). If symptoms occur, the drug should be discontinued and supportive measures instituted.

Diarrhea may be an early symptom of incomplete intestinal obstruction, especially in patients with ileostomy or colostomy. In this instance, treatment with this drug would be inappropriate and possibly harmful.

Dicyclomine hydrochloride may produce drowsiness or blurred vision. The patient should be warned not to engage in activities requiring mental alertness, such as operating a motor vehicle or other machinery or performing hazardous work while taking this drug.

Psychosis has been reported in sensitive individuals given anticholinergic drugs. CNS signs and symptoms include confusion, disorientation, short-term memory loss, hallucinations, dysarthria, ataxia, coma, euphoria, decreased anxiety, fatigue, insomnia, agitation and mannerisms, and inappropriate affect. These CNS signs and symptoms usually resolve within 12 to 24 hours after discontinuation of the drug.

DICYCLOMINE IS CONTRAINDICATED IN INFANTS LESS THAN 6 MONTHS OF AGE AND IN NURSING MOTHERS. (See and and ).

Safety and efficacy of dicyclomine hydrochloride in children have not been established.


What might happen if I take too much Dicyclomine?

Sorry No Records found


How should I store and handle Dicyclomine?

Store at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted to 15-30°C (59-86°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature].Dicyclomine Hydrochloride Tablets USP, 20 mg are supplied as blue, round, unscored tablets; embossed “WW 27” and are available in:To prevent fading, avoid exposure to direct sunlight. Store at 20°-25°C (68°-77°F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Protect from light and moisture.Dispense in a tight, light-resistant container as defined in the USP using a child-resistant closure.Manufactured By: Eatontown, NJ 07724Revised March 200Dicyclomine Hydrochloride Tablets USP, 20 mg are supplied as blue, round, unscored tablets; embossed “WW 27” and are available in:To prevent fading, avoid exposure to direct sunlight. Store at 20°-25°C (68°-77°F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Protect from light and moisture.Dispense in a tight, light-resistant container as defined in the USP using a child-resistant closure.Manufactured By: Eatontown, NJ 07724Revised March 200Dicyclomine Hydrochloride Tablets USP, 20 mg are supplied as blue, round, unscored tablets; embossed “WW 27” and are available in:To prevent fading, avoid exposure to direct sunlight. Store at 20°-25°C (68°-77°F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Protect from light and moisture.Dispense in a tight, light-resistant container as defined in the USP using a child-resistant closure.Manufactured By: Eatontown, NJ 07724Revised March 200Dicyclomine Hydrochloride Tablets USP, 20 mg are supplied as blue, round, unscored tablets; embossed “WW 27” and are available in:To prevent fading, avoid exposure to direct sunlight. Store at 20°-25°C (68°-77°F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Protect from light and moisture.Dispense in a tight, light-resistant container as defined in the USP using a child-resistant closure.Manufactured By: Eatontown, NJ 07724Revised March 200


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Clinical Information

Chemical Structure

No Image found
Clinical Pharmacology

Dicyclomine relieves smooth muscle spasm of the gastrointestinal tract. Animal studies indicate that this action is achieved via a dual mechanism: (1) a specific anticholinergic effect (antimuscarinic) at the acetylcholine-receptor sites with approximately 1/8 the milligram potency of atropine (, guinea pig ileum); and (2) a direct effect upon smooth muscle (musculotropic) as evidenced by dicyclomine's antagonism of bradykinin- and histamine-induced spasms of the isolated guinea pig ileum. Atropine did not affect responses to these two agonists. studies in cats and dogs showed dicyclomine to be equally potent against acetylcholine (ACh)- or barium chloride (BaCl)-induced intestinal spasm while atropine was at least 200 times more potent against effects of ACh than BaCl. Tests for mydriatic effects in mice showed that dicyclomine was approximately 1/500 as potent as atropine; antisialagogue tests in rabbits showed dicyclomine to be 1/300 as potent as atropine.

In man, dicyclomine is rapidly absorbed after oral administration, reaching peak values within 60-90 minutes. The principal route of elimination is via the urine (79.5% of the dose). Excretion also occurs in the feces, but to a lesser extent (8.4%). Mean half-life of plasma elimination in one study was determined to be approximately 1.8 hours when plasma concentrations were measured for 9 hours after a single dose. In subsequent studies, plasma concentrations were followed for up to 24 hours after a single dose, showing a secondary phase of elimination with a somewhat longer half-life. Mean volume of distribution for a 20 mg oral dose is approximately 3.65 L/kg suggesting extensive distribution in tissues.

In controlled clinical trials involving over 100 patients who received drug, 82% of patients treated for functional bowel/irritable bowel syndrome with dicyclomine hydrochloride at initial doses of 160 mg daily (40 mg q.i.d.) demonstrated a favorable clinical response compared with 55% treated with placebo. (P<.05 in these trials most of the side effects were typically anticholinergic nature table and reported by patients.>
Nine percent (9%) of patients were discontinued from the drug because of one or more of these side effects (compared with 2% in the placebo group). In 41% of the patients with side effects, side effects disappeared or were tolerated at the 160 mg daily dose without reduction. A dose reduction from 160 mg daily to an average daily dose of 90 mg was required in 46% of the patients with side effects who then continued to experience a favorable clinical response; their side effects either disappeared or were tolerated. (See .)

Non-Clinical Toxicology
In the presence of a high environmental temperature, heat prostration can occur with drug use (fever and heat stroke due to decreased sweating). If symptoms occur, the drug should be discontinued and supportive measures instituted.

Diarrhea may be an early symptom of incomplete intestinal obstruction, especially in patients with ileostomy or colostomy. In this instance, treatment with this drug would be inappropriate and possibly harmful.

Dicyclomine hydrochloride may produce drowsiness or blurred vision. The patient should be warned not to engage in activities requiring mental alertness, such as operating a motor vehicle or other machinery or performing hazardous work while taking this drug.

Psychosis has been reported in sensitive individuals given anticholinergic drugs. CNS signs and symptoms include confusion, disorientation, short-term memory loss, hallucinations, dysarthria, ataxia, coma, euphoria, decreased anxiety, fatigue, insomnia, agitation and mannerisms, and inappropriate affect. These CNS signs and symptoms usually resolve within 12 to 24 hours after discontinuation of the drug.

DICYCLOMINE IS CONTRAINDICATED IN INFANTS LESS THAN 6 MONTHS OF AGE AND IN NURSING MOTHERS. (See and and ).

Safety and efficacy of dicyclomine hydrochloride in children have not been established.

Drug Interactions:

Anticholinergics antagonize the effects of antiglaucoma agents. Anticholinergic drugs in the presence of increased intraocular pressure may be hazardous when taken concurrently with agents such as corticosteroids. (See also )

Anticholinergic agents may affect gastrointestinal absorption of various drugs, such as slowly dissolving dosage forms of digoxin; increased serum digoxin concentrations may result. Anticholinergic drugs may antagonize the effects of drugs that alter gastrointestinal motility, such as metoclopramide. Because antacids may interfere with the absorption of anticholinergic agents, simultaneous use of these drugs should be avoided.

The inhibiting effects of anticholinergic drugs on gastric hydrochloric acid secretion are antagonized by agents used to treat achlorhydria and those used to test gastric secretion.

General:

1. Autonomic neuropathy

2. Hepatic or renal disease

3. Ulcerative colitis - large doses may suppress intestinal motility to the point of producing a paralytic ileus and the use of this drug may precipitate or aggravate the serious complication of toxic megacolon (see )

4. Hyperthyroidism

5. Hypertension

6. Coronary heart disease

7. Congestive heart failure

8. Cardiac tachyarrhythmia

9. Hiatal hernia (see )

10. Known or suspected prostatic hypertrophy.

Investigate any tachycardia before administration of dicyclomine hydrochloride, since it may increase the heart rate.

With overdosage, a curare-like action may occur (i.e., neuromuscular blockade leading to muscular weakness and possible paralysis).

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Reference

This information is obtained from the National Institute of Health's Standard Packaging Label drug database.
"https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/"

While we update our database periodically, we cannot guarantee it is always updated to the latest version.

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Professional

Clonazepam Description Each single-scored tablet, for oral administration, contains 0.5 mg, 1 mg, or 2 mg Clonazepam, USP, a benzodiazepine. Each tablet also contains corn starch, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, and povidone. Clonazepam tablets USP 0.5 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake. Clonazepam tablets USP 1 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake, as well as FD&C Blue No. 1 Aluminum Lake. Chemically, Clonazepam, USP is 5-(o-chlorophenyl)-1,3-dihydro-7-nitro-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one. It is a light yellow crystalline powder. It has the following structural formula: C15H10ClN3O3 M.W. 315.72
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Tips

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Interactions

Interactions

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