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Dipentum

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Overview

What is Dipentum?

The active ingredient in DIPENTUM Capsules (olsalazine sodium) is the sodium salt of a salicylate, disodium 3,3'-azobis (6-hydroxybenzoate) a compound that is effectively bioconverted to 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA), which has anti-inflammatory activity in ulcerative colitis. Its empirical formula is CHNNaO with a molecular weight of 346.21.

The structural formula is:

Olsalazine sodium is a yellow crystalline powder, which melts with decomposition at 240°C. It is the sodium salt of a weak acid, soluble in water and DMSO, and practically insoluble in ethanol, chloroform, and ether. Olsalazine sodium has acceptable stability under acidic or basic conditions.

DIPENTUM is supplied in hard gelatin capsules for oral administration. The inert ingredient in each 250 mg capsule of olsalazine sodium is magnesium stearate. The capsule shell contains the following inactive ingredients: black iron oxide, caramel, gelatin, and titanium dioxide.



What does Dipentum look like?



What are the available doses of Dipentum?

Sorry No records found.

What should I talk to my health care provider before I take Dipentum?

Sorry No records found

How should I use Dipentum?

Olsalazine is indicated for the maintenance of remission of ulcerative colitis in patients who are intolerant of sulfasalazine.

The usual dosage in adults for maintenance of remission is 1.0 g/day in two divided doses.


What interacts with Dipentum?

Hypersensitivity to olsalazine, other salicylates, or any of the excipients.



What are the warnings of Dipentum?

Sorry No Records found


What are the precautions of Dipentum?

General

Overall, approximately 17% of subjects receiving olsalazine in clinical studies reported diarrhea sometime during therapy. This diarrhea resulted in withdrawal of treatment in 6% of patients. This diarrhea appears to be dose related, although it may be difficult to distinguish from the underlying symptoms of the disease.

Exacerbation of the symptoms of colitis thought to have been caused by mesalamine or sulfasalazine has been noted.

Information for Patients

Patients should be instructed to take olsalazine with food. The drug should be taken in evenly divided doses. Patients should be informed that about 17% of subjects receiving olsalazine during clinical studies reported diarrhea sometime during therapy. If diarrhea occurs, patients should contact their physician.

Drug Interactions

The co-administration of salicylates and low molecular weight heparins or heparinoids may result in an increased risk of bleeding (i.e., hematomas) following neuraxial anesthesia. Salicylates should be discontinued prior to the initiation of a low molecular weight heparin or heparinoid. If this is not possible, it is recommended to monitor patients closely for bleeding.

Increased prothrombin time in patients taking concomitant warfarin has been reported.

The co-administration of olsalazine and 6-mercaptopurine or thioguanine may result in an increased risk of myelosuppression. If co-administered with 6-mercaptopurine, it is recommended to use the lowest possible doses of each drug and to monitor the patient, especially for leukopenia. In case of co-administration with thioguanine, careful monitoring of blood counts is recommended.

It is recommended not to give salicylates for six weeks after the varicella vaccine to avoid a possible increased risk of developing Reye’s syndrome.

Drug/Laboratory Test Interactions

None known.

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

In a two year oral rat carcinogenicity study, olsalazine was tested in male and female Wistar rats at daily doses of 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg/day (approximately 10 to 40 times the human maintenance dose, based on a patient weight of 50 kg and a human dose of 1 g). Urinary bladder transitional cell carcinomas were found in three male rats (6%, p=0.022, exact trend test) receiving 40 times the human dose and were not found in untreated male controls. In the same study, urinary bladder transitional cell carcinoma and papilloma occurred in 2 untreated control female rats (2%). No such tumors were found in any of the female rats treated at doses up to 40 times the human dose.

In an eighteen month oral mouse carcinogenicity study, olsalazine was tested in male and female CD-1 mice at daily doses of 500, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg/day (approximately 25 to 100 times the human maintenance dose). Liver hemangiosarcomata were found in two male mice (4%) receiving olsalazine at 100 times the human dose, while no such tumor occurred in the other treated male mice groups or any of the treated female mice. The observed incidence of this tumor is within the 4% incidence in historical controls.

Olsalazine was not mutagenic in Ames tests, mouse lymphoma cell mutation assays, human lymphocyte chromosomal aberration tests, or the rat bone marrow cell chromosomal aberration test.

Olsalazine in a dose range of 100 to 400 mg/kg/day (approximately 5 to 20 times the human maintenance dose) did not influence the fertility of male or female rats. The oligospermia and infertility in men associated with sulfasalazine have not been reported with olsalazine.

Pregnancy

Nursing Mothers

Small amounts of the active metabolite of olsalazine (5-ASA) may pass into breast milk. Harmful infant effects (diarrhea) have been reported when 5-ASA was used during breastfeeding. Unless the benefit of the treatment outweighs the risks, olsalazine should not be taken by breast-feeding women, or patients should be advised to discontinue breastfeeding if using olsalazine.

Oral administration of olsalazine to lactating rats in doses 5 to 20 times the human dose produced growth retardation in their pups.

Pediatric Use

Safety and effectiveness in a pediatric population have not been established.

Geriatric Use

Clinical studies of DIPENTUM did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, elderly patients should be treated with caution due to the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, co-existence of other disease, as well as concomitant drug therapy.

Severe Allergies and/or Asthma

Patients with severe allergies or asthma should be monitored for signs of worsening symptoms.

Renal

Patients with impaired renal function should be monitored.

Although renal abnormalities were not reported in clinical trials with olsalazine, there have been rare reports from post-marketing experience (see ). Therefore, the possibility of renal tubular damage due to absorbed mesalamine or its n-acetylated metabolite, as noted in the ANIMAL TOXICOLOGY section must be kept in mind, particularly for patients with pre-existing renal disease. In these patients, monitoring with urinalysis, BUN, and creatinine determinations is advised.

Hepatic

Patients with impaired hepatic function should be monitored (see ).


What are the side effects of Dipentum?

Olsalazine has been evaluated in ulcerative colitis patients in remission, as well as those with acute disease. Both sulfasalazine-tolerant and intolerant patients have been studied in controlled clinical trials. Overall, 10.4% of patients discontinued olsalazine because of an adverse experience compared with 6.7% of placebo patients. The most commonly reported adverse reactions leading to treatment withdrawal were diarrhea or loose stools (olsalazine 5.9%; placebo 4.8%), abdominal pain, and rash or itching (slightly more than 1% of patients receiving olsalazine). Other adverse reactions to olsalazine leading to withdrawal occurred in fewer than 1% of patients (TABLE 1).

For those controlled studies, the comparative incidences of adverse reactions reported in 1% or more patients treated with olsalazine or placebo are provided in Table 2.

Over 2,500 patients have been treated with olsalazine in various controlled and uncontrolled clinical studies. In these as well as in post-marketing experience, olsalazine was administered mainly to patients intolerant to sulfasalazine. There have been rare reports of the following adverse effects in patients receiving olsalazine. These were often difficult to distinguish from possible symptoms of the underlying disease or from the effects of prior and/or concomitant therapy. A causal relationship to the drug has not been demonstrated for some of these reactions.

Table 1: Adverse Reactions Resulting In Withdrawal From Controlled Studies Total
Diarrhea/Loose Stools26(5.9%)10(4.8%)
Nausea32
Abdominal Pain5 (1.1%)0
Rash/Itching5(1.1%)0
Headache30
Heartburn20
Rectal Bleeding10
Insomnia10
Dizziness10
Anorexia 10
Light Headedness10
Depression10
Miscellaneous4(0.9%)3(1.4%)
Total Number of Patients Withdrawn 46(10.4%)14(6.7%)
Table 2: Comparative Incidence (%) of Adverse Effects Reported By One Percent Or More of Ulcerative Colitis Patients Treated With Olsalazine Or Placebo in Double Blind Controlled Studies
Adverse Event
   Diarrhea 11.16.7
   Abdominal Pain/Cramps 10.17.2
   Nausea5.03.9
   Dyspepsia4.04.3
   Bloating1.51.4
   Vomiting1.0-
   Stomatitis1.0 -
   Increased Blood in Stool- 3.4
   Anorexia1.31.9
   Headache 5.04.8
   Insomnia-2.4
   Fatigue/Drowsiness/Lethargy1.82.9
   Depression 1.5-
   Vertigo/Dizziness1.0-
   Rash2.31.4
   Itching1.3-
   Arthralgia/Joint Pain4.02.9
   Upper Respiratory Infection1.5-


Blood and Lymphatic System Disorders

Anemia, Eosinophilia, Hemolytic anemia, Interstitial pulmonary disease, Leukopenia, Lymphopenia, Neutropenia, Reticulocytosis, Thrombocytopenia

Cardiac Disorders

Chest pains, Heart block second degree, Myocarditis, Palpitations, Pericarditis, Peripheral edema, Shortness of breath, Tachycardia

A patient who developed thyroid disease 9 days after starting DIPENTUM was given propranolol and radioactive iodine and subsequently developed shortness of breath and nausea. The patient died 5 days later with signs and symptoms of acute diffuse myocarditis.

Ear and Labyrinth Disorders

Tinnitus

Eye Disorders

Dry eyes, Vision blurred, Watery eyes

Gastrointestinal Disorders

Abdominal pain (upper), Diarrhea with dehydration, Dry mouth, Epigastric discomfort, Flare in symptoms, Flatulence, Increased blood in stool, Pancreatitis, Rectal bleeding, Rectal discomfort

In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study, increased frequency and severity of diarrhea were reported in patients randomized to olsalazine 500 mg B.I.D. with concomitant pelvic radiation.

Rare cases of granulomatous hepatitis and nonspecific, reactive hepatitis have been reported in patients receiving olsalazine. Additionally, a patient developed mild cholestatic hepatitis during treatment with sulfasalazine and experienced the same symptoms two weeks later after the treatment was changed to olsalazine. Withdrawal of olsalazine led to complete recovery in these cases.

General Disorders and Administration Site Conditions

Fever chills, Hot flashes, Irritability, Rigors

Immune System Disorders

Bronchospasm, Erythema nodosum

Laboratory

ALT (SGPT) or AST (SGOT) elevated beyond the normal range.

Musculoskeletal and Connective Tissue Disorders

Muscle cramps

Nervous System Disorders

Insomnia, Paraesthesia, Tremors

Psychiatric Disorders

Mood swings

Renal and Urinary Disorders

Dysuria, Hematuria, Interstitial nephritis, Nephrotic syndrome, Proteinuria, Urinary frequency

Reproductive System and Breast Disorders

Impotence, Menorrhagia

Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders

Alopecia, Erythema, Photosensitivity reaction

Vascular Disorders

Hypertension, Orthostatic hypotension

Postmarketing

The following events have been identified during post-approval use of products that contain (or are metabolized to) mesalamine in clinical practice. Because they are reported voluntarily from a population of unknown size, estimates of frequency cannot be made. These events have been chosen for inclusion due to a combination of seriousness, frequency of reporting, or potential causal connection to mesalamine:

Blood and Lymphatic System Disorders

Aplastic anemia, Pancytopenia

General Disorders and Administration Site Conditions

Pyrexia

Hepatobiliary Disorders

Hepatic enzyme increased, Hepatitis, Increased bilirubin

Reports of hepatotoxicity, including elevated liver function tests (SGOT/AST, SGPT/ALT, GGT, LDH, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin), jaundice, cholestatic jaundice, cirrhosis, and possible hepatocellular damage including liver necrosis and liver failure. Some of these cases were fatal. One case of Kawasaki-like syndrome, which included hepatic function changes, was also reported.

Musculoskeletal and Connective Tissue Disorders

Myalgia

Respiratory, Thoracic and Mediastinal Disorders

Dyspnoea, Interstitial lung disease

Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders

Angioneurotic oedema

Nervous System Disorders

Paraesthesia

Renal and Urinary Disorders

Interstitial nephritis


What should I look out for while using Dipentum?

Hypersensitivity to olsalazine, other salicylates, or any of the excipients.


What might happen if I take too much Dipentum?

No overdosage has been reported in humans. The knowledge of overdosage is limited. Possible overdose symptoms include nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. It is recommended to check hematology, acid-base, electrolyte, liver and kidney status, and to provide supportive treatment. There is no specific antidote to DIPENTUM.

Maximum single oral doses of 5g/kg in mice and rats and 2 g/kg in dogs were not lethal. Symptoms of acute toxicity were decreased motor activity and diarrhea in all species tested. In addition, vomiting was reported in dogs.


How should I store and handle Dipentum?

Store at 20-25°C (77°F). Excursions permitted to 15° to 30°C (59° to 86°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Beige colored capsules, containing 250 mg olsalazine sodium imprinted with “DIPENTUM 250 mg” on the capsule shell, available as:


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Clinical Information

Chemical Structure

No Image found
Clinical Pharmacology

After oral administration, olsalazine has limited systemic bioavailability. Based on oral and intravenous dosing studies, approximately 2.4% of a single 1.0 g oral dose is absorbed. Less than 1% of olsalazine is recovered in the urine. The remaining 98 to 99% of an oral dose will reach the colon, where each molecule is rapidly converted into two molecules of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) by colonic bacteria and the low prevailing redox potential found in this environment. The liberated 5-ASA is absorbed slowly resulting in very high local concentrations in the colon.

The conversion of olsalazine to mesalamine (5-ASA) in the colon is similar to that of sulfasalazine, which is converted into sulfapyridine and mesalamine. It is thought that the mesalamine component is therapeutically active in ulcerative colitis (A.K. Azad-Kahn et al, , 2: 892-895, 1977). The usual dose of sulfasalazine for maintenance of remission in patients with ulcerative colitis is 2 grams daily, which would provide approximately 0.8 grams of mesalamine to the colon. More than 0.9 grams of mesalamine would usually be made available in the colon from 1 gram of olsalazine.

The mechanism of action of mesalamine (and sulfasalazine) is unknown, but appears to be topical rather than systemic. Mucosal production of arachidonic acid (AA) metabolites, both through the cyclooxygenase pathways (i.e., prostanoids) and through the lipoxygenase pathways (i.e., leukotrienes [LTs] and hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids [HETEs]) is increased in patients with chronic inflammatory bowel disease, and it is possible that mesalamine diminishes inflammation by blocking cyclooxygenase and inhibiting prostaglandin (PG) production in the colon.

Non-Clinical Toxicology
Hypersensitivity to olsalazine, other salicylates, or any of the excipients.

The co-administration of salicylates and low molecular weight heparins or heparinoids may result in an increased risk of bleeding (i.e., hematomas) following neuraxial anesthesia. Salicylates should be discontinued prior to the initiation of a low molecular weight heparin or heparinoid. If this is not possible, it is recommended to monitor patients closely for bleeding.

Increased prothrombin time in patients taking concomitant warfarin has been reported.

The co-administration of olsalazine and 6-mercaptopurine or thioguanine may result in an increased risk of myelosuppression. If co-administered with 6-mercaptopurine, it is recommended to use the lowest possible doses of each drug and to monitor the patient, especially for leukopenia. In case of co-administration with thioguanine, careful monitoring of blood counts is recommended.

It is recommended not to give salicylates for six weeks after the varicella vaccine to avoid a possible increased risk of developing Reye’s syndrome.

Overall, approximately 17% of subjects receiving olsalazine in clinical studies reported diarrhea sometime during therapy. This diarrhea resulted in withdrawal of treatment in 6% of patients. This diarrhea appears to be dose related, although it may be difficult to distinguish from the underlying symptoms of the disease.

Exacerbation of the symptoms of colitis thought to have been caused by mesalamine or sulfasalazine has been noted.

Olsalazine has been evaluated in ulcerative colitis patients in remission, as well as those with acute disease. Both sulfasalazine-tolerant and intolerant patients have been studied in controlled clinical trials. Overall, 10.4% of patients discontinued olsalazine because of an adverse experience compared with 6.7% of placebo patients. The most commonly reported adverse reactions leading to treatment withdrawal were diarrhea or loose stools (olsalazine 5.9%; placebo 4.8%), abdominal pain, and rash or itching (slightly more than 1% of patients receiving olsalazine). Other adverse reactions to olsalazine leading to withdrawal occurred in fewer than 1% of patients (TABLE 1).

For those controlled studies, the comparative incidences of adverse reactions reported in 1% or more patients treated with olsalazine or placebo are provided in Table 2.

Over 2,500 patients have been treated with olsalazine in various controlled and uncontrolled clinical studies. In these as well as in post-marketing experience, olsalazine was administered mainly to patients intolerant to sulfasalazine. There have been rare reports of the following adverse effects in patients receiving olsalazine. These were often difficult to distinguish from possible symptoms of the underlying disease or from the effects of prior and/or concomitant therapy. A causal relationship to the drug has not been demonstrated for some of these reactions.

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Reference

This information is obtained from the National Institute of Health's Standard Packaging Label drug database.
"https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/"

While we update our database periodically, we cannot guarantee it is always updated to the latest version.

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Professional

Clonazepam Description Each single-scored tablet, for oral administration, contains 0.5 mg, 1 mg, or 2 mg Clonazepam, USP, a benzodiazepine. Each tablet also contains corn starch, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, and povidone. Clonazepam tablets USP 0.5 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake. Clonazepam tablets USP 1 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake, as well as FD&C Blue No. 1 Aluminum Lake. Chemically, Clonazepam, USP is 5-(o-chlorophenyl)-1,3-dihydro-7-nitro-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one. It is a light yellow crystalline powder. It has the following structural formula: C15H10ClN3O3 M.W. 315.72
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Tips

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Interactions

Interactions

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