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CHLOROTHIAZIDE

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Overview

What is DIURIL?

DIURIL® (chlorothiazide) is a diuretic and antihypertensive. It is 6-chloro-2-1,2,4-benzothiadiazine-7-sulfonamide 1,1-dioxide. Its empirical formula is CHCINOS and its structural formula is:

It is a white, or practically white, crystalline powder with a molecular weight of 295.72, which is very slightly soluble in water, but readily soluble in dilute aqueous sodium hydroxide. It is soluble in urine to the extent of about 150 mg per 100 mL at pH 7.

DIURIL Oral Suspension contains 250 mg of chlorothiazide per 5 mL, alcohol 0.5 percent, with methylparaben 0.12 percent, propylparaben 0.02 percent, and benzoic acid 0.1 percent added as preservatives. The inactive ingredients are D&C Yellow 10, flavors, glycerin, purified water, sodium saccharin, sucrose and tragacanth.



What does DIURIL look like?



What are the available doses of DIURIL?

Sorry No records found.

What should I talk to my health care provider before I take DIURIL?

Sorry No records found

How should I use DIURIL?

DIURIL is indicated as adjunctive therapy in edema associated with congestive heart failure, hepatic cirrhosis, and corticosteroid and estrogen therapy.

DIURIL has also been found useful in edema due to various forms of renal dysfunction such as nephrotic syndrome, acute glomerulonephritis, and chronic renal failure.

DIURIL is indicated in the management of hypertension either as the sole therapeutic agent or to enhance the effectiveness of other antihypertensive drugs in the more severe forms of hypertension.

Use in Pregnancy.

Edema during pregnancy may arise from pathologic causes or from the physiologic and mechanical consequences of pregnancy. Thiazides are indicated in pregnancy when edema is due to pathologic causes, just as they are in the absence of pregnancy (see ). Dependent edema in pregnancy, resulting from restriction of venous return by the gravid uterus, is properly treated through elevation of the lower extremities and use of support stockings. Use of diuretics to lower intravascular volume in this instance is illogical and unnecessary. During normal pregnancy there is hypervolemia which is not harmful to the fetus or the mother in the absence of cardiovascular disease. However, it may be associated with edema, rarely generalized edema. If such edema causes discomfort, increased recumbency will often provide relief. Rarely this edema may cause extreme discomfort which is not relieved by rest. In these instances, a short course of diuretic therapy may provide relief and be appropriate.

Therapy should be individualized according to patient response. Use the smallest dosage necessary to achieve the required response.


What interacts with DIURIL?

Anuria.


Hypersensitivity to this product or to other sulfonamide-derived drugs.



What are the warnings of DIURIL?

Codeine is habit-forming and potentially abusable. Consequently, the extended use of this product is not recommended.

Use with caution in severe renal disease. In patients with renal disease, thiazides may precipitate azotemia. Cumulative effects of the drug may develop in patients with impaired renal function.

Thiazides should be used with caution in patients with impaired hepatic function or progressive liver disease, since minor alterations of fluid and electrolyte balance may precipitate hepatic coma.

Thiazides may add to or potentiate the action of other antihypertensive drugs.

Sensitivity reactions may occur in patients with or without a history of allergy or bronchial asthma.

The possibility of exacerbation or activation of systemic lupus erythematosus has been reported.

Lithium generally should not be given with diuretics (see ).


What are the precautions of DIURIL?



General

All patients receiving diuretic therapy should be observed for evidence of fluid or electrolyte imbalance: namely, hyponatremia, hypochloremic alkalosis, and hypokalemia. Serum and urine electrolyte determinations are particularly important when the patient is vomiting excessively or receiving parenteral fluids. Warning signs or symptoms of fluid and electrolyte imbalance, irrespective of cause, include dryness of mouth, thirst, weakness, lethargy, drowsiness, restlessness, confusion, seizures, muscle pains or cramps, muscular fatigue, hypotension, oliguria, tachycardia, and gastrointestinal disturbances such as nausea and vomiting.

Hypokalemia may develop, especially with brisk diuresis, when severe cirrhosis is present or after prolonged therapy.

Interference with adequate oral electrolyte intake will also contribute to hypokalemia. Hypokalemia may cause cardiac arrhythmias and may also sensitize or exaggerate the response of the heart to the toxic effects of digitalis (e.g., increased ventricular irritability). Hypokalemia may be avoided or treated by use of potassium-sparing diuretics or potassium supplements such as foods with a high potassium content.

Although any chloride deficit is generally mild and usually does not require specific treatment except under extraordinary circumstances (as in liver disease or renal disease), chloride replacement may be required in the treatment of metabolic alkalosis.

Dilutional hyponatremia may occur in edematous patients in hot weather; appropriate therapy is water restriction, rather than administration of salt, except in rare instances when the hyponatremia is life-threatening. In actual salt depletion, appropriate replacement is the therapy of choice.

Hyperuricemia may occur or acute gout may be precipitated in certain patients receiving thiazides.

In diabetic patients dosage adjustments of insulin or oral hypoglycemic agents may be required. Hyperglycemia may occur with thiazide diuretics. Thus latent diabetes mellitus may become manifest during thiazide therapy.

The antihypertensive effects of the drug may be enhanced in the post-sympathectomy patient.

If progressive renal impairment becomes evident, consider withholding or discontinuing diuretic therapy.

Thiazides have been shown to increase the urinary excretion of magnesium; this may result in hypomagnesemia.

Thiazides may decrease urinary calcium excretion. Thiazides may cause intermittent and slight elevation of serum calcium in the absence of known disorders of calcium metabolism. Marked hypercalcemia may be evidence of hidden hyperparathyroidism. Thiazides should be discontinued before carrying out tests for parathyroid function.

Increases in cholesterol and triglyceride levels may be associated with thiazide diuretic therapy.



Laboratory Tests

Periodic determination of serum electrolytes to detect possible electrolyte imbalance should be done at appropriate intervals.



Drug Interactions

When given concurrently the following drugs may interact with thiazide diuretics.

Alcohol, Barbiturates, or Narcotics 

Antidiabetic Drugs (Oral Agents and Insulin)

Other Antihypertensive Drugs 

Cholestyramine and Colestipol Resins 

Corticosteroids, ACTH 

Pressor Amines (e.g., Norepinephrine) 

Skeletal Muscle Relaxants, Nondepolarizing (e.g., Tubocurarine) -

Lithium

Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs Including Selective Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) Inhibitors 

In some patients with compromised renal function (e.g., elderly patients or patients who are volume-depleted, including those on diuretic therapy) who are being treated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, including selective COX-2 inhibitors, the co-administration of angiotensin II receptor antagonists or ACE inhibitors may result in a further deterioration of renal function, including possible acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible.

These interactions should be considered in patients taking NSAIDs including selective COX-2 inhibitors concomitantly with diuretics and angiotensin II antagonists or ACE inhibitors. Therefore, the combination should be administered with caution, especially in the elderly.



Drug/Laboratory Test Interactions

Thiazides should be discontinued before carrying out tests for parathyroid function (see ).



Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

Carcinogenicity studies have not been conducted with chlorothiazide.

Chlorothiazide was not mutagenic in the Ames microbial mutagen test (using a maximum concentration of 5 mg/plate and strains TA98 and TA100) and was not mutagenic and did not induce mitotic nondisjunction in diploid-strains of .

Chlorothiazide had no adverse effects on fertility in female rats at doses up to 60 mg/kg/day and no adverse effects on fertility in male rats at doses up to 40 mg/kg/day. These doses are 1.5 and 1 times   the recommended maximum human dose, respectively, when compared on a body weight basis.

Pregnancy



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Nursing Mothers

Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from DIURIL, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.



Pediatric Use

There are no well-controlled clinical trials in pediatric patients. Information on dosing in this age group is supported by evidence from empiric use in pediatric patients and published literature regarding the treatment of hypertension in such patients. (See.)



Geriatric Use

Clinical studies of DIURIL did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.

This drug is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of toxic reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function (see ).


What are the side effects of DIURIL?

The following adverse reactions have been reported and, within each category, are listed in order of decreasing severity.

Body as a Whole:

Cardiovascular:

Digestive:

Hematologic:

Hypersensitivity:

Metabolic:

Musculoskeletal:

Nervous System/Psychiatric:

Renal:

Skin:

Special Senses:

Urogenital:

Whenever adverse reactions are moderate or severe, thiazide dosage should be reduced or therapy withdrawn.

To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Valeant Pharmaceuticals North America LLC at 1-800-321-4576 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch.


What should I look out for while using DIURIL?

Anuria.

Hypersensitivity to this product or to other sulfonamide-derived drugs.

Use with caution in severe renal disease. In patients with renal disease, thiazides may precipitate azotemia. Cumulative effects of the drug may develop in patients with impaired renal function.

Thiazides should be used with caution in patients with impaired hepatic function or progressive liver disease, since minor alterations of fluid and electrolyte balance may precipitate hepatic coma.

Thiazides may add to or potentiate the action of other antihypertensive drugs.

Sensitivity reactions may occur in patients with or without a history of allergy or bronchial asthma.

The possibility of exacerbation or activation of systemic lupus erythematosus has been reported.

Lithium generally should not be given with diuretics (see ).


What might happen if I take too much DIURIL?

The most common signs and symptoms observed are those caused by electrolyte depletion (hypokalemia, hypochloremia, hyponatremia) and dehydration resulting from excessive diuresis. If digitalis has also been administered, hypokalemia may accentuate cardiac arrhythmias.

In the event of overdosage, symptomatic and supportive measures should be employed. Emesis should be induced or gastric lavage performed. Correct dehydration, electrolyte imbalance, hepatic coma and hypotension by established procedures. If required, give oxygen or artificial respiration for respiratory impairment.

The degree to which chlorothiazide sodium is removed by hemodialysis has not been established.

The oral LD of chlorothiazide is 8.5 g/kg, greater than 10 g/kg, and greater than 1 g/kg, in the mouse, rat and dog, respectively.


How should I store and handle DIURIL?

DILTIAZEM HYDROCHLORIDE FOR INJECTION IS TO BE STORED AT 20° TO 25°C (68° TO 77°F). [SEE USP CONTROLLED ROOM TEMPERATURE.] DO NOT FREEZE. RECONSTITUTED MATERIAL IS STABLE FOR 24 HOURS AT CONTROLLED ROOM TEMPERATURE OR REFRIGERATED 2° to 8°C (36° to 46°F). SINGLE-DOSE VIAL.DIURIL (chlorothiazide) Oral Suspension, 250 mg of chlorothiazide per 5 mL, is a yellow, creamy suspension, and is supplied as follows:StorageDIURIL (chlorothiazide) Oral Suspension: Keep container tightly closed. Protect from freezing, –20°C (–4°F) and store at room temperature, 15° to 30°C (59° to 86°F).Manufactured for:DIURIL is a registered trademark of Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp. used under license.© Valeant Pharmaceuticals North America LLCRev. 07/2017DIURIL (chlorothiazide) Oral Suspension, 250 mg of chlorothiazide per 5 mL, is a yellow, creamy suspension, and is supplied as follows:StorageDIURIL (chlorothiazide) Oral Suspension: Keep container tightly closed. Protect from freezing, –20°C (–4°F) and store at room temperature, 15° to 30°C (59° to 86°F).Manufactured for:DIURIL is a registered trademark of Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp. used under license.© Valeant Pharmaceuticals North America LLCRev. 07/2017DIURIL (chlorothiazide) Oral Suspension, 250 mg of chlorothiazide per 5 mL, is a yellow, creamy suspension, and is supplied as follows:StorageDIURIL (chlorothiazide) Oral Suspension: Keep container tightly closed. Protect from freezing, –20°C (–4°F) and store at room temperature, 15° to 30°C (59° to 86°F).Manufactured for:DIURIL is a registered trademark of Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp. used under license.© Valeant Pharmaceuticals North America LLCRev. 07/2017DIURIL (chlorothiazide) Oral Suspension, 250 mg of chlorothiazide per 5 mL, is a yellow, creamy suspension, and is supplied as follows:StorageDIURIL (chlorothiazide) Oral Suspension: Keep container tightly closed. Protect from freezing, –20°C (–4°F) and store at room temperature, 15° to 30°C (59° to 86°F).Manufactured for:DIURIL is a registered trademark of Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp. used under license.© Valeant Pharmaceuticals North America LLCRev. 07/2017DIURIL (chlorothiazide) Oral Suspension, 250 mg of chlorothiazide per 5 mL, is a yellow, creamy suspension, and is supplied as follows:StorageDIURIL (chlorothiazide) Oral Suspension: Keep container tightly closed. Protect from freezing, –20°C (–4°F) and store at room temperature, 15° to 30°C (59° to 86°F).Manufactured for:DIURIL is a registered trademark of Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp. used under license.© Valeant Pharmaceuticals North America LLCRev. 07/2017DIURIL (chlorothiazide) Oral Suspension, 250 mg of chlorothiazide per 5 mL, is a yellow, creamy suspension, and is supplied as follows:StorageDIURIL (chlorothiazide) Oral Suspension: Keep container tightly closed. Protect from freezing, –20°C (–4°F) and store at room temperature, 15° to 30°C (59° to 86°F).Manufactured for:DIURIL is a registered trademark of Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp. used under license.© Valeant Pharmaceuticals North America LLCRev. 07/2017DIURIL (chlorothiazide) Oral Suspension, 250 mg of chlorothiazide per 5 mL, is a yellow, creamy suspension, and is supplied as follows:StorageDIURIL (chlorothiazide) Oral Suspension: Keep container tightly closed. Protect from freezing, –20°C (–4°F) and store at room temperature, 15° to 30°C (59° to 86°F).Manufactured for:DIURIL is a registered trademark of Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp. used under license.© Valeant Pharmaceuticals North America LLCRev. 07/2017


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Clinical Information

Chemical Structure

No Image found
Clinical Pharmacology

The mechanism of the antihypertensive effect of thiazides is unknown. DIURIL does not usually affect normal blood pressure.

DIURIL affects the distal renal tubular mechanism of electrolyte reabsorption. At maximal therapeutic dosage all thiazides are approximately equal in their diuretic efficacy.

DIURIL increases excretion of sodium and chloride in approximately equivalent amounts. Natriuresis may be accompanied by some loss of potassium and bicarbonate.

After oral use diuresis begins within 2 hours, peaks in about 4 hours and lasts about 6 to 12 hours.

Pharmacokinetics and Metabolism

DIURIL is not metabolized but is eliminated rapidly by the kidney. The plasma half-life of chlorothiazide is 45-120 minutes. After oral doses, 10-15 percent of the dose is excreted unchanged in the urine. Chlorothiazide crosses the placental but not the blood-brain barrier and is excreted in breast milk.

Non-Clinical Toxicology
Anuria.

Hypersensitivity to this product or to other sulfonamide-derived drugs.

Use with caution in severe renal disease. In patients with renal disease, thiazides may precipitate azotemia. Cumulative effects of the drug may develop in patients with impaired renal function.

Thiazides should be used with caution in patients with impaired hepatic function or progressive liver disease, since minor alterations of fluid and electrolyte balance may precipitate hepatic coma.

Thiazides may add to or potentiate the action of other antihypertensive drugs.

Sensitivity reactions may occur in patients with or without a history of allergy or bronchial asthma.

The possibility of exacerbation or activation of systemic lupus erythematosus has been reported.

Lithium generally should not be given with diuretics (see ).

Drug Interactions

When given concurrently the following drugs may interact with thiazide diuretics.

Alcohol, Barbiturates, or Narcotics 

Antidiabetic Drugs (Oral Agents and Insulin)

Other Antihypertensive Drugs 

Cholestyramine and Colestipol Resins 

Corticosteroids, ACTH 

Pressor Amines (e.g., Norepinephrine) 

Skeletal Muscle Relaxants, Nondepolarizing (e.g., Tubocurarine) -

Lithium

Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs Including Selective Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) Inhibitors 

In some patients with compromised renal function (e.g., elderly patients or patients who are volume-depleted, including those on diuretic therapy) who are being treated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, including selective COX-2 inhibitors, the co-administration of angiotensin II receptor antagonists or ACE inhibitors may result in a further deterioration of renal function, including possible acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible.

These interactions should be considered in patients taking NSAIDs including selective COX-2 inhibitors concomitantly with diuretics and angiotensin II antagonists or ACE inhibitors. Therefore, the combination should be administered with caution, especially in the elderly.

General

All patients receiving diuretic therapy should be observed for evidence of fluid or electrolyte imbalance: namely, hyponatremia, hypochloremic alkalosis, and hypokalemia. Serum and urine electrolyte determinations are particularly important when the patient is vomiting excessively or receiving parenteral fluids. Warning signs or symptoms of fluid and electrolyte imbalance, irrespective of cause, include dryness of mouth, thirst, weakness, lethargy, drowsiness, restlessness, confusion, seizures, muscle pains or cramps, muscular fatigue, hypotension, oliguria, tachycardia, and gastrointestinal disturbances such as nausea and vomiting.

Hypokalemia may develop, especially with brisk diuresis, when severe cirrhosis is present or after prolonged therapy.

Interference with adequate oral electrolyte intake will also contribute to hypokalemia. Hypokalemia may cause cardiac arrhythmias and may also sensitize or exaggerate the response of the heart to the toxic effects of digitalis (e.g., increased ventricular irritability). Hypokalemia may be avoided or treated by use of potassium-sparing diuretics or potassium supplements such as foods with a high potassium content.

Although any chloride deficit is generally mild and usually does not require specific treatment except under extraordinary circumstances (as in liver disease or renal disease), chloride replacement may be required in the treatment of metabolic alkalosis.

Dilutional hyponatremia may occur in edematous patients in hot weather; appropriate therapy is water restriction, rather than administration of salt, except in rare instances when the hyponatremia is life-threatening. In actual salt depletion, appropriate replacement is the therapy of choice.

Hyperuricemia may occur or acute gout may be precipitated in certain patients receiving thiazides.

In diabetic patients dosage adjustments of insulin or oral hypoglycemic agents may be required. Hyperglycemia may occur with thiazide diuretics. Thus latent diabetes mellitus may become manifest during thiazide therapy.

The antihypertensive effects of the drug may be enhanced in the post-sympathectomy patient.

If progressive renal impairment becomes evident, consider withholding or discontinuing diuretic therapy.

Thiazides have been shown to increase the urinary excretion of magnesium; this may result in hypomagnesemia.

Thiazides may decrease urinary calcium excretion. Thiazides may cause intermittent and slight elevation of serum calcium in the absence of known disorders of calcium metabolism. Marked hypercalcemia may be evidence of hidden hyperparathyroidism. Thiazides should be discontinued before carrying out tests for parathyroid function.

Increases in cholesterol and triglyceride levels may be associated with thiazide diuretic therapy.

The following adverse reactions have been reported and, within each category, are listed in order of decreasing severity.

Body as a Whole:

Cardiovascular:

Digestive:

Hematologic:

Hypersensitivity:

Metabolic:

Musculoskeletal:

Nervous System/Psychiatric:

Renal:

Skin:

Special Senses:

Urogenital:

Whenever adverse reactions are moderate or severe, thiazide dosage should be reduced or therapy withdrawn.

To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Valeant Pharmaceuticals North America LLC at 1-800-321-4576 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch.

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Reference

This information is obtained from the National Institute of Health's Standard Packaging Label drug database.
"https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/"

While we update our database periodically, we cannot guarantee it is always updated to the latest version.

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Professional

Clonazepam Description Each single-scored tablet, for oral administration, contains 0.5 mg, 1 mg, or 2 mg Clonazepam, USP, a benzodiazepine. Each tablet also contains corn starch, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, and povidone. Clonazepam tablets USP 0.5 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake. Clonazepam tablets USP 1 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake, as well as FD&C Blue No. 1 Aluminum Lake. Chemically, Clonazepam, USP is 5-(o-chlorophenyl)-1,3-dihydro-7-nitro-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one. It is a light yellow crystalline powder. It has the following structural formula: C15H10ClN3O3 M.W. 315.72
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Tips

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Interactions

Interactions

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