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Dolotranz

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Overview

What is Dolotranz?

Lidocaine 2.5% and Prilocaine 2.5% Cream, USP is an emulsion in which the oil phase is a eutectic mixture of lidocaine and prilocaine cream in a ratio of 1:1 by weight. This eutectic mixture has a melting point below room temperature and therefore both local anesthetics exist as a liquid oil rather than as crystals. It is packaged in 5 gram and 30 gram tubes.

Lidocaine is chemically designated as acetamide, 2-(diethylamino)-N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl), has an octanol: water partition ratio of 43 at pH 7.4, and has the following structure:

Prilocaine is chemically designated as propanamide, N-(2-methylphenyl)-2-(propylamino), has an octanol: water partition ratio of 25 at pH 7.4, and has the following structure:

Each gram of lidocaine and prilocaine cream contains lidocaine 25 mg, prilocaine 25 mg, polyoxyethylene fatty acid esters (as emulsifiers), carboxypolymethylene (as a thickening agent), sodium hydroxide to adjust to a pH approximating 9, and purified water to 1 gram. Lidocaine and prilocaine cream contains no preservative, however it passes the USP antimicrobial effectiveness test due to the pH. The specific gravity of lidocaine and prilocaine cream is 1.00.



What does Dolotranz look like?



What are the available doses of Dolotranz?

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What should I talk to my health care provider before I take Dolotranz?

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How should I use Dolotranz?

Lidocaine and prilocaine cream (a eutectic mixture of lidocaine 2.5% and prilocaine 2.5%) is indicated as a topical anesthetic for use on:

Lidocaine and prilocaine cream is not recommended in any clinical situation when penetration or migration beyond the tympanic membrane into the middle ear is possible because of the ototoxic effects observed in animal studies (see ).

A thick layer of lidocaine and prilocaine cream is applied to intact skin and covered with an occlusive dressing (see ).


What interacts with Dolotranz?

Lidocaine and prilocaine cream (lidocaine 2.5% and prilocaine 2.5%) is contraindicated in patients with a known history of sensitivity to local anesthetics of the amide type or to any other component of the product.



What are the warnings of Dolotranz?

Array

Application of lidocaine and prilocaine cream to larger areas or for longer times than those recommended could result in sufficient absorption of lidocaine and prilocaine resulting in serious adverse effects (see ).

Patients treated with class III anti-arrhythmic drugs (e.g., amiodarone, bretylium, sotalol, dofetilide) should be under close surveillance and ECG monitoring considered, because cardiac effects may be additive.

Studies in laboratory animals (guinea pigs) have shown that lidocaine and prilocaine cream has an ototoxic effect when instilled into the middle ear. In these same studies, animals exposed to lidocaine and prilocaine cream only in the external auditory canal, showed no abnormality. Lidocaine and prilocaine cream should not be used in any clinical situation when its penetration or migration beyond the tympanic membrane into the middle ear is possible.

Methemoglobinemia

Lidocaine and prilocaine cream should not be used in those rare patients with congenital or idiopathic methemoglobinemia and in infants under the age of twelve months who are receiving treatment with methemoglobin-inducing agents.

Very young patients or patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiencies are more susceptible to methemoglobinemia.

Patients taking drugs associated with drug-induced methemoglobinemia such as sulfonamides, acetaminophen, acetanilid, aniline dyes, benzocaine, chloroquine, dapsone, naphthalene, nitrates and nitrites, nitrofurantoin, nitroglycerin, nitroprusside, pamaquine, para-aminosalicylic acid, phenacetin, phenobarbital, phenytoin, primaquine, quinine, are also at greater risk for developing methemoglobinemia.

There have been reports of significant methemoglobinemia (20 to 30%) in infants and children following excessive applications of lidocaine and prilocaine cream. These cases involved the use of large doses, larger than recommended areas of application, or infants under the age of 3 months who did not have fully mature enzyme systems. In addition, a few of these cases involved the concomitant administration of methemoglobin-inducing agents. Most patients recovered spontaneously after removal of the cream. Treatment with IV methylene blue may be effective if required.

Physicians are cautioned to make sure that parents orother caregivers understand the need for careful application of lidocaine and prilocaine cream, to ensure that the doses and areas of application recommended in Table 2 are not exceeded (especially in children under the age of 3 months) and to limit the period of application to the minimum required to achieve the desired anesthesia.

Neonates and infants up to 3 months of age should be monitored for Met-Hb levels before, during, and after the application of lidocaine and prilocaine cream, provided the test results can be obtained quickly.


What are the precautions of Dolotranz?

General

Repeated doses of lidocaine and prilocaine cream may increase blood levels of lidocaine and prilocaine. Lidocaine and prilocaine cream should be used with caution in patients who may be more sensitive to the systemic effects of lidocaine and prilocaine including acutely ill, debilitated, or elderly patients.

Lidocaine and prilocaine cream should not be applied to open wounds.

Care should be taken not to allow lidocaine and prilocaine cream to come in contact with the eye because animal studies have demonstrated severe eye irritation. Also the loss of protective reflexes can permit corneal irritation and potential abrasion. Absorption of lidocaine and prilocaine cream in conjunctival tissues has not been determined. If eye contact occurs, immediately wash out the eye with water or saline and protect the eye until sensation returns.

Patients allergic to paraaminobenzoic acid derivatives (procaine, tetracaine, benzocaine, etc.) have not shown cross sensitivity to lidocaine and/or prilocaine, however, lidocaine and prilocaine cream should be used with caution in patients with a history of drug sensitivities, especially if the etiologic agent is uncertain.

Patients with severe hepatic disease, because of their inability to metabolize local anesthetics normally, are at greater risk of developing toxic plasma concentrations of lidocaine and prilocaine.

Lidocaine and prilocaine have been shown to inhibit viral and bacterial growth. The effect of lidocaine and prilocaine cream on intradermal injections of live vaccines has not been determined.

Information for Patients

When lidocaine and prilocaine cream is used, the patient should be aware that the production of dermal analgesia may be accompanied by the block of all sensations in the treated skin. For this reason, the patient should avoid inadvertent trauma to the treated area by scratching, rubbing, or exposure to extreme hot or cold temperatures until complete sensation has returned.

Lidocaine and prilocaine cream should not be applied near the eyes or on open wounds.

Drug Interactions

Lidocaine and prilocaine cream should be used with caution in patients receiving Class I antiarrhythmic drugs (such as tocainide and mexiletine) since the toxic effects are additive and potentially synergistic.

Prilocaine may contribute to the formation of methemoglobin in patients treated with other drugs known to cause this condition

WARNINGS

Specific interaction studies with lidocaine/prilocaine and class III anti-arrhythmic drugs (e.g., amiodarone, bretylium, sotalol, doetilide) have not been performed, but caution is advised (see ).

Should lidocaine and prilocaine cream be used concomitantly with other products containing lidocaine and/or prilocaine, cumulative doses from all formulations must be considered.

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

Carcinogenesis



Mutagenesis



Impairment of Fertility

See .

Use in Pregnancy

Labor and Delivery

Neither lidocaine nor prilocaine are contraindicated in labor and delivery. Should lidocaine and prilocaine cream be used concomitantly with other products containing lidocaine and/or prilocaine, cumulative doses from all formulations must be considered.

Nursing Mothers

Lidocaine, and probably prilocaine, are excreted in human milk. Therefore, caution should be exercised when lidocaine and prilocaine cream is administered to a nursing mother since the milk:plasma ratio of lidocaine is 0.4 and is not determined for prilocaine.

Pediatric Use

Controlled studies of lidocaine and prilocaine cream in children under the age of seven years have shown less overall benefit than in older children or adults. These results illustrate the importance of emotional and psychological support of younger children undergoing medical or surgical procedures.

Lidocaine and prilocaine cream should be used with care in patients with conditions or therapy associated with methemoglobinemia (see subsection of ).

When using lidocaine and prilocaine cream in young children, especially infants under the age of 3 months, care must be taken to insure that the caregiver understands the need to limit the dose and area of application, and to prevent accidental ingestion (see and ).

In neonates (minimum gestation age: 37 weeks) and children weighing less than 20 kg, the area and duration of application should be limited (seein ).

Studies have not demonstrated the efficacy of lidocaine and prilocaine cream for heel lancing in neonates.

Geriatric Use

Of the total number of patients in clinical studies of lidocaine and prilocaine cream, 180 were age 65 to 74 and 138 were 75 and over. No overall differences in safety or efficacy were observed between these patients and younger patients. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out.

Plasma levels of lidocaine and prilocaine in geriatric and non-geriatric patients following application of a thick layer of lidocaine and prilocaine cream are very low and well below potentially toxic levels. However, there are no sufficient data to evaluate quantitative differences in systemic plasma levels of lidocaine and prilocaine between geriatric and non-geriatric patients following application of lidocaine and prilocaine cream.

Consideration should be given for those elderly patients who have enhanced sensitivity to systemic absorption (see ).

After intravenous dosing, the elimination half-life of lidocaine is significantly longer in elderly patients (2.5 hours) than in younger patients (1.5 hours). (See ).


What are the side effects of Dolotranz?

Localized Reactions

During or immediately after treatment with lidocaine and prilocaine cream on intact skin, the skin at the site of treatment may develop erythema or edema or may be the locus of abnormal sensation. Rare cases of discrete purpuric or petechial reactions at the application site have been reported. Rare cases of hyperpigmentation following the use of lidocaine and prilocaine cream have been reported. The relationship to lidocaine and prilocaine cream or the underlying procedure has not been established. In clinical studies on intact skin involving over 1,300 lidocaine and prilocaine cream-treated subjects, one or more such local reactions were noted in 56% of patients, and were generally mild and transient, resolving spontaneously within 1 or 2 hours. There were no serious reactions that were ascribed to lidocaine and prilocaine cream.

Two recent reports describe blistering on the foreskin in neonates about to undergo circumcision. Both neonates received 1.0 g of lidocaine and prilocaine cream.

In patients treated with lidocaine and prilocaine cream on intact skin, local effects observed in the trials included: paleness (pallor or blanching) 37%, redness (erythema) 30%, alterations in temperature sensations 7%, edema 6%, itching 2% and rash, less than 1%.

In clinical studies on genital mucous membranes involving 378 lidocaine and prilocaine cream-treated patients, one or more application site reactions, usually mild and transient, were noted in 41% of patients. The most common application site reactions were redness (21%), burning sensation (17%) and edema (10%).

Allergic Reactions

Allergic and anaphylactoid reactions associated with lidocaine or prilocaine can occur. They are characterized by urticaria, angioedema, bronchospasm, and shock. If they occur they should be managed by conventional means. The detection of sensitivity by skin testing is of doubtful value.

Systemic (Dose Related) Reactions

Systemic adverse reactions following appropriate use of lidocaine and prilocaine cream are unlikely due to the small dose absorbed (see subsection of ). Systemic adverse effects of lidocaine and/or prilocaine are similar in nature to those observed with other amide local anesthetic agents including CNS excitation and/or depression (light-headedness, nervousness, apprehension, euphoria, confusion, dizziness, drowsiness, tinnitus, blurred or double vision, vomiting, sensations of heat, cold or numbness, twitching, tremors, convulsions, unconsciousness, respiratory depression and arrest). Excitatory CNS reactions may be brief or not occur at all, in which case the first manifestation may be drowsiness merging into unconsciousness. Cardiovascular manifestations may include bradycardia, hypotension and cardiovascular collapse leading to arrest.


What should I look out for while using Dolotranz?

Lidocaine and prilocaine cream (lidocaine 2.5% and prilocaine 2.5%) is contraindicated in patients with a known history of sensitivity to local anesthetics of the amide type or to any other component of the product.

Application of lidocaine and prilocaine cream to larger areas or for longer times than those recommended could result in sufficient absorption of lidocaine and prilocaine resulting in serious adverse effects (see ).

Patients treated with class III anti-arrhythmic drugs (e.g., amiodarone, bretylium, sotalol, dofetilide) should be under close surveillance and ECG monitoring considered, because cardiac effects may be additive.

Studies in laboratory animals (guinea pigs) have shown that lidocaine and prilocaine cream has an ototoxic effect when instilled into the middle ear. In these same studies, animals exposed to lidocaine and prilocaine cream only in the external auditory canal, showed no abnormality. Lidocaine and prilocaine cream should not be used in any clinical situation when its penetration or migration beyond the tympanic membrane into the middle ear is possible.


What might happen if I take too much Dolotranz?

Peak blood levels following a 60 g application to 400 cm2 of intact skin for 3 hours are 0.05 to 0.16 μg/mL for lidocaine and 0.02 to 0.10 μg/mL for prilocaine. Toxic levels of lidocaine (>5 μg/mL) and/or prilocaine (>6 μg/mL) cause decreases in cardiac output, total peripheral resistance and mean arterial pressure. These changes may be attributable to direct depressant effects of these local anesthetic agents on the cardiovascular system. In the absence of massive topical overdose or oral ingestion, evaluation should include evaluation of other etiologies for the clinical effects or overdosage from other sources of lidocaine, prilocaine or other local anesthetics. Consult the package inserts for parenteral Xylocaine (lidocaine HCl) or Citanest (prilocaine HCl) for further information for the management of overdose.


How should I store and handle Dolotranz?

Store at Dolotranz (NDC 70877-5555-1) Contents: 3 - Lidocaine 2.5% and Prilocaine 2.5% Cream, USP – 30 gram/tube. (90 grams) 1 - Tranzarel® (Lidocaine 4%) Topical Pain Relieving Gel - Net wt. 4 fl. oz. (120 mL)NOT FOR OPHTHALMIC USE.KEEP CONTAINER TIGHTLY CLOSED AT ALL TIMES WHEN NOT IN USE.Dolotranz (NDC 70877-5555-1) Contents: 3 - Lidocaine 2.5% and Prilocaine 2.5% Cream, USP – 30 gram/tube. (90 grams) 1 - Tranzarel® (Lidocaine 4%) Topical Pain Relieving Gel - Net wt. 4 fl. oz. (120 mL)NOT FOR OPHTHALMIC USE.KEEP CONTAINER TIGHTLY CLOSED AT ALL TIMES WHEN NOT IN USE.Dolotranz (NDC 70877-5555-1) Contents: 3 - Lidocaine 2.5% and Prilocaine 2.5% Cream, USP – 30 gram/tube. (90 grams) 1 - Tranzarel® (Lidocaine 4%) Topical Pain Relieving Gel - Net wt. 4 fl. oz. (120 mL)NOT FOR OPHTHALMIC USE.KEEP CONTAINER TIGHTLY CLOSED AT ALL TIMES WHEN NOT IN USE.Dolotranz (NDC 70877-5555-1) Contents: 3 - Lidocaine 2.5% and Prilocaine 2.5% Cream, USP – 30 gram/tube. (90 grams) 1 - Tranzarel® (Lidocaine 4%) Topical Pain Relieving Gel - Net wt. 4 fl. oz. (120 mL)NOT FOR OPHTHALMIC USE.KEEP CONTAINER TIGHTLY CLOSED AT ALL TIMES WHEN NOT IN USE.Dolotranz (NDC 70877-5555-1) Contents: 3 - Lidocaine 2.5% and Prilocaine 2.5% Cream, USP – 30 gram/tube. (90 grams) 1 - Tranzarel® (Lidocaine 4%) Topical Pain Relieving Gel - Net wt. 4 fl. oz. (120 mL)NOT FOR OPHTHALMIC USE.KEEP CONTAINER TIGHTLY CLOSED AT ALL TIMES WHEN NOT IN USE.


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Clinical Information

Chemical Structure

No Image found
Clinical Pharmacology

Lidocaine and prilocaine cream applied to intact skin under occlusive dressing, provides dermal analgesia by the release of lidocaine and prilocaine from the cream into the epidermal and dermal layers of the skin and by the accumulation of lidocaine and prilocaine in the vicinity of dermal pain receptors and nerve endings. Lidocaine and prilocaine are amide-type local anesthetic agents. Both lidocaine and prilocaine stabilize neuronal membranes by inhibiting the ionic fluxes required for the initiation and conduction of impulses, thereby effecting local anesthetic action.

The onset, depth and duration of dermal analgesia on intact skin provided by lidocaine and prilocaine cream depend primarily on the duration of application. To provide sufficient analgesia for clinical procedures such as intravenous catheter placement and venipuncture, lidocaine and prilocaine cream should be applied under an occlusive dressing for at least 1 hour. To provide dermal analgesia for clinical procedures such as split skin graft harvesting, lidocaine and prilocaine cream should be applied under occlusive dressing for at least 2 hours. Satisfactory dermal analgesia is achieved 1 hour after application, reaches maximum at 2 to 3 hours, and persists for 1 to 2 hours after removal. Absorption from the genital mucosa is more rapid and onset time is shorter (5 to 10 minutes) than after application to intact skin. After a 5 to 10 minute application of lidocaine and prilocaine cream to female genital mucosa, the average duration of effective analgesia to an argon laser stimulus (which produced a sharp, pricking pain) was 15 to 20 minutes (individual variations in the range of 5 to 45 minutes).

Dermal application of lidocaine and prilocaine cream may cause a transient, local blanching followed by a transient, local redness or erythema.

Non-Clinical Toxicology
Lidocaine and prilocaine cream (lidocaine 2.5% and prilocaine 2.5%) is contraindicated in patients with a known history of sensitivity to local anesthetics of the amide type or to any other component of the product.

Application of lidocaine and prilocaine cream to larger areas or for longer times than those recommended could result in sufficient absorption of lidocaine and prilocaine resulting in serious adverse effects (see ).

Patients treated with class III anti-arrhythmic drugs (e.g., amiodarone, bretylium, sotalol, dofetilide) should be under close surveillance and ECG monitoring considered, because cardiac effects may be additive.

Studies in laboratory animals (guinea pigs) have shown that lidocaine and prilocaine cream has an ototoxic effect when instilled into the middle ear. In these same studies, animals exposed to lidocaine and prilocaine cream only in the external auditory canal, showed no abnormality. Lidocaine and prilocaine cream should not be used in any clinical situation when its penetration or migration beyond the tympanic membrane into the middle ear is possible.

Lidocaine and prilocaine cream should be used with caution in patients receiving Class I antiarrhythmic drugs (such as tocainide and mexiletine) since the toxic effects are additive and potentially synergistic.







Specific interaction studies with lidocaine/prilocaine and class III anti-arrhythmic drugs (e.g., amiodarone, bretylium, sotalol, doetilide) have not been performed, but caution is advised (see ).

Should lidocaine and prilocaine cream be used concomitantly with other products containing lidocaine and/or prilocaine, cumulative doses from all formulations must be considered.

Repeated doses of lidocaine and prilocaine cream may increase blood levels of lidocaine and prilocaine. Lidocaine and prilocaine cream should be used with caution in patients who may be more sensitive to the systemic effects of lidocaine and prilocaine including acutely ill, debilitated, or elderly patients.

Lidocaine and prilocaine cream should not be applied to open wounds.

Care should be taken not to allow lidocaine and prilocaine cream to come in contact with the eye because animal studies have demonstrated severe eye irritation. Also the loss of protective reflexes can permit corneal irritation and potential abrasion. Absorption of lidocaine and prilocaine cream in conjunctival tissues has not been determined. If eye contact occurs, immediately wash out the eye with water or saline and protect the eye until sensation returns.

Patients allergic to paraaminobenzoic acid derivatives (procaine, tetracaine, benzocaine, etc.) have not shown cross sensitivity to lidocaine and/or prilocaine, however, lidocaine and prilocaine cream should be used with caution in patients with a history of drug sensitivities, especially if the etiologic agent is uncertain.

Patients with severe hepatic disease, because of their inability to metabolize local anesthetics normally, are at greater risk of developing toxic plasma concentrations of lidocaine and prilocaine.

Lidocaine and prilocaine have been shown to inhibit viral and bacterial growth. The effect of lidocaine and prilocaine cream on intradermal injections of live vaccines has not been determined.

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Reference

This information is obtained from the National Institute of Health's Standard Packaging Label drug database.
"https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/"

While we update our database periodically, we cannot guarantee it is always updated to the latest version.

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Clonazepam Description Each single-scored tablet, for oral administration, contains 0.5 mg, 1 mg, or 2 mg Clonazepam, USP, a benzodiazepine. Each tablet also contains corn starch, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, and povidone. Clonazepam tablets USP 0.5 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake. Clonazepam tablets USP 1 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake, as well as FD&C Blue No. 1 Aluminum Lake. Chemically, Clonazepam, USP is 5-(o-chlorophenyl)-1,3-dihydro-7-nitro-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one. It is a light yellow crystalline powder. It has the following structural formula: C15H10ClN3O3 M.W. 315.72
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Tips

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Interactions

Interactions

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