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gadoterate meglumine

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Overview

What is DOTAREM?

DOTAREM (gadoterate meglumine) is a paramagnetic macrocyclic ionic contrast agent administered for magnetic resonance imaging. The chemical name for gadoterate meglumine is D-glucitol, 1-deoxy-1-(methylamino)-,[1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraaceto(4-)-.kappa.N1, .kappa.N4, .kappa.N7, .kappa.N10, .kappa.O1, .kappa.O4, .kappa.O7, .kappa.O10]gadolinate(1-)(1:1); it has a formula weight of 753.9 g/mol and empirical formula of CHONGd (anhydrous basis).

The structural formula of gadoterate meglumine in solution is as follows:

CAS Registry No. 92943-93-6

DOTAREM Injection is a sterile, nonpyrogenic, clear, colorless to yellow, aqueous solution of 0.5 mmol/mL of gadoterate meglumine. No preservative is added. Each mL of DOTAREM contains 376.9 mg of gadoterate meglumine, 0.25 mg of DOTA and water for injection. DOTAREM has a pH of 6.5 to 8.0.

The main physiochemical properties of DOTAREM are provided below:

The thermodynamic stability constants for gadoterate (log K and log K at pH 7.4) are 25.6 and 19.3, respectively.



What does DOTAREM look like?



What are the available doses of DOTAREM?

DOTAREM Injection 0.5 mmol/mL contains 376.9 mg/mL of gadoterate meglumine. DOTAREM Pharmacy Bulk Package is available in vials.

What should I talk to my health care provider before I take DOTAREM?

How should I use DOTAREM?

DOTAREM is a gadolinium-based contrast agent indicated for intravenous use with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in brain (intracranial), spine and associated tissues in adult and pediatric patients (including term neonates) to detect and visualize areas with disruption of the blood brain barrier (BBB) and/or abnormal vascularity.


What interacts with DOTAREM?

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What are the warnings of DOTAREM?

Sorry No Records found


What are the precautions of DOTAREM?

Sorry No Records found


What are the side effects of DOTAREM?

Sorry No records found


What should I look out for while using DOTAREM?

History of clinically important hypersensitivity reactions to DOTAREM

Gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) increase the risk for NSF among patients with impaired elimination of the drugs. Avoid use of GBCAs in these patients unless the diagnostic information is essential and not available with non-contrasted MRI or other modalities. NSF may result in fatal or debilitating fibrosis affecting the skin, muscle and internal organs.


What might happen if I take too much DOTAREM?

DOTAREM administered to healthy volunteers and to adult patients at cumulative doses up to 0.3 mmol/kg was tolerated in a manner similar to lower doses. Adverse reactions to overdosage with DOTAREM have not been reported. Gadoterate can be removed from the body by hemodialysis .


How should I store and handle DOTAREM?

Store oxcarbazepine oral suspension, USP in the original container. Shake well before using.Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F); excursions permitted to 15° to 30°C (59° to 86°F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature].Store oxcarbazepine oral suspension, USP in the original container. Shake well before using.Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F); excursions permitted to 15° to 30°C (59° to 86°F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature].DOTAREM Injection is a clear, colorless to yellow solution containing 0.5 mmol/mL of gadoterate meglumine.Each Pharmacy Bulk Package vial is closed with a rubber stopper and sealed with an aluminum cap and the contents are sterile. DOTAREM Pharmacy Bulk Package is packaged in a shrink wrapped package of 6, in the following configurations:100 mL in glass vial (NDC 67684-2000-4)StorageStore at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted to 15°C to 30°C (59°F to 86°F) [see USP, Controlled Room Temperature (CRT)].Should solidification occur in the vial because of exposure to the cold, bring DOTAREM to room temperature before use. If allowed to stand at room temperature for a minimum of 90 minutes, DOTAREM should return to a clear, colorless to yellow solution. Before use, examine the product to assure that all solids are dissolved and that the container and closure have not been damaged. Discard the vial if solids persist.DOTAREM Injection is a clear, colorless to yellow solution containing 0.5 mmol/mL of gadoterate meglumine.Each Pharmacy Bulk Package vial is closed with a rubber stopper and sealed with an aluminum cap and the contents are sterile. DOTAREM Pharmacy Bulk Package is packaged in a shrink wrapped package of 6, in the following configurations:100 mL in glass vial (NDC 67684-2000-4)StorageStore at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted to 15°C to 30°C (59°F to 86°F) [see USP, Controlled Room Temperature (CRT)].Should solidification occur in the vial because of exposure to the cold, bring DOTAREM to room temperature before use. If allowed to stand at room temperature for a minimum of 90 minutes, DOTAREM should return to a clear, colorless to yellow solution. Before use, examine the product to assure that all solids are dissolved and that the container and closure have not been damaged. Discard the vial if solids persist.DOTAREM Injection is a clear, colorless to yellow solution containing 0.5 mmol/mL of gadoterate meglumine.Each Pharmacy Bulk Package vial is closed with a rubber stopper and sealed with an aluminum cap and the contents are sterile. DOTAREM Pharmacy Bulk Package is packaged in a shrink wrapped package of 6, in the following configurations:100 mL in glass vial (NDC 67684-2000-4)StorageStore at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted to 15°C to 30°C (59°F to 86°F) [see USP, Controlled Room Temperature (CRT)].Should solidification occur in the vial because of exposure to the cold, bring DOTAREM to room temperature before use. If allowed to stand at room temperature for a minimum of 90 minutes, DOTAREM should return to a clear, colorless to yellow solution. Before use, examine the product to assure that all solids are dissolved and that the container and closure have not been damaged. Discard the vial if solids persist.DOTAREM Injection is a clear, colorless to yellow solution containing 0.5 mmol/mL of gadoterate meglumine.Each Pharmacy Bulk Package vial is closed with a rubber stopper and sealed with an aluminum cap and the contents are sterile. DOTAREM Pharmacy Bulk Package is packaged in a shrink wrapped package of 6, in the following configurations:100 mL in glass vial (NDC 67684-2000-4)StorageStore at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted to 15°C to 30°C (59°F to 86°F) [see USP, Controlled Room Temperature (CRT)].Should solidification occur in the vial because of exposure to the cold, bring DOTAREM to room temperature before use. If allowed to stand at room temperature for a minimum of 90 minutes, DOTAREM should return to a clear, colorless to yellow solution. Before use, examine the product to assure that all solids are dissolved and that the container and closure have not been damaged. Discard the vial if solids persist.DOTAREM Injection is a clear, colorless to yellow solution containing 0.5 mmol/mL of gadoterate meglumine.Each Pharmacy Bulk Package vial is closed with a rubber stopper and sealed with an aluminum cap and the contents are sterile. DOTAREM Pharmacy Bulk Package is packaged in a shrink wrapped package of 6, in the following configurations:100 mL in glass vial (NDC 67684-2000-4)StorageStore at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted to 15°C to 30°C (59°F to 86°F) [see USP, Controlled Room Temperature (CRT)].Should solidification occur in the vial because of exposure to the cold, bring DOTAREM to room temperature before use. If allowed to stand at room temperature for a minimum of 90 minutes, DOTAREM should return to a clear, colorless to yellow solution. Before use, examine the product to assure that all solids are dissolved and that the container and closure have not been damaged. Discard the vial if solids persist.DOTAREM Injection is a clear, colorless to yellow solution containing 0.5 mmol/mL of gadoterate meglumine.Each Pharmacy Bulk Package vial is closed with a rubber stopper and sealed with an aluminum cap and the contents are sterile. DOTAREM Pharmacy Bulk Package is packaged in a shrink wrapped package of 6, in the following configurations:100 mL in glass vial (NDC 67684-2000-4)StorageStore at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted to 15°C to 30°C (59°F to 86°F) [see USP, Controlled Room Temperature (CRT)].Should solidification occur in the vial because of exposure to the cold, bring DOTAREM to room temperature before use. If allowed to stand at room temperature for a minimum of 90 minutes, DOTAREM should return to a clear, colorless to yellow solution. Before use, examine the product to assure that all solids are dissolved and that the container and closure have not been damaged. Discard the vial if solids persist.


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Clinical Information

Chemical Structure

No Image found
Clinical Pharmacology

Gadoterate is a paramagnetic molecule that develops a magnetic moment when placed in a magnetic field. The magnetic moment enhances the relaxation rates of water protons in its vicinity, leading to an increase in signal intensity (brightness) of tissues.

In magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), visualization of normal and pathological tissue depends in part on variations in the radiofrequency signal intensity that occurs with:

When placed in a magnetic field, gadoterate shortens the T1 and T2 relaxation times in target tissues. At recommended doses, the effect is observed with greatest sensitivity in the T1-weighted sequences.

Non-Clinical Toxicology
History of clinically important hypersensitivity reactions to DOTAREM

Gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) increase the risk for NSF among patients with impaired elimination of the drugs. Avoid use of GBCAs in these patients unless the diagnostic information is essential and not available with non-contrasted MRI or other modalities. NSF may result in fatal or debilitating fibrosis affecting the skin, muscle and internal organs.

Drug interaction studies with mycophenolate mofetil have been conducted with acyclovir, antacids, cholestyramine, cyclosporine, ganciclovir, oral contraceptives, sevelamer, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, norfloxacin, and metronidazole. Drug interaction studies have not been conducted with other drugs that may be commonly administered to renal, cardiac or hepatic transplant patients. Mycophenolate mofetil has not been administered concomitantly with azathioprine.

 





Coadministration of mycophenolate mofetil (1 g) and acyclovir (800 mg) to 12 healthy volunteers resulted in no significant change in MPA AUC and C. However, MPAG and acyclovir plasma AUCs were increased 10.6 % and 21.9 %, respectively. Because MPAG plasma concentrations are increased in the presence of renal impairment, as are acyclovir concentrations, the potential exists for mycophenolate and acyclovir or its prodrug (e.g, valacyclovir) to compete for tubular secretion, further increasing the concentrations of both drugs.

 





Absorption of a single dose of mycophenolate mofetil (2 g) was decreased when administered to ten rheumatoid arthritis patients also taking MaaloxTC (10 mL qid). The Cand AUC(0 to 24h) for MPA were 33 % and 17 % lower, respectively, than when mycophenolate mofetil was administered alone under fasting conditions. Mycophenolate mofetil may be administered to patients who are also taking antacids containing magnesium and aluminum hydroxides; however, it is recommended that mycophenolate mofetil and the antacid not be administered simultaneously.





Coadministration of PPIs (e.g., lansoprazole, pantoprazole) in single doses to healthy volunteers and multiple doses to transplant patients receiving mycophenolate mofetil has been reported to reduce the exposure to mycophenolic acid (MPA). An approximate reduction of 30 to 70% in the C and 25% to 35% in the AUC of MPA has been observed, possibly due to a decrease in MPA solubility at an increased gastric pH. The clinical impact of reduced MPA exposure on organ rejection has not been established in transplant patients receiving PPIs and mycophenolate mofetil. Because clinical relevance has not been established, PPIs should be used with caution when coadministered to transplant patients being treated with mycophenolate mofetil.

 





Following single-dose administration of 1.5 g mycophenolate mofetil to 12 healthy volunteers pretreated with 4 g tid of cholestyramine for 4 days, MPA AUC decreased approximately 40 %. This decrease is consistent with interruption of enterohepatic recirculation which may be due to binding of recirculating MPAG with cholestyramine in the intestine. Some degree of enterohepatic recirculation is also anticipated following intravenous administration of mycophenolate mofetil. Therefore, mycophenolate mofetil is not recommended to be given with cholestyramine or other agents that may interfere with enterohepatic recirculation.

 





Cyclosporine (Sandimmune) pharmacokinetics (at doses of 275 to 415 mg/day) were unaffected by single and multiple doses of 1.5 g bid of mycophenolate mofetil in 10 stable renal transplant patients. The mean (±SD) AUC and C of cyclosporine after 14 days of multiple doses of mycophenolate mofetil were 3290 (±822) ng•h/mL and 753 (±161) ng/mL, respectively, compared to 3245 (±1088) ng•h/mL and 700 (±246) ng/mL, respectively, 1 week before administration of mycophenolate mofetil.

 

Cyclosporine A interferes with MPA enterohepatic recirculation. In renal transplant patients, mean MPA exposure (AUC) was approximately 30 to 50 % greater when mycophenolate mofetil is administered without cyclosporine compared with when mycophenolate mofetil is coadministered with cyclosporine. This interaction is due to cyclosporine inhibition of multidrug-resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP-2) transporter in the biliary tract, thereby preventing the excretion of MPAG into the bile that would lead to enterohepatic recirculation of MPA. This information should be taken into consideration when MMF is used without cyclosporine; changes in MPA exposure should be expected when switching patients from cyclosporine A to one of the immunosuppressants which do not interfere with MPA's enterohepatic cycle (e.g., tacrolimus; belatacept).





Concommitant administration of telmisartan and mycophenolate mofetil resulted in an approximately 30% decrease in mycophenolic acid (MPA) concentrations. Telmisartan changes MPA's elimination by enhancing PPAR gamma (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma) expression, which in turn results in an enhanced UGT1A9 expression and activity.





Following single-dose administration to 12 stable renal transplant patients, no pharmacokinetic interaction was observed between mycophenolate mofetil (1.5 g) and intravenous ganciclovir (5 mg/kg). Mean (±SD) ganciclovir AUC and C (n=10) were 54.3 (±19) mcg•h/mL and 11.5 (±1.8) mcg/mL, respectively, after coadministration of the two drugs, compared to 51 (±17) mcg•h/mL and 10.6 (±2) mcg/mL, respectively, after administration of intravenous ganciclovir alone. The mean (±SD) AUC and C of MPA (n=12) after coadministration were 80.9 (±21.6) mcg•h/mL and 27.8 (±13.9) mcg/mL, respectively, compared to values of 80.3 (±16.4) mcg•h/mL and 30.9 (±11.2) mcg/mL, respectively, after administration of mycophenolate mofetil alone. Because MPAG plasma concentrations are increased in the presence of renal impairment, as are ganciclovir concentrations, the two drugs will compete for tubular secretion and thus further increases in concentrations of both drugs may occur. In patients with renal impairment in which MMF and ganciclovir or its prodrug (eg, valganciclovir) are coadministered, patients should be monitored carefully.





A study of coadministration of mycophenolate mofetil (1 g bid) and combined oral contraceptives containing ethinylestradiol (0.02 mg to 0.04 mg) and levonorgestrel (0.05 mg to 0.20 mg), desogestrel (0.15 mg) or gestodene (0.05 mg to 0.10 mg) was conducted in 18 women with psoriasis over 3 consecutive menstrual cycles. Mean AUC was similar for ethinylestradiol and 3-keto desogestrel; however, mean levonorgestrel AUC significantly decreased by about 15 %. There was large inter-patient variability (%CV in the range of 60 % to 70 %) in the data, especially for ethinylestradiol. Mean serum levels of LH, FSH and progesterone were not significantly affected. Mycophenolate mofetil may not have any influence on the ovulation-suppressing action of the studied oral contraceptives. It is recommended to coadminister mycophenolate mofetil with hormonal contraceptives (eg, birth control pill, transdermal patch, vaginal ring, injection, and implant) with caution and additional barrier contraceptive methods must be used (see ).





Concomitant administration of sevelamer and mycophenolate mofetil in adult and pediatric patients decreased the mean MPA C and AUC by 36 % and 26 % respectively. This data suggest that sevelamer and other calcium free phosphate binders should not be administered simultaneously with mycophenolate mofetil. Alternatively, it is recommended that sevelamer and other calcium free phosphate binders preferentially could be given 2 hours after mycophenolate mofetil intake to minimize the impact on the absorption of MPA.





Following single-dose administration of mycophenolate mofetil (1.5 g) to 12 healthy male volunteers on day 8 of a 10 day course of trimethoprim 160 mg/sulfamethoxazole 800 mg administered bid, no effect on the bioavailability of MPA was observed. The mean (±SD) AUC and C of MPA after concomitant administration were 75.2 (±19.8) mcg•h/mL and 34  (±6.6) mcg/mL, respectively, compared to 79.2 (±27.9) mcg•h/mL and 34.2 (±10.7) mcg/mL, respectively, after administration of mycophenolate mofetil alone.

 





Following single-dose administration of mycophenolate mofetil (1 g) to 11 healthy volunteers on day 4 of a 5 day course of a combination of norfloxacin and metronidazole, the mean MPA AUC was significantly reduced by 33 % compared to the administration of mycophenolate mofetil alone (p




A total of 64 mycophenolate mofetil -treated renal transplant recipients received either oral ciprofloxacin 500 mg bid or amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid 375 mg tid for 7 or at least 14 days. Approximately 50 % reductions in median trough MPA concentrations (pre-dose) from baseline (mycophenolate mofetil alone) were observed in 3 days following commencement of oral ciprofloxacin or amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid. These reductions in trough MPA concentrations tended to diminish within 14 days of antibiotic therapy and ceased within 3 days after discontinuation of antibiotics. The postulated mechanism for this interaction is an antibiotic-induced reduction in glucuronidase-possessing enteric organisms leading to a decrease in enterohepatic recirculation of MPA. The change in trough level may not accurately represent changes in overall MPA exposure; therefore, clinical relevance of these observations is unclear.





In a single heart-lung transplant patient, after correction for dose, a 67 % decrease in MPA exposure (AUC) has been observed with concomitant administration of mycophenolate mofetil and rifampin. Therefore, mycophenolate mofetil is not recommended to be given with rifampin concomitantly unless the benefit outweighs the risk.





The measured value for renal clearance of MPAG indicates removal occurs by renal tubular secretion as well as glomerular filtration. Consistent with this, coadministration of probenecid, a known inhibitor of tubular secretion, with mycophenolate mofetil in monkeys results in a 3-fold increase in plasma MPAG AUC and a 2-fold increase in plasma MPA AUC. Thus, other drugs known to undergo renal tubular secretion may compete with MPAG and thereby raise plasma concentrations of MPAG or the other drug undergoing tubular secretion.

Drugs that alter the gastrointestinal flora may interact with mycophenolate mofetil by disrupting enterohepatic recirculation. Interference of MPAG hydrolysis may lead to less MPA available for absorption.





During treatment with mycophenolate mofetil, the use of live attenuated vaccines should be avoided and patients should be advised that vaccinations may be less effective (see ). Influenza vaccination may be of value. Prescribers should refer to national guidelines for influenza vaccination.

Gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) increase the risk for nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) among patients with impaired elimination of the drugs. Avoid use of GBCAs among these patients unless the diagnostic information is essential and not available with non-contrast MRI or other modalities. The GBCA-associated NSF risk appears highest for patients with chronic, severe kidney disease (GFR
Screen patients for acute kidney injury and other conditions that may reduce renal function. Features of acute kidney injury consist of rapid (over hours to days) and usually reversible decrease in kidney function, commonly in the setting of surgery, severe infection, injury or drug-induced kidney toxicity. Serum creatinine levels and estimated GFR may not reliably assess renal function in the setting of acute kidney injury. For patients at risk for chronically reduced renal function (e.g., age > 60 years, diabetes mellitus or chronic hypertension), estimate the GFR through laboratory testing.

The factors that may increase the risk for NSF are repeated or higher than recommended doses of a GBCA and the degree of renal impairment at the time of exposure. Record the specific GBCA and the dose administered to a patient. For patients at highest risk for NSF, do not exceed the recommended DOTAREM dose and allow a sufficient period of time for elimination of the drug prior to re-administration. For patients receiving hemodialysis, physicians may consider the prompt initiation of hemodialysis following the administration of a GBCA in order to enhance the contrast agent’s elimination. The usefulness of hemodialysis in the prevention of NSF is unknown.

GBCAs have been associated with a risk for NSF . Confirmed diagnosis of NSF has not been reported in patients with a clear history of exposure to DOTAREM alone.

Hypersensitivity reactions and acute kidney injury are described in other sections of the labeling.

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Reference

This information is obtained from the National Institute of Health's Standard Packaging Label drug database.
"https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/"

While we update our database periodically, we cannot guarantee it is always updated to the latest version.

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Clonazepam Description Each single-scored tablet, for oral administration, contains 0.5 mg, 1 mg, or 2 mg Clonazepam, USP, a benzodiazepine. Each tablet also contains corn starch, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, and povidone. Clonazepam tablets USP 0.5 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake. Clonazepam tablets USP 1 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake, as well as FD&C Blue No. 1 Aluminum Lake. Chemically, Clonazepam, USP is 5-(o-chlorophenyl)-1,3-dihydro-7-nitro-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one. It is a light yellow crystalline powder. It has the following structural formula: C15H10ClN3O3 M.W. 315.72
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Interactions

Interactions

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