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Doxycycline Hyclate

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Overview

What is Doxycyclate Hyclate?

Doxycycline Hyclate Capsules, USP, are an antibacterial drug synthetically derived from oxytetracycline. The structural formula of doxycycline monohydrate is:

with a molecular formula of CHNO•HO and a molecular weight of 462.46. The chemical designation for doxycycline is 4-(Dimethylamino)-1,4,4a,5,5a,6,11,12a-octahydro-3,5,10,12,12a-pentahydroxy-6-methyl-1,11-dioxo-2-naphthacenecarboxamide monohydrate. The molecular formula for doxycycline hydrochloride hemiethanolate hemihydrate is (CHNO•HCl)•CHO•HO and the molecular weight is 1025.89. Doxycycline is a light yellow crystalline powder. Doxycycline hyclate is soluble in water, while doxycycline monohydrate is very slightly soluble in water.

Doxycycline has a high degree of lipoid solubility and a low affinity for calcium binding. It is highly stable in normal human serum. Doxycycline will not degrade into an epianhydro form.

Each capsule for oral administration contains doxycycline hyclate equivalent to 100 mg of doxycycline (anhydrous). Inactive ingredients: lactose monohydrate, microcrystalline cellulose, magnesium stearate.

The 100 mg capsule shell contains: gelatin, diacetylated monoglycerides, sucrose fatty acid esters, glacial acetic acid, sodium lauryl sulfate, colloidal silicon dioxide, FD&C Blue #1 and titanium dioxide. The printing ink may contain: Shellac Glaze, Iron Oxide Black, N-Butyl Alcohol, Propylene Glycol, SDA 3A Alcohol, FD&C Blue #2, FD&C Red #40, FD&C Blue #1, D&C Yellow #10.



What does Doxycyclate Hyclate look like?



What are the available doses of Doxycyclate Hyclate?

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What should I talk to my health care provider before I take Doxycyclate Hyclate?

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How should I use Doxycyclate Hyclate?

To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain effectiveness of Doxycycline Hyclate Capsules, USP and other antibacterial drugs, Doxycycline Hyclate Capsules, USP should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.

The usual dosage and frequency of administration of doxycycline differs from that of the other tetracyclines. Exceeding the recommended dosage may result in an increased incidence of side effects.

Adults:

The usual dosage of oral doxycycline is 200 mg on the first day of treatment (administered 100 mg every 12 hours) followed by a maintenance dose of 100 mg/day. In the management of more severe infections (particularly chronic infections of the urinary tract), 100 mg every 12 hours is recommended.

Pediatric Patients:

For all pediatric patients weighing less than 45 kg with severe or life-threatening infections (e.g., anthrax, Rocky Mountain spotted fever), the recommended dosage is 2.2 mg/kg of body weight administered every 12 hours. Children weighing 45 kg or more should receive the adult dose (see and ).

For pediatric patients with less severe disease (greater than 8 years of age and weighing less than 45 kg), the recommended dosage schedule is 4.4 mg/kg of body weight divided into two doses on the first day of treatment, followed by a maintenance dose of 2.2 mg/kg of body weight (given as a single daily dose or divided into twice daily doses). For pediatric patients weighing over 45 kg, the usual adult dose should be used.

The therapeutic antibacterial serum activity will usually persist for 24 hours following recommended dosage.

When used in streptococcal infections, therapy should be continued for 10 days.

Administration of adequate amounts of fluid along with capsule and tablet forms of drugs in the tetracycline class is recommended to wash down the drugs and reduce the risk of esophageal irritation and ulceration (see ).

If gastric irritation occurs, it is recommended that doxycycline be given with food or milk. The absorption of doxycycline is not markedly influenced by simultaneous ingestion of food or milk.

Studies to date have indicated that administration of doxycycline at the usual recommended doses does not lead to excessive accumulation of doxycycline in patients with renal impairment.

Uncomplicated gonococcal infections in adults (except anorectal infections in men): 100 mg, by mouth, twice a day for 7 days. As an alternate single visit dose, administer 300 mg stat followed in one hour by a second 300 mg dose. The dose may be administered with food, including milk or carbonated beverage, as required.

Uncomplicated urethral, endocervical, or rectal infection in adults caused by   : 100 mg, by mouth, twice a day for 7 days.

Nongonococcal urethritis (NGU) caused by or : 100 mg, by mouth, twice a day for 7 days.

Syphilis - early: Patients who are allergic to penicillin should be treated with doxycycline 100 mg, by mouth, twice a day for 2 weeks.

Syphilis of more than one year’s duration: Patients who are allergic to penicillin should be treated with doxycycline 100 mg, by mouth, twice a day for 4 weeks.

Acute epididymo-orchitis caused by : 100 mg, by mouth, twice a day for at least 10 days.

Acute epididymo-orchitis caused by : 100 mg, by mouth, twice a day for at least 10 days.

For prophylaxis of malaria: For adults, the recommended dose is 100 mg daily. For children over 8 years of age, the recommended dose is 2 mg/kg given once daily up to the adult dose. Prophylaxis should begin 1 to 2 days before travel to the malarious area. Prophylaxis should be continued daily during travel in the malarious area and for 4 weeks after the traveler leaves the malarious area.

Inhalational anthrax (post-exposure):

ADULTS: 100 mg of doxycycline, by mouth, twice a day for 60 days.

CHILDREN: weighing less than 45 kg; 2.2 mg/kg of body weight, by mouth, twice a day for 60 days. Children weighing 45 kg or more should receive the adult dose.


What interacts with Doxycyclate Hyclate?

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What are the warnings of Doxycyclate Hyclate?

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What are the precautions of Doxycyclate Hyclate?

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What are the side effects of Doxycyclate Hyclate?

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What should I look out for while using Doxycyclate Hyclate?

This drug is contraindicated in persons who have shown hypersensitivity to any of the tetracyclines.

The use of drugs of the tetracycline class during tooth development (last half of pregnancy, infancy and childhood to the age of 8 years) may cause permanent discoloration of the teeth (yellow-gray-brown).

This adverse reaction is more common during long-term use of the drugs, but it has been observed following repeated short-term courses. Enamel hypoplasia has also been reported. Use doxycycline in pediatric patients 8 years of age or less only when the potential benefits are expected to outweigh the risks in severe or life-threatening conditions (e.g., anthrax, Rocky Mountain spotted fever), particularly when there are no alternative therapies.

Clostridium difficile

C. difficile

C. difficile

C. difficile

If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing use of antibacterial drugs not directed against may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibacterial treatment of , and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.

Intracranial hypertension (IH, pseudotumor cerebri) has been associated with the use of tetracyclines including doxycycline hyclate capsules. Clinical manifestations of IH include headache, blurred vision, diplopia, and vision loss; papilledema can be found on fundoscopy. Women of childbearing age who are overweight or have a history of IH are at greater risk for developing tetracycline associated IH. Concomitant use of isotretinoin and doxycycline hyclate capsules should be avoided because isotretinoin is also known to cause pseudotumor cerebri.

Although IH typically resolves after discontinuation of treatment, the possibility for permanent visual loss exists. If visual disturbance occurs during treatment, prompt ophthalmologic evaluation is warranted. Since intracranial pressure can remain elevated for weeks after drug cessation patients should be monitored until they stabilize.

All tetracyclines form a stable calcium complex in any bone-forming tissue. A decrease in fibula growth rate has been observed in prematures given oral tetracycline in doses of 25 mg/kg every 6 hours. This reaction was shown to be reversible when the drug was discontinued.

Results of animal studies indicate that tetracyclines cross the placenta, are found in fetal tissues, and can have toxic effects on the developing fetus (often related to retardation of skeletal development). Evidence of embryotoxicity has also been noted in animals treated early in pregnancy. If any tetracycline is used during pregnancy or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking this drug, the patient should be apprised of the potential hazard to the fetus.

The antianabolic action of the tetracyclines may cause an increase in BUN. Studies to date indicate that this does not occur with the use of doxycycline in patients with impaired renal function.

Photosensitivity manifested by an exaggerated sunburn reaction has been observed in some individuals taking tetracyclines. Patients apt to be exposed to direct sunlight or ultraviolet light should be advised that this reaction can occur with tetracycline drugs, and treatment should be discontinued at the first evidence of skin erythema.


What might happen if I take too much Doxycyclate Hyclate?

In case of overdosage, discontinue medication, treat symptomatically and institute supportive measures. Dialysis does not alter serum half-life and thus would not be of benefit in treating cases of overdosage.


How should I store and handle Doxycyclate Hyclate?

Store at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted from 15°C - 30°C (59°-86°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Protect from light. Store between 15°C and 25°C (59°F and 77°F); Retain in the original package to protect from light. Freezing does not adversely affect the product. After initial puncture, Docetaxel Injection multiple dose vials are stable for 28 days when stored at room temperature, with protection from light. Store at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted from 15°C - 30°C (59°-86°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Protect from light. Store between 15°C and 25°C (59°F and 77°F); Retain in the original package to protect from light. Freezing does not adversely affect the product. After initial puncture, Docetaxel Injection multiple dose vials are stable for 28 days when stored at room temperature, with protection from light. Store at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted from 15°C - 30°C (59°-86°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Protect from light. Store between 15°C and 25°C (59°F and 77°F); Retain in the original package to protect from light. Freezing does not adversely affect the product. After initial puncture, Docetaxel Injection multiple dose vials are stable for 28 days when stored at room temperature, with protection from light. Store at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted from 15°C - 30°C (59°-86°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Protect from light. Store between 15°C and 25°C (59°F and 77°F); Retain in the original package to protect from light. Freezing does not adversely affect the product. After initial puncture, Docetaxel Injection multiple dose vials are stable for 28 days when stored at room temperature, with protection from light. Store at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted from 15°C - 30°C (59°-86°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Protect from light. Store between 15°C and 25°C (59°F and 77°F); Retain in the original package to protect from light. Freezing does not adversely affect the product. After initial puncture, Docetaxel Injection multiple dose vials are stable for 28 days when stored at room temperature, with protection from light. Store at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted from 15°C - 30°C (59°-86°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Protect from light. Store between 15°C and 25°C (59°F and 77°F); Retain in the original package to protect from light. Freezing does not adversely affect the product. After initial puncture, Docetaxel Injection multiple dose vials are stable for 28 days when stored at room temperature, with protection from light. Store at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted from 15°C - 30°C (59°-86°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Protect from light. Store between 15°C and 25°C (59°F and 77°F); Retain in the original package to protect from light. Freezing does not adversely affect the product. After initial puncture, Docetaxel Injection multiple dose vials are stable for 28 days when stored at room temperature, with protection from light.Doxycycline Hyclate Capsules, USP equivalent to 100 mg doxycycline: No. 0 Blue/Blue Opaque Hard Gelatin Capsule Printed “West-ward 3142” in Black Ink.       Bottles of 50 capsules.             NDC 0143-9803-50       Bottles of 500 capsules.         NDC 0143-9803-05Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Protect from light and moisture. Dispense in a tight, light-resistant container as defined in the USP using a child-resistant closure.Doxycycline Hyclate Capsules, USP equivalent to 100 mg doxycycline: No. 0 Blue/Blue Opaque Hard Gelatin Capsule Printed “West-ward 3142” in Black Ink.       Bottles of 50 capsules.             NDC 0143-9803-50       Bottles of 500 capsules.         NDC 0143-9803-05Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Protect from light and moisture. Dispense in a tight, light-resistant container as defined in the USP using a child-resistant closure.Doxycycline Hyclate Capsules, USP equivalent to 100 mg doxycycline: No. 0 Blue/Blue Opaque Hard Gelatin Capsule Printed “West-ward 3142” in Black Ink.       Bottles of 50 capsules.             NDC 0143-9803-50       Bottles of 500 capsules.         NDC 0143-9803-05Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Protect from light and moisture. Dispense in a tight, light-resistant container as defined in the USP using a child-resistant closure.Doxycycline Hyclate Capsules, USP equivalent to 100 mg doxycycline: No. 0 Blue/Blue Opaque Hard Gelatin Capsule Printed “West-ward 3142” in Black Ink.       Bottles of 50 capsules.             NDC 0143-9803-50       Bottles of 500 capsules.         NDC 0143-9803-05Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Protect from light and moisture. Dispense in a tight, light-resistant container as defined in the USP using a child-resistant closure.


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Clinical Information

Chemical Structure

No Image found
Clinical Pharmacology

Tetracyclines are readily absorbed and are bound to plasma proteins in varying degree. They are concentrated by the liver in the bile, and excreted in the urine and feces at high concentrations and in a biologically active form. Doxycycline is virtually completely absorbed after oral administration.

Following a 200 mg dose, normal adult volunteers averaged peak serum levels of 2.6 mcg/mL of doxycycline at 2 hours, decreasing to 1.45 mcg/mL at 24 hours. Excretion of doxycycline by the kidney is about 40% per 72 hours in individuals with normal function (creatinine clearance about 75 mL/min). This percentage excretion may fall as low as 1 to 5% per 72 hours in individuals with severe renal insufficiency (creatinine clearance below 10 mL/min). Studies have shown no significant difference in serum half-life of doxycycline (range 18 to 22 hours) in individuals with normal and severely impaired renal function.

Hemodialysis does not alter serum half-life.

Results of animal studies indicate that tetracyclines cross the placenta and are found in fetal tissues.

Non-Clinical Toxicology
This drug is contraindicated in persons who have shown hypersensitivity to any of the tetracyclines.

The use of drugs of the tetracycline class during tooth development (last half of pregnancy, infancy and childhood to the age of 8 years) may cause permanent discoloration of the teeth (yellow-gray-brown).

This adverse reaction is more common during long-term use of the drugs, but it has been observed following repeated short-term courses. Enamel hypoplasia has also been reported. Use doxycycline in pediatric patients 8 years of age or less only when the potential benefits are expected to outweigh the risks in severe or life-threatening conditions (e.g., anthrax, Rocky Mountain spotted fever), particularly when there are no alternative therapies.

Clostridium difficile

C. difficile

C. difficile

C. difficile

If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing use of antibacterial drugs not directed against may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibacterial treatment of , and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.

Intracranial hypertension (IH, pseudotumor cerebri) has been associated with the use of tetracyclines including doxycycline hyclate capsules. Clinical manifestations of IH include headache, blurred vision, diplopia, and vision loss; papilledema can be found on fundoscopy. Women of childbearing age who are overweight or have a history of IH are at greater risk for developing tetracycline associated IH. Concomitant use of isotretinoin and doxycycline hyclate capsules should be avoided because isotretinoin is also known to cause pseudotumor cerebri.

Although IH typically resolves after discontinuation of treatment, the possibility for permanent visual loss exists. If visual disturbance occurs during treatment, prompt ophthalmologic evaluation is warranted. Since intracranial pressure can remain elevated for weeks after drug cessation patients should be monitored until they stabilize.

All tetracyclines form a stable calcium complex in any bone-forming tissue. A decrease in fibula growth rate has been observed in prematures given oral tetracycline in doses of 25 mg/kg every 6 hours. This reaction was shown to be reversible when the drug was discontinued.

Results of animal studies indicate that tetracyclines cross the placenta, are found in fetal tissues, and can have toxic effects on the developing fetus (often related to retardation of skeletal development). Evidence of embryotoxicity has also been noted in animals treated early in pregnancy. If any tetracycline is used during pregnancy or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking this drug, the patient should be apprised of the potential hazard to the fetus.

The antianabolic action of the tetracyclines may cause an increase in BUN. Studies to date indicate that this does not occur with the use of doxycycline in patients with impaired renal function.

Photosensitivity manifested by an exaggerated sunburn reaction has been observed in some individuals taking tetracyclines. Patients apt to be exposed to direct sunlight or ultraviolet light should be advised that this reaction can occur with tetracycline drugs, and treatment should be discontinued at the first evidence of skin erythema.

Because tetracyclines have been shown to depress plasma prothrombin activity, patients who are on anticoagulant therapy may require downward adjustment of their anticoagulant dosage.

Since bacteriostatic drugs may interfere with the bactericidal action of penicillin, it is advisable to avoid giving tetracyclines in conjunction with penicillin.

Absorption of tetracyclines is impaired by antacids containing aluminum, calcium, or magnesium, and iron-containing preparations.

Absorption of tetracyclines is impaired by bismuth subsalicylate.

Barbiturates, carbamazepine, and phenytoin decrease the half-life of doxycycline.

The concurrent use of tetracycline and Penthrane (methoxyflurane) has been reported to result in fatal renal toxicity.

Concurrent use of tetracycline may render oral contraceptives less effective.

As with other antibacterial drugs, use of doxycycline hyclate capsules may result in overgrowth of nonsusceptible organisms, including fungi. If superinfection occurs, doxycycline hyclate capsules should be discontinued and appropriate therapy instituted.

Incision and drainage or other surgical procedures should be performed in conjunction with antibacterial therapy, when indicated.

Doxycycline offers substantial but not complete suppression of the asexual blood stages of strains.

Doxycycline does not suppress sexual blood stage gametocytes. Subjects completing this prophylactic regimen may still transmit the infection to mosquitoes outside endemic areas.

Prescribing doxycycline hyclate capsules in the absence of proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria.

Due to oral doxycycline’s virtually complete absorption, side effects of the lower bowel, particularly diarrhea, have been infrequent. The following adverse reactions have been observed in patients receiving tetracyclines:

Gastrointestinal: anorexia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, glossitis, dysphagia, enterocolitis, and inflammatory lesions (with monilial overgrowth) in the anogenital region, and pancreatitis. Hepatotoxicity has been reported rarely. These reactions have been caused by both the oral and parenteral administration of tetracyclines. Rare instances of esophagitis and esophageal ulcerations have been reported in patients receiving capsule and tablet forms of the drugs in the tetracycline class. Most of these patients took medications immediately before going to bed (see ).

Skin: toxic epidermal necrolysis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, erythema multiforme, maculopapular and erythematous rashes. Exfoliative dermatitis has been reported but is uncommon. Photosensitivity is discussed above (see ).

Renal toxicity: Rise in BUN has been reported and is apparently dose related (see ).

Immune: Hypersensitivity reactions including urticaria, angioneurotic edema, anaphylaxis, anaphylactoid purpura, serum sickness, pericarditis, exacerbation of systemic lupus erythematosus, and drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS).

Blood: Hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, neutropenia, and eosinophilia have been reported.

Other: Bulging fontanels in infants and intracranial hypertension in adults (see

When given over prolonged periods, tetracyclines have been reported to produce brown-black microscopic discoloration of the thyroid gland. No abnormalities of thyroid function studies are known to occur.

To report SUSPECTED A

DVERSE REACTIONS, contact West-W

ard Pharmaceutical

s

Corp. at 1-877-233-2001, or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch.

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Reference

This information is obtained from the National Institute of Health's Standard Packaging Label drug database.
"https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/"

While we update our database periodically, we cannot guarantee it is always updated to the latest version.

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Professional

Clonazepam Description Each single-scored tablet, for oral administration, contains 0.5 mg, 1 mg, or 2 mg Clonazepam, USP, a benzodiazepine. Each tablet also contains corn starch, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, and povidone. Clonazepam tablets USP 0.5 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake. Clonazepam tablets USP 1 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake, as well as FD&C Blue No. 1 Aluminum Lake. Chemically, Clonazepam, USP is 5-(o-chlorophenyl)-1,3-dihydro-7-nitro-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one. It is a light yellow crystalline powder. It has the following structural formula: C15H10ClN3O3 M.W. 315.72
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Tips

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Interactions

Interactions

A total of 440 drugs (1549 brand and generic names) are known to interact with Imbruvica (ibrutinib). 228 major drug interactions (854 brand and generic names) 210 moderate drug interactions (691 brand and generic names) 2 minor drug interactions (4 brand and generic names) Show all medications in the database that may interact with Imbruvica (ibrutinib).