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Gadoxetate Disodium

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Overview

What is EOVIST?

EOVIST (gadoxetate disodium) is a paramagnetic contrast agent administered for MRI. EOVIST is provided as a sterile, clear, colorless to pale yellow aqueous solution for intravenous injection.

EOVIST contains the active pharmaceutical ingredient, gadoxetate disodium (Gd‑EOB‑DTPA). The chemical name for gadoxetate disodium is (4S)-4-(4-Ethoxybenzyl)-3,6,9-tris(carboxylatomethyl)-3,6,9-triazaundecanedioic acid, gadolinium complex, disodium salt. Gadoxetate disodium has a molecular weight of 725.72 and an empirical formula of GdCHNONa. The structural formula of gadoxetate disodium in aqueous solution is:

Each mL of EOVIST contains 181.43 mg of gadoxetate disodium (equivalent to 0.25 mmol/mL gadoxetate disodium) and the excipients caloxetate trisodium, trometamol, hydrochloric acid and/or sodium hydroxide (for pH adjustment), and water for injection. EOVIST contains no antimicrobial preservative.

Pertinent physiochemical properties of EOVIST are provided in Table 2.



What does EOVIST look like?



What are the available doses of EOVIST?

Injection: 181.43 mg/mL in single use vials ()

What should I talk to my health care provider before I take EOVIST?

How should I use EOVIST?

EOVIST is indicated for intravenous use in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the liver to detect and characterize lesions in patients with known or suspected focal liver disease.

The recommended dose of EOVIST is 0.1 mL/kg body weight (0.025 mmol/kg body weight).


What interacts with EOVIST?

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What are the warnings of EOVIST?

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What are the precautions of EOVIST?

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What are the side effects of EOVIST?

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What should I look out for while using EOVIST?

EOVIST is contraindicated in patients with history of severe hypersensitivity reactions to EOVIST.


What might happen if I take too much EOVIST?

The maximum dose studied in MR imaging was 0.4 mL/kg (0.1 mmol/kg) body weight and was tolerated in a manner similar to lower doses. In case of inadvertent overdosage in patients with severely impaired renal and/or hepatic function, EOVIST can be partially removed by hemodialysis


How should I store and handle EOVIST?

StorageStore Cysview (hexaminolevulinate hydrochloride) Kit for Intravesical Solution at 20°-25°C (68°-77°F); excursions are permitted to 15°-30°C (59°-86°F). Do not use beyond the expiry date printed on the carton.Use the solution of Cysview shortly after reconstitution. If unable to use within this time period, the reconstituted solution can be stored under refrigeration at 2°-8°C (36°-46°F) for up to 2 hours in the labeled syringe.StorageStore Cysview (hexaminolevulinate hydrochloride) Kit for Intravesical Solution at 20°-25°C (68°-77°F); excursions are permitted to 15°-30°C (59°-86°F). Do not use beyond the expiry date printed on the carton.Use the solution of Cysview shortly after reconstitution. If unable to use within this time period, the reconstituted solution can be stored under refrigeration at 2°-8°C (36°-46°F) for up to 2 hours in the labeled syringe.StorageStore Cysview (hexaminolevulinate hydrochloride) Kit for Intravesical Solution at 20°-25°C (68°-77°F); excursions are permitted to 15°-30°C (59°-86°F). Do not use beyond the expiry date printed on the carton.Use the solution of Cysview shortly after reconstitution. If unable to use within this time period, the reconstituted solution can be stored under refrigeration at 2°-8°C (36°-46°F) for up to 2 hours in the labeled syringe.Cysview is supplied as a kit labeled Cysview (hexaminolevulinate HCl) Kit for Intravesical Solution, 100 mg. The kit may be supplied as two options; with or without a vial adapter, and contains:


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Clinical Information

Chemical Structure

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Clinical Pharmacology

Gadoxetate disodium is a paramagnetic compound and develops a magnetic moment when placed in a magnetic field. The relatively large magnetic moment produced by gadoxetate disodium results in a local magnetic field, yielding enhanced relaxation rates (shortening of relaxation times) of water protons in the vicinity of the paramagnetic agent, which leads to an increase in signal intensity (brightening) of blood and tissue.

In MRI, visualization of normal and pathological tissue depends in part on variations in the radiofrequency signal intensity that occur with 1) differences in proton density; 2) differences of the spin-lattice or longitudinal relaxation times (T); and 3) differences in the spin-spin or transverse relaxation time (T). When placed in a magnetic field, gadoxetate disodium decreases the T and T relaxation time in target tissue. At the recommended dose, the effect is observed with greatest sensitivity in T-weighted MR sequences.

Non-Clinical Toxicology
EOVIST is contraindicated in patients with history of severe hypersensitivity reactions to EOVIST.

(See .) Fluconazole is a potent inhibitor of cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoenzyme 2C9 and 2C19, and a moderate inhibitor of CYP3A4. In addition to the observed/documented interactions mentioned below, there is a risk of increased plasma concentration of other compounds metabolized by CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP3A4 coadministered with fluconazole. Therefore, caution should be exercised when using these combinations and the patients should be carefully monitored. The enzyme inhibiting effect of fluconazole persists 4 to 5 days after discontinuation of fluconazole treatment due to the long half-life of fluconazole. Clinically or potentially significant drug interactions between fluconazole and the following agents/classes have been observed. These are described in greater detail below:         Oral hypoglycemics         Coumarin-type anticoagulants         Phenytoin         Cyclosporine         Rifampin         Theophylline         Terfenadine         Cisapride         Astemizole         Rifabutin         Voriconazole         Tacrolimus         Short-acting benzodiazepines         Tofacitinib         Triazolam         Oral Contraceptives         Pimozide         Quinidine         Hydrochlorothiazide         Alfentanil         Amitriptyline, nortriptyline         Amphotericin B         Azithromycin         Carbamazepine         Calcium Channel Blockers         Celecoxib         Cyclophosphamide         Fentanyl         Halofantrine         HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors         Losartan         Methadone         Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs         Prednisone         Saquinavir         Sirolimus         Vinca Alkaloids         Vitamin A         Zidovudine Clinically significant hypoglycemia may be precipitated by the use of fluconazole with oral hypoglycemic agents; one fatality has been reported from hypoglycemia in association with combined fluconazole and glyburide use. Fluconazole reduces the metabolism of tolbutamide, glyburide, and glipizide and increases the plasma concentration of these agents. When fluconazole is used concomitantly with these or other sulfonylurea oral hypoglycemic agents, blood glucose concentrations should be carefully monitored and the dose of the sulfonylurea should be adjusted as necessary. (See ) Prothrombin time may be increased in patients receiving concomitant fluconazole and coumarin-type anticoagulants. In post-marketing experience, as with other azole antifungals, bleeding events (bruising, epistaxis, gastrointestinal bleeding, hematuria, and melena) have been reported in association with increases in prothrombin time in patients receiving fluconazole concurrently with warfarin. Careful monitoring of prothrombin time in patients receiving fluconazole and coumarin-type anticoagulants is recommended. Dose adjustment of warfarin may be necessary. (See .) Fluconazole increases the plasma concentrations of phenytoin. Careful monitoring of phenytoin concentrations in patients receiving fluconazole and phenytoin is recommended. (See ) Fluconazole significantly increases cyclosporine levels in renal transplant patients with or without renal impairment. Careful monitoring of cyclosporine concentrations and serum creatinine is recommended in patients receiving fluconazole and cyclosporine. (See .) This combination may be used by reducing the dosage of cyclosporine depending on cyclosporine concentration. Rifampin enhances the metabolism of concurrently administered fluconazole. Depending on clinical circumstances, consideration should be given to increasing the dose of fluconazole when it is administered with rifampin. (See ) Fluconazole increases the serum concentrations of theophylline. Careful monitoring of serum theophylline concentrations in patients receiving fluconazole and theophylline is recommended. (See .) Because of the occurrence of serious cardiac dysrhythmias secondary to prolongation of the QTc interval in patients receiving azole antifungals in conjunction with terfenadine, interaction studies have been performed. One study at a 200 mg daily dose of fluconazole failed to demonstrate a prolongation in QTc interval. Another study at a 400 mg and 800 mg daily dose of fluconazole demonstrated that fluconazole taken in doses of 400 mg per day or greater significantly increases plasma levels of terfenadine when taken concomitantly. The combined use of fluconazole at doses of 400 mg or greater with terfenadine is contraindicated. (See  .) The coadministration of fluconazole at doses lower than 400 mg/day with terfenadine should be carefully monitored. There have been reports of cardiac events, including torsade de pointes, in patients to whom fluconazole and cisapride were coadministered. A controlled study found that concomitant fluconazole 200 mg once daily and cisapride 20 mg four times a day yielded a significant increase in cisapride plasma levels and prolongation of QTc interval. The combined use of fluconazole with cisapride is contraindicated. (See  .) Concomitant administration of fluconazole with astemizole may decrease the clearance of astemizole. Resulting increased plasma concentrations of astemizole can lead to QT prolongation and rare occurrences of torsade de pointes. Coadministration of fluconazole and astemizole is contraindicated. There have been reports that an interaction exists when fluconazole is administered concomitantly with rifabutin, leading to increased serum levels of rifabutin up to 80%. There have been reports of uveitis in patients to whom fluconazole and rifabutin were coadministered. Patients receiving rifabutin and fluconazole concomitantly should be carefully monitored. (See .) Avoid concomitant administration of voriconazole and fluconazole. Monitoring for adverse events and toxicity related to voriconazole is recommended; especially, if voriconazole is started within 24 h after the last dose of fluconazole. (See .) Fluconazole may increase the serum concentrations of orally administered tacrolimus up to 5 times due to inhibition of tacrolimus metabolism through CYP3A4 in the intestines. No significant pharmacokinetic changes have been observed when tacrolimus is given intravenously. Increased tacrolimus levels have been associated with nephrotoxicity. Dosage of orally administered tacrolimus should be decreased depending on tacrolimus concentration. (See .) Following oral administration of midazolam, fluconazole resulted in substantial increases in midazolam concentrations and psychomotor effects. This effect on midazolam appears to be more pronounced following oral administration of fluconazole than with fluconazole administered intravenously. If short-acting benzodiazepines, which are metabolized by the cytochrome P450 system, are concomitantly administered with fluconazole, consideration should be given to decreasing the benzodiazepine dosage, and the patients should be appropriately monitored. (See .) Systemic exposure to tofacitinib is increased when tofacitinib is coadministered with fluconazole, a combined moderate CYP3A4 and potent CYP2C19 inhibitor. Reduce the dose of tofacitinib when given concomitantly with fluconazole (i.e., from 5 mg twice daily to 5 mg once daily as instructed in the XELJANZ [tofacitinib] label). (See ) Fluconazole increases the AUC of triazolam (single dose) by approximately 50%, C by 20 to 32%, and increases t by 25 to 50% due to the inhibition of metabolism of triazolam. Dosage adjustments of triazolam may be necessary. Two pharmacokinetic studies with a combined oral contraceptive have been performed using multiple doses of fluconazole. There were no relevant effects on hormone level in the 50 mg fluconazole study, while at 200 mg daily, the AUCs of ethinyl estradiol and levonorgestrel were increased 40% and 24%, respectively. Thus, multiple dose use of fluconazole at these doses is unlikely to have an effect on the efficacy of the combined oral contraceptive. Although not studied or , concomitant administration of fluconazole with pimozide may result in inhibition of pimozide metabolism. Increased pimozide plasma concentrations can lead to QT prolongation and rare occurrences of torsade de pointes. Coadministration of fluconazole and pimozide is contraindicated. Although not studied or , concomitant administration of fluconazole with quinidine may result in inhibition of quinidine metabolism. Use of quinidine has been associated with QT prolongation and rare occurrences of torsades de pointes. Coadministration of fluconazole and quinidine is contraindicated. (See ) In a pharmacokinetic interaction study, coadministration of multiple dose hydrochlorothiazide to healthy volunteers receiving fluconazole increased plasma concentrations of fluconazole by 40%. An effect of this magnitude should not necessitate a change in the fluconazole dose regimen in subjects receiving concomitant diuretics. A study observed a reduction in clearance and distribution volume as well as prolongation of t of alfentanil following concomitant treatment with fluconazole. A possible mechanism of action is fluconazole’s inhibition of CYP3A4. Dosage adjustment of alfentanil may be necessary. Fluconazole increases the effect of amitriptyline and nortriptyline. 5- nortriptyline and/or S-amitriptyline may be measured at initiation of the combination therapy and after one week. Dosage of amitriptyline/nortriptyline should be adjusted, if necessary. Concurrent administration of fluconazole and amphotericin B in infected normal and immunosuppressed mice showed the following results: a small additive antifungal effect in systemic infection with , no interaction in intracranial infection with , and antagonism of the two drugs in systemic infection with . The clinical significance of results obtained in these studies is unknown. An open-label, randomized, three-way crossover study in 18 healthy subjects assessed the effect of a single 1200 mg oral dose of azithromycin on the pharmacokinetics of a single 800 mg oral dose of fluconazole as well as the effects of fluconazole on the pharmacokinetics of azithromycin. There was no significant pharmacokinetic interaction between fluconazole and azithromycin. Fluconazole inhibits the metabolism of carbamazepine and an increase in serum carbamazepine of 30% has been observed. There is a risk of developing carbamazepine toxicity. Dosage adjustment of carbamazepine may be necessary depending on concentration measurements/effect. Certain calcium channel antagonists (nifedipine, isradipine, amlodipine, verapamil, and felodipine) are metabolized by CYP3A4. Fluconazole has the potential to increase the systemic exposure of the calcium channel antagonists. Frequent monitoring for adverse events is recommended. During concomitant treatment with fluconazole (200 mg daily) and celecoxib (200 mg), the celecoxib C and AUC increased by 68% and 134%, respectively. Half of the celecoxib dose may be necessary when combined with fluconazole. Combination therapy with cyclophosphamide and fluconazole results in an increase in serum bilirubin and serum creatinine. The combination may be used while taking increased consideration to the risk of increased serum bilirubin and serum creatinine. One fatal case of possible fentanyl fluconazole interaction was reported. The author judged that the patient died from fentanyl intoxication. Furthermore, in a randomized crossover study with 12 healthy volunteers it was shown that fluconazole delayed the elimination of fentanyl significantly. Elevated fentanyl concentration may lead to respiratory depression. Fluconazole can increase halofantrine plasma concentration due to an inhibitory effect on CYP3A4. The risk of myopathy and rhabdomyolysis increases when fluconazole is coadministered with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors metabolized through CYP3A4, such as atorvastatin and simvastatin, or through CYP2C9, such as fluvastatin. If concomitant therapy is necessary, the patient should be observed for symptoms of myopathy and rhabdomyolysis and creatinine kinase should be monitored. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors should be discontinued if a marked increase in creatinine kinase is observed or myopathy/rhabdomyolysis is diagnosed or suspected. Fluconazole inhibits the metabolism of losartan to its active metabolite (E-31 74) which is responsible for most of the angiotensin II-receptor antagonism which occurs during treatment with losartan. Patients should have their blood pressure monitored continuously. Fluconazole may enhance the serum concentration of methadone. Dosage adjustment of methadone may be necessary. The C and AUC of flurbiprofen were increased by 23% and 81%, respectively, when coadministered with fluconazole compared to administration of flurbiprofen alone. Similarly, the C and AUC of the pharmacologically active isomer [S-(+)-ibuprofen] were increased by 15% and 82%, respectively, when fluconazole was coadministered with racemic ibuprofen (400 mg) compared to administration of racemic ibuprofen alone. Although not specifically studied, fluconazole has the potential to increase the systemic exposure of other NSAIDs that are metabolized by CYP2C9 (e.g., naproxen, lornoxicam, meloxicam, diclofenac). Frequent monitoring for adverse events and toxicity related to NSAIDs is recommended. Adjustment of dosage of NSAIDs may be needed. There was a case report that a liver-transplanted patient treated with prednisone developed acute adrenal cortex insufficiency when a three month therapy with fluconazole was discontinued. The discontinuation of fluconazole presumably caused an enhanced CYP3A4 activity which led to increased metabolism of prednisone. Patients on long-term treatment with fluconazole and prednisone should be carefully monitored for adrenal cortex insufficiency when fluconazole is discontinued. Fluconazole increases the AUC of saquinavir by approximately 50%, C by approximately 55%, and decreases clearance of saquinavir by approximately 50% due to inhibition of saquinavir’s hepatic metabolism by CYP3A4 and inhibition of P-glycoprotein. Dosage adjustment of saquinavir may be necessary. Fluconazole increases plasma concentrations of sirolimus presumably by inhibiting the metabolism of sirolimus via CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein. This combination may be used with a dosage adjustment of sirolimus depending on the effect/concentration measurements. Although not studied, fluconazole may increase the plasma levels of the vinca alkaloids (e.g., vincristine and vinblastine) and lead to neurotoxicity, which is possibly due to an inhibitory effect on CYP3A4. Based on a case report in one patient receiving combination therapy with all-trans-retinoid acid (an acid form of vitamin A) and fluconazole, CNS related undesirable effects have developed in the form of pseudotumour cerebri, which disappeared after discontinuation of fluconazole treatment. This combination may be used but the incidence of CNS related undesirable effects should be borne in mind. Fluconazole increases C and AUC of zidovudine by 84% and 74%, respectively, due to an approximately 45% decrease in oral zidovudine clearance. The half-life of zidovudine was likewise prolonged by approximately 128% following combination therapy with fluconazole. Patients receiving this combination should be monitored for the development of zidovudine-related adverse reactions. Dosage reduction of zidovudine may be considered. Physicians should be aware that interaction studies with medications other than those listed in the  section have not been conducted, but such interactions may occur.

Gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) increase the risk for nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) among patients with impaired elimination of the drugs. Avoid use of GBCAs among these patients unless the diagnostic information is essential and not available with non-contrast enhanced MRI or other modalities. The GBCA-associated NSF risk appears highest for patients with chronic, severe kidney disease (GFR
Screen patients for acute kidney injury and other conditions that may reduce renal function. Features of acute kidney injury consist of rapid (over hours to days) and usually reversible decrease in kidney function, commonly in the setting of surgery, severe infection, injury or drug-induced kidney toxicity. Serum creatinine levels and estimated GFR may not reliably assess renal function in the setting of acute kidney injury. For patients at risk for chronically reduced renal function (for example, age > 60 years, diabetes mellitus or chronic hypertension), estimate the GFR through laboratory testing.

Among the factors that may increase the risk for NSF are repeated or higher than recommended doses of a GBCA and degree of renal impairment at the time of exposure. Record the specific GBCA and the dose administrated to a patient. For patients at highest risk for NSF, do not exceed the recommended EOVIST dose and allow a sufficient period of time for elimination of the drug prior to any re-administration. For patients receiving hemodialysis, physicians may consider the prompt initiation of hemodialysis following the administration of a GBCA in order to enhance the contrast agent’s elimination and The usefulness of hemodialysis in the prevention of NSF is unknown.

The following serious adverse reactions are discussed elsewhere in the labeling:

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Reference

This information is obtained from the National Institute of Health's Standard Packaging Label drug database.
"https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/"

While we update our database periodically, we cannot guarantee it is always updated to the latest version.

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Clonazepam Description Each single-scored tablet, for oral administration, contains 0.5 mg, 1 mg, or 2 mg Clonazepam, USP, a benzodiazepine. Each tablet also contains corn starch, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, and povidone. Clonazepam tablets USP 0.5 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake. Clonazepam tablets USP 1 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake, as well as FD&C Blue No. 1 Aluminum Lake. Chemically, Clonazepam, USP is 5-(o-chlorophenyl)-1,3-dihydro-7-nitro-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one. It is a light yellow crystalline powder. It has the following structural formula: C15H10ClN3O3 M.W. 315.72
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Tips

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Interactions

Interactions

A total of 440 drugs (1549 brand and generic names) are known to interact with Imbruvica (ibrutinib). 228 major drug interactions (854 brand and generic names) 210 moderate drug interactions (691 brand and generic names) 2 minor drug interactions (4 brand and generic names) Show all medications in the database that may interact with Imbruvica (ibrutinib).