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EPIsnap Epinephrine Convenience Kit

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Overview

What is EPIsnap Epinephrine Convenience Kit?

Epinephrine Injection, USP 1:1000 is a sterile, nonpyrogenic solution. Each ML contains epinephrine 1 mg; sodium chloride 9 mg; sodium metabisulfite 0.9 added. May contain hydrocloric acid for pH adjustment, intraveneous, intracardiac (left ventricular chamber), via endotracheal tube into the bronchial tree, subcutaneous or intramuscular. Epinephrine, USP, is a sympathomimetic (adrenergic) agent designated chemically as 4-[1-hydroxy-2(methylamino) ethyl]-1,2 benxenediol, a white microcrystalline powder.



What does EPIsnap Epinephrine Convenience Kit look like?



What are the available doses of EPIsnap Epinephrine Convenience Kit?

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What should I talk to my health care provider before I take EPIsnap Epinephrine Convenience Kit?

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How should I use EPIsnap Epinephrine Convenience Kit?

Epinephrine is used to relieve respiratory distress due to bronchospasm, to provide rapid relief of hypersensitivity reactions to drugs and other allergens, and to prolong the action of anesthetics. Its cardiac effects may be of use in restoring cardiac rhythm in cardiac arrest due to various causes, but it is not used in cardiac failure or in hemorrhagic, traumatic, or cardiogenic shock. Epinephrine is used as a hemostatic agent. It is also used in treating mucosal congestion of hay fever, rhinitis, and acute sinusitis; to relieve bronchial asthmatic paroxysms; in syncope due to complete heart block or carotid sinus hypersensitivity; for symptomatic relief of serum sickness, urticaria, angioneurotic edema; for resuscitation in cardiac arrest following anesthetic accidents; in simple (open angle) glaucoma; for relaxation of uterine musculature and to inhibit uterine contractions. Epinephrine Injection can be utilized to prolong the action of anesthetics used in local and regional anesthesia.

Subcutaneously or intramuscularly - 0.2 to 1 mL (mg). Start with a small dose and increase if required.

Note: The subcutaneous is the preferred route of administration. If given intramuscularly, injection into the bottocks should be avoided.

Hypersensitivity Reactions

For bronchial asthma and certain allergic manifestations, e.g., angioedema, urticaria, serum sickness, anaphylactic shock, use epinephrine subcutaneously. The adult intravenous dose for hypersensitivity reactions or to relieve bronchospasm usually ranges from 0.1 to 0.25 mg injected slowly. Neonates may be given a dose of 0.01 mg per kg of body weight; for the infant 0.05 mg is an adequate initial dose and this may be repeated at 20 to 30 minute intervals in the management of asthma attacks.

Cardiac Resuscitation

A dose of 0.5 mL (0.5 mg) diluted to 10 mL with sodium chloride injection can be administered intravenously or intracardially to restore myocardial contractility.

Intracardiac injection should only be administered by personnel well trained in the technique, if there has not been sufficient time to establish an intravenous route.

External cardiac massage should follow intracardial administration to permit the drug to enter coronary circulation. The drug should be used secondarily to unsuccessful attempts with physical or electromechanical methods.

Ophthalmologic Use

Ophthalmologic use (for producing conjunctival decongestion, to control hemorrhage, produce mydriasis and reduce intraocular pressure) — use a concentration of 1:10,000 (0.1 mg/mL) to 1:1000 (1 mg/mL).

Regional Anesthesia

A final concentration of 1:200,000 of epinephrine injection is recommended for infiltration injection, nerve block, caudal or other epidural blocks. From 0.3 to 0.4 mg of epinephrine (0.3 to 0.4 mL of 1:1000 solution) may be mixed with spinal anesthetic agents.

Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration. (See .)


What interacts with EPIsnap Epinephrine Convenience Kit?

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What are the warnings of EPIsnap Epinephrine Convenience Kit?

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What are the side effects of EPIsnap Epinephrine Convenience Kit?

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What should I look out for while using EPIsnap Epinephrine Convenience Kit?

Epinephrine is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to sympathomimetic amines, in patients with angle closure glaucoma, and patients in shock (nonanaphylactic). It should not be used in patients anesthetized with agents such as cyclopropane or halothane as these may sensitize the heart to the arrhythmic action of sympathomimetic drugs.

Addition of epinephrine to local anesthetics for injection of certain areas (e.g., fingers, toes, ears, etc.) is contraindicated because of danger that vasoconstriction may result in sloughing of tissue.

Except as diluted for admixture with local anesthetics to reduce absorption and prolong action, epinephrine should not ordinarily be used in those cases where vasopressor drugs may be contraindicated, e.g., in thyrotoxicosis, diabetes, in obstetrics when maternal blood pressure is in excess of 130/80 and in hypertension and other cardiovascular disorders.

Inadvertently induced high arterial blood pressure may result in angina pectoris, aortic rupture or cerebral hemorrhage.

Epinephrine may induce potentially serious cardiac arrhythmias in patients not suffering from heart disease and in patients with organic heart disease or who are receiving drugs that sensitize the myocardium.

Parenterally administered epinephrine initially may produce constriction of renal blood vessels and decrease urine formation.

Epinephrine Injection, USP is subject to oxidation and should be protected against exposure to light and stored in light-resistant containers.

Epinephrine is the preferred treatment for serious allergic or other emergency situations even though this product contains sodium metabisulfite, a sulfite that may in other products cause allergic-type reactions including anaphylactic symptoms or life-threatening or less severe asthmatic episodes in certain susceptible persons. The alternatives to using epinephrine in a life-threatening situation may not be satisfactory. The presence of a sulfite in this product should not deter administration of the drug for treatment of serious allergic or other emergency situations.


What might happen if I take too much EPIsnap Epinephrine Convenience Kit?

Erroneous administration of large doses of epinephrine may lead to precordial distress, vomiting, headache, dyspnea, as well as unusually elevated blood pressure. (See .) Toxic effects of overdosage can be counteracted by injection of an alpha-adrenergic blocker and a betaadrenergic blocker. In the event of a sharp rise in blood pressure, rapid-acting vasodilators such as the nitrites, or alpha-adrenergic blocking agents can be given to counteract the marked pressor effect of large doses of epinephrine.


How should I store and handle EPIsnap Epinephrine Convenience Kit?

Store at controlled room temperature, 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted to 15° to 30°C (59° to 86°F). PROTECT FROM LIGHT.Epinephrine Injection, USP 1:1000 (1 mg/mL) is supplied in a 1 mL ampul single-dose container(NDC 0409-7241-01). Epinephrine Convenience Kit (NDC 24357-911-01) contains 3 needle 18G x 1.5 inch filter, 3 needle 23G x 1 inch safety, 3 syringe 1mL luer-lok, 6 pad, prep-alcohol wipe, 3 syringe labels and 1 package insert.Epinephrine Injection, USP 1:1000 (1 mg/mL) is supplied in a 1 mL ampul single-dose container(NDC 0409-7241-01). Epinephrine Convenience Kit (NDC 24357-911-01) contains 3 needle 18G x 1.5 inch filter, 3 needle 23G x 1 inch safety, 3 syringe 1mL luer-lok, 6 pad, prep-alcohol wipe, 3 syringe labels and 1 package insert.


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Clinical Information

Chemical Structure

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Clinical Pharmacology

The actions of epinephrine resemble the effects of stimulation of adrenergic nerves. To a variable degree it acts on both alpha and beta receptor sites of sympathetic effector cells. Its most prominent actions are on the beta receptors of the heart, vascular and other smooth muscle. When given by rapid intravenous injection, it produces a rapid rise in blood pressure, mainly systolic, by (1) direct stimulation of cardiac muscle which increases the strength of ventricular contraction, (2) increasing the heart rate and (3) constriction of the arterioles in the skin, mucosa and splanchnic areas of the circulation.

When given by slow intravenous injection epinephrine usually produces only a moderate rise in systolic and a fall in diastolic pressure. Although some increase in pulse pressure occurs, there is usually no great elevation in mean blood pressure. Accordingly, the compensatory reflex mechanisms that come into play with a pronounced increase in blood pressure do not antagonize the direct cardiac actions of epinephrine as much as with catecholamines that have a predominant action on alpha receptors.

Total peripheral resistance decreases by action of epinephrine on beta receptors of the skeletal muscle vasculature and blood flow is thereby enhanced. Usually this vasodilator effect of the drug on the circulation predominates so that the modest rise in systolic pressure which follows slow injection or absorption is mainly the result of direct cardiac stimulation and increase in cardiac output. In some instances peripheral resistance is not altered or may even rise owing to a greater ratio of alpha to beta activity in different vascular areas. Epinephrine relaxes the smooth muscles of the bronchi and iris and is a physiologic antagonist of histamine. The drug also produces an increase in blood sugar and glycogenolysis in the liver.

Intravenous injection produces an immediate and intensified response. Following intravenous injection epinephrine disappears rapidly from the blood stream. Epinephrine is rapidly inactivated in the body and is degraded by enzymes in the liver and other tissues.

The large portion of injection doses is excreted in the urine as inactivated compounds. The remainder is excreted in the urine as unchanged or conjugated compounds.

Non-Clinical Toxicology
Epinephrine is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to sympathomimetic amines, in patients with angle closure glaucoma, and patients in shock (nonanaphylactic). It should not be used in patients anesthetized with agents such as cyclopropane or halothane as these may sensitize the heart to the arrhythmic action of sympathomimetic drugs.

Addition of epinephrine to local anesthetics for injection of certain areas (e.g., fingers, toes, ears, etc.) is contraindicated because of danger that vasoconstriction may result in sloughing of tissue.

Except as diluted for admixture with local anesthetics to reduce absorption and prolong action, epinephrine should not ordinarily be used in those cases where vasopressor drugs may be contraindicated, e.g., in thyrotoxicosis, diabetes, in obstetrics when maternal blood pressure is in excess of 130/80 and in hypertension and other cardiovascular disorders.

Inadvertently induced high arterial blood pressure may result in angina pectoris, aortic rupture or cerebral hemorrhage.

Epinephrine may induce potentially serious cardiac arrhythmias in patients not suffering from heart disease and in patients with organic heart disease or who are receiving drugs that sensitize the myocardium.

Parenterally administered epinephrine initially may produce constriction of renal blood vessels and decrease urine formation.

Epinephrine Injection, USP is subject to oxidation and should be protected against exposure to light and stored in light-resistant containers.

Epinephrine is the preferred treatment for serious allergic or other emergency situations even though this product contains sodium metabisulfite, a sulfite that may in other products cause allergic-type reactions including anaphylactic symptoms or life-threatening or less severe asthmatic episodes in certain susceptible persons. The alternatives to using epinephrine in a life-threatening situation may not be satisfactory. The presence of a sulfite in this product should not deter administration of the drug for treatment of serious allergic or other emergency situations.

Caution should be exercised when Propranolol Hydrochloride Extended-Release Capsules, USP, are administered with drugs that have an affect on CYP2D6, 1A2, or 2C19 metabolic pathways. Co-administration of such drugs with propranolol may lead to clinically relevant drug interactions and changes on its efficacy and/or toxicity (see in ).

Alcohol

Do not use the Injection if its color is pinkish or darker than slightly yellow or if it contains a precipitate.

Do not administer unless solution is clear and container is intact. Discard unused portion.

Although epinephrine can produce ventricular fibrillation, its actions in restoring electrical activity in asystole and in enhancing defibrillation of the fibrillating ventricle are well documented. The drug, however, should be used with caution in patients with ventricular fibrillation.

Epinephrine should be used cautiously in patients with hyperthyroidism, hypertension and cardiac arrhythmias. All vasopressors should be used cautiously in patients taking monoamine

oxidase (MAO) inhibitors.

Epinephrine should not be administered concomitantly with other sympathomimetic drugs (such as isoproterenol) because of possible additive effects and increased toxicity. Combined effects may induce serious cardiac arrhythmias. They may be administered alternately when thepreceding effect of other such drugs has subsided.

Administration of epinephrine to patients receiving cyclopropane or halogenated hydrocarbon general anesthetics such as halothane which sensitize the myocardium, may induce cardiacarrhythmia. (See .) When encountered, such arrhythmias may respond to administration of a beta-adrenergic blocking drug. Epinephrine also should be used cautiously with other drugs (e.g., digitalis glycosides) that sensitize the myocardium to the actions of sympathomimetic agents.

Diuretic agents may decrease vascular response to pressor drugs such as epinephrine. Epinephrine may antagonize the neuron blockade produced by guanethidine resulting in decreased antihypertensive effect and requiring increased dosage of the latter.

Pregnancy Category C.

Labor and Delivery.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

Transient and minor side effects of anxiety, headache, fear and palpitations occur only with systemic therapeutic doses, especially in hyperthyroid individuals. Adverse effects such as cardiac arrhythmias and excessive rise in blood pressure may occur with systemic therapeutic doses or with inadvertent overdosage. Other adverse reactions include cerebral hemorrhage, hemiplegia, subarachnoid hemorrhage, anginal pain in patients with angina pectoris, anxiety, restlessness, headache, tremor, weakness, dizziness, pallor and respiratory difficulty. Such reactions are unlikely when epinephrine is diluted to 1:200,000 for injection with local anesthetic agents.

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Reference

This information is obtained from the National Institute of Health's Standard Packaging Label drug database.
"https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/"

While we update our database periodically, we cannot guarantee it is always updated to the latest version.

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Professional

Clonazepam Description Each single-scored tablet, for oral administration, contains 0.5 mg, 1 mg, or 2 mg Clonazepam, USP, a benzodiazepine. Each tablet also contains corn starch, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, and povidone. Clonazepam tablets USP 0.5 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake. Clonazepam tablets USP 1 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake, as well as FD&C Blue No. 1 Aluminum Lake. Chemically, Clonazepam, USP is 5-(o-chlorophenyl)-1,3-dihydro-7-nitro-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one. It is a light yellow crystalline powder. It has the following structural formula: C15H10ClN3O3 M.W. 315.72
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Tips

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Interactions

Interactions

A total of 440 drugs (1549 brand and generic names) are known to interact with Imbruvica (ibrutinib). 228 major drug interactions (854 brand and generic names) 210 moderate drug interactions (691 brand and generic names) 2 minor drug interactions (4 brand and generic names) Show all medications in the database that may interact with Imbruvica (ibrutinib).