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Glyburide and Metformin

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Overview

What is Glyburide and Metformin?

Glyburide and metformin hydrochloride tablets USP contain two oral antihyperglycemic drugs used in the management of type 2 diabetes, glyburide USP and metformin hydrochloride USP.

Glyburide USP is an oral antihyperglycemic drug of the sulfonylurea class. The chemical name for glyburide USP is 1-[[-[2-(5-chloro--anisamido)ethyl]phenyl]sulfonyl]-3-cyclo-hexylurea. Glyburide USP is a white to off-white crystalline compound. The glyburide USP used in glyburide and metformin hydrochloride tablets USP has a particle size distribution of 25% undersize value not more than 6 µm, 50% undersize value not more than 7 to 10 µm, and 75% undersize value not more than 21 µm. The structural formula is represented below:

CHClNOS M.W. 494.01

Metformin hydrochloride USP is an oral antihyperglycemic drug used in the management of type 2 diabetes. Metformin hydrochloride USP ( -dimethylimidodicarbonimidic diamide monohydrochloride) is not chemically or pharmacologically related to sulfonylureas, thiazolidinediones, or α-glucosidase inhibitors. It is a white to off-white crystalline compound. Metformin hydrochloride USP is freely soluble in water and is practically insoluble in acetone, ether, and chloroform. The pK of metformin USP is 12.4. The pH of a 1% aqueous solution of metformin hydrochloride USP is 6.68. The structural formula is as shown:

CHClN(monohydrochloride) M.W. 165.63

Each glyburide and metformin hydrochloride tablet USP, for oral administration, contains 1.25 mg glyburide USP with 250 mg metformin hydrochloride USP, 2.5 mg glyburide USP with 500 mg metformin hydrochloride USP, or 5 mg glyburide USP with 500 mg metformin hydrochloride USP. In addition, each tablet contains the following inactive ingredients: copovidone, crospovidone, hypromellose, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, polyethylene glycol, polysorbate 80, talc, and titanium dioxide. The 1.25 mg/250 mg strength also contains D&C Yellow #10 aluminum lake and FD&C Red #40 aluminum lake; the 2.5 mg/500 mg strength also contains FD&C Red #40 aluminum lake and FD&C Yellow #6 aluminum lake; and the 5 mg/500 mg strength also contains D&C Yellow #10 aluminum lake and FD&C Yellow #6 aluminum lake.



What does Glyburide and Metformin look like?



What are the available doses of Glyburide and Metformin?

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What should I talk to my health care provider before I take Glyburide and Metformin?

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How should I use Glyburide and Metformin?

Glyburide and Metformin Hydrochloride Tablets USP are indicated as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Dosage of glyburide and metformin hydrochloride tablets USP must be individualized on the basis of both effectiveness and tolerance while not exceeding the maximum recommended daily dose of 20 mg glyburide/2000 mg metformin.

With initial treatment and during dose titration, appropriate blood glucose monitoring should be used to determine the therapeutic response to glyburide and metformin hydrochloride tablets USP and to identify the minimum effective dose for the patient. Thereafter, HbAshould be measured at intervals of approximately 3 months to assess the effectiveness of therapy. The therapeutic goal in all patients with type 2 diabetes is to decrease FPG, PPG, and HbAto normal or as near normal as possible. Ideally, the response to therapy should be evaluated using HbA(glycosylated hemoglobin), which is a better indicator of long-term glycemic control than FPG alone.

No studies have been performed specifically examining the safety and efficacy of switching to glyburide and metformin hydrochloride tablets USP therapy in patients taking concomitant glyburide (or other sulfonylurea) plus metformin. Changes in glycemic control may occur in such patients, with either hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia possible. Any change in therapy of type 2 diabetes should be undertaken with care and appropriate monitoring.


What interacts with Glyburide and Metformin?


  • Glyburide and Metformin Hydrochloride Tablets are contraindicated in patients with:

    • Renal disease or renal dysfunction (e.g., as suggested by serum creatinine levels ≥ 1.5 mg/dL [males], ≥ 1.4 mg/dL [females], or abnormal creatinine clearance) which may also result from conditions such as cardiovascular collapse (shock), acute myocardial infarction, and septicemia (see and ).
    • Known hypersensitivity to metformin hydrochloride or glyburide.
    • Acute or chronic metabolic acidosis, including diabetic ketoacidosis, with or without coma. Diabetic ketoacidosis should be treated with insulin.

  • Glyburide and metformin should be temporarily discontinued in patients undergoing radiologic studies involving intravascular administration of iodinated contrast materials, because use of such products may result in acute alteration of renal function (see also ).



What are the warnings of Glyburide and Metformin?

Metformin Hydrochloride

Lactic acidosis is a rare, but serious, metabolic complication that can occur due to metformin accumulation during treatment with glyburide and metformin; when it occurs, it is fatal in approximately 50% of cases. Lactic acidosis may also occur in association with a number of pathophysiologic conditions, including diabetes mellitus, and whenever there is significant tissue hypoperfusion and hypoxemia. Lactic acidosis is characterized by elevated blood lactate levels (> 5 mmol/L), decreased blood pH, electrolyte disturbances with an increased anion gap, and an increased lactate/pyruvate ratio. When metformin is implicated as the cause of lactic acidosis, metformin plasma levels > 5 mcg/mL are generally found.

The reported incidence of lactic acidosis in patients receiving metformin hydrochloride is very low (approximately 0.03 cases/1000 patient-years, with approximately 0.015 fatal cases/1000 patient-years). In more than 20,000 patient-years exposure to metformin in clinical trials, there were no reports of lactic acidosis. Reported cases have occurred primarily in diabetic patients with significant renal insufficiency, including both intrinsic renal disease and renal hypoperfusion, often in the setting of multiple concomitant medical/surgical problems and multiple concomitant medications. Patients with congestive heart failure requiring pharmacologic management, in particular those with unstable or acute congestive heart failure who are at risk of hypoperfusion and hypoxemia, are at increased risk of lactic acidosis. The risk of lactic acidosis increases with the degree of renal dysfunction and the patient’s age. The risk of lactic acidosis may, therefore, be significantly decreased by regular monitoring of renal function in patients taking metformin and by use of the minimum effective dose of metformin. In particular, treatment of the elderly should be accompanied by careful monitoring of renal function. Glyburide and metformin treatment should not be initiated in patients ≥ 80 years of age unless measurement of creatinine clearance demonstrates that renal function is not reduced, as these patients are more susceptible to developing lactic acidosis. In addition, glyburide and metformin should be promptly withheld in the presence of any condition associated with hypoxemia, dehydration, or sepsis. Because impaired hepatic function may significantly limit the ability to clear lactate, glyburide and metformin should generally be avoided in patients with clinical or laboratory evidence of hepatic disease. Patients should be cautioned against excessive alcohol intake, either acute or chronic, when taking glyburide and metformin, since alcohol potentiates the effects of metformin hydrochloride on lactate metabolism. In addition, glyburide and metformin hydrochloride should be temporarily discontinued prior to any intravascular radiocontrast study and for any surgical procedure (see also PRECAUTIONS).

The onset of lactic acidosis often is subtle, and accompanied only by nonspecific symptoms such as malaise, myalgias, respiratory distress, increasing somnolence, and nonspecific abdominal distress. There may be associated hypothermia, hypotension, and resistant bradyarrhythmias with more marked acidosis. The patient and the patient’s physician must be aware of the possible importance of such symptoms and the patient should be instructed to notify the physician immediately if they occur (see also PRECAUTIONS). Glyburide and metformin should be withdrawn until the situation is clarified. Serum electrolytes, ketones, blood glucose, and, if indicated, blood pH, lactate levels, and even blood metformin levels may be useful. Once a patient is stabilized on any dose level of glyburide and metformin, gastrointestinal symptoms, which are common during initiation of therapy with metformin, are unlikely to be drug related. Later occurrence of gastrointestinal symptoms could be due to lactic acidosis or other serious disease.

Levels of fasting venous plasma lactate above the upper limit of normal but less than 5 mmol/L in patients taking glyburide and metformin do not necessarily indicate impending lactic acidosis and may be explainable by other mechanisms, such as poorly controlled diabetes or obesity, vigorous physical activity, or technical problems in sample handling (see also PRECAUTIONS).

Lactic acidosis should be suspected in any diabetic patient with metabolic acidosis lacking evidence of ketoacidosis (ketonuria and ketonemia).

Lactic acidosis is a medical emergency that must be treated in a hospital setting. In a patient with lactic acidosis who is taking glyburide and metformin, the drug should be discontinued immediately and general supportive measures promptly instituted. Because metformin hydrochloride is dialyzable (with a clearance of up to 170 mL/min under good hemodynamic conditions), prompt hemodialysis is recommended to correct the acidosis and remove the accumulated metformin. Such management often results in prompt reversal of symptoms and recovery (see also CONTRAINDICATIONS and PRECAUTIONS).

SPECIAL WARNING ON INCREASED RISK OF CARDIOVASCULAR MORTALITY

The administration of oral hypoglycemic drugs has been reported to be associated with increased cardiovascular mortality as compared to treatment with diet alone or diet plus insulin. This warning is based on the study conducted by the University Group Diabetes Program (UGDP), a long-term prospective clinical trial designed to evaluate the effectiveness of glucose-lowering drugs in preventing or delaying vascular complications in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes. The study involved 823 patients who were randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups ( 19 (Suppl. 2):747-830, 1970).

UGDP reported that patients treated for 5 to 8 years with diet plus a fixed dose of tolbutamide (1.5 g per day) had a rate of cardiovascular mortality approximately 2½ times that of patients treated with diet alone.

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Although only one drug in the sulfonylurea class (tolbutamide) was included in this study, it is prudent from a safety standpoint to consider that this warning may also apply to other hypoglycemic drugs in this class, in view of their close similarities in mode of action and chemical structure.


What are the precautions of Glyburide and Metformin?

General

Macrovascular Outcomes

There have been no clinical studies establishing conclusive evidence of macrovascular risk reduction with glyburide and metformin or any other antidiabetic drug.

Glyburide and Metformin

Glyburide

Metformin Hydrochloride

Addition of Thiazolidinediones to Glyburide and Metformin Therapy

Information for Patients

Patients should be informed of the potential risks and benefits of glyburide and metformin and of alternative modes of therapy. They should also be informed about the importance of adherence to dietary instructions, of a regular exercise program, and of regular testing of blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, renal function, and hematologic parameters.

The risks of lactic acidosis associated with metformin therapy, its symptoms, and conditions that predispose to its development, as noted in the and sections, should be explained to patients. Patients should be advised to discontinue glyburide and metformin immediately and to promptly notify their health practitioner if unexplained hyperventilation, myalgia, malaise, unusual somnolence, or other nonspecific symptoms occur. Once a patient is stabilized on any dose level of glyburide and metformin, gastrointestinal symptoms, which are common during initiation of metformin therapy, are unlikely to be drug related. Later occurrence of gastrointestinal symptoms could be due to lactic acidosis or other serious disease.

The risks of hypoglycemia, its symptoms and treatment, and conditions that predispose to its development should be explained to patients and responsible family members.

Patients should be counseled against excessive alcohol intake, either acute or chronic, while receiving glyburide and metformin (see printed below).

Laboratory Tests

Periodic fasting blood glucose (FBG) and HbA measurements should be performed to monitor therapeutic response.

Initial and periodic monitoring of hematologic parameters (e.g., hemoglobin/hematocrit and red blood cell indices) and renal function (serum creatinine) should be performed, at least on an annual basis. While megaloblastic anemia has rarely been seen with metformin therapy, if this is suspected, Vitamin Bdeficiency should be excluded.

Drug Interactions

Glyburide and Metformin

Certain drugs tend to produce hyperglycemia and may lead to loss of blood glucose control. These drugs include thiazides and other diuretics, corticosteroids, phenothiazines, thyroid products, estrogens, oral contraceptives, phenytoin, nicotinic acid, sympathomimetics, calcium channel blocking drugs, and isoniazid. When such drugs are administered to a patient receiving glyburide and metformin, the patient should be closely observed for loss of blood glucose control. When such drugs are withdrawn from a patient receiving glyburide and metformin, the patient should be observed closely for hypoglycemia. Metformin is negligibly bound to plasma proteins and is, therefore, less likely to interact with highly protein-bound drugs such as salicylates, sulfonamides, chloramphenicol, and probenecid as compared to sulfonylureas, which are extensively bound to serum proteins.

Glyburide

The hypoglycemic action of sulfonylureas may be potentiated by certain drugs, including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents and other drugs that are highly protein bound, salicylates, sulfonamides, chloramphenicol, probenecid, coumarins, monoamine oxidase inhibitors, and beta-adrenergic blocking agents. When such drugs are administered to a patient receiving glyburide and metformin, the patient should be observed closely for hypoglycemia. When such drugs are withdrawn from a patient receiving glyburide and metformin, the patient should be observed closely for loss of blood glucose control.

A possible interaction between glyburide and ciprofloxacin, a fluoroquinolone antibiotic, has been reported, resulting in a potentiation of the hypoglycemic action of glyburide. The mechanism for this interaction is not known.

A potential interaction between oral miconazole and oral hypoglycemic agents leading to severe hypoglycemia has been reported. Whether this interaction also occurs with the intravenous, topical, or vaginal preparations of miconazole is not known.

Metformin Hydrochloride

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

No animal studies have been conducted with the combined products in glyburide and metformin. The following data are based on findings in studies performed with the individual products.

Glyburide

Studies in rats with glyburide alone at doses up to 300 mg/kg/day (approximately 145 times the maximum recommended human daily [MRHD] dose of 20 mg for the glyburide component of glyburide and metformin based on body surface area comparisons) for 18 months revealed no carcinogenic effects. In a two-year oncogenicity study of glyburide in mice, there was no evidence of treatment-related tumors.

There was no evidence of mutagenic potential of glyburide alone in the following tests: microsome test (Ames test) and in the DNA damage/alkaline elution assay.

Metformin Hydrochloride

Long-term carcinogenicity studies were performed with metformin alone in rats (dosing duration of 104 weeks) and mice (dosing duration of 91 weeks) at doses up to and including 900 mg/kg/day and 1500 mg/kg/day, respectively. These doses are both approximately 4 times the MRHD dose of 2000 mg of the metformin component of glyburide and metformin based on body surface area comparisons. No evidence of carcinogenicity with metformin alone was found in either male or female mice. Similarly, there was no tumorigenic potential observed with metformin alone in male rats. There was, however, an increased incidence of benign stromal uterine polyps in female rats treated with 900 mg/kg/day of metformin alone.

There was no evidence of a mutagenic potential of metformin alone in the following tests: Ames test (), gene mutation test (mouse lymphoma cells), or chromosomal aberrations test (human lymphocytes). Results in the mouse micronucleus test were also negative.

Fertility of male or female rats was unaffected by metformin alone when administered at doses as high as 600 mg/kg/day, which is approximately 3 times the MRHD dose of the metformin component of glyburide and metformin based on body surface area comparisons.

Pregnancy

Teratogenic Effects

Nonteratogenic Effects

Prolonged severe hypoglycemia (4 to 10 days) has been reported in neonates born to mothers who were receiving a sulfonylurea drug at the time of delivery. This has been reported more frequently with the use of agents with prolonged half-lives. It is not recommended that glyburide and metformin be used during pregnancy. However, if it is used, glyburide and metformin should be discontinued at least two weeks before the expected delivery date (see , , ).

Nursing Mothers

Although it is not known whether glyburide is excreted in human milk, some sulfonylurea drugs are known to be excreted in human milk. Studies in lactating rats show that metformin is excreted into milk and reaches levels comparable to those in plasma. Similar studies have not been conducted in nursing mothers. Because the potential for hypoglycemia in nursing infants may exist, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue glyburide and metformin, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother. If glyburide and metformin is discontinued, and if diet alone is inadequate for controlling blood glucose, insulin therapy should be considered.

Pediatric Use

The safety and efficacy of glyburide and metformin were evaluated in an active-controlled, double-blind, 26 week randomized trial involving a total of 167 pediatric patients (ranging from 9 to 16 years of age) with type 2 diabetes. Glyburide and metformin was not shown statistically to be superior to either metformin or glyburide with respect to reducing HbAfrom baseline (see ). No unexpected safety findings were associated with glyburide and metformin in this trial.

Table 5: HbA(Percent) Change From Baseline at 26 Weeks: Pediatric Study
Glyburide 2.5 mg TabletsMetformin 500 mg TabletsGlyburide and Metformin 1.25 mg/250 mg Tablets
Mean Final Dose6.5 mg1500 mg3.1 mg/623 mg
Hemoglobin A1cN = 49N = 54N = 57
Baseline Mean (%)7.707.997.85
Mean Change from Baseline-0.96-0.48-0.80
Difference from Metformin-0.32
Difference from Glyburide+0.16


Geriatric Use

Of the 642 patients who received glyburide and metformin in double-blind clinical studies, 23.8% were 65 and older while 2.8% were 75 and older. Of the 1302 patients who received glyburide and metformin in open-label clinical studies, 20.7% were 65 and older while 2.5% were 75 and older. No overall differences in effectiveness or safety were observed between these patients and younger patients, and other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in response between the elderly and younger patients, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out.

Metformin hydrochloride is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney and because the risk of serious adverse reactions to the drug is greater in patients with impaired renal function, glyburide and metformin should only be used in patients with normal renal function (see , , and , ). Because aging is associated with reduced renal function, glyburide and metformin should be used with caution as age increases. Care should be taken in dose selection and should be based on careful and regular monitoring of renal function. Generally, elderly patients should not be titrated to the maximum dose of glyburide and metformin (see also and ).


What are the side effects of Glyburide and Metformin?

Glyburide and Metformin

In double-blind clinical trials involving glyburide and metformin as initial therapy or as second-line therapy, a total of 642 patients received glyburide and metformin, 312 received metformin therapy, 324 received glyburide therapy, and 161 received placebo. The percent of patients reporting events and types of adverse events reported in clinical trials of glyburide and metformin (all strengths) as initial therapy and second-line therapy are listed in .

 

In a controlled clinical trial of rosiglitazone versus placebo in patients treated with glyburide and metformin (n = 365), 181 patients received glyburide and metformin with rosiglitazone and 184 received glyburide and metformin with placebo.

Edema was reported in 7.7% (14/181) of patients treated with rosiglitazone compared to 2.2% (4/184) of patients treated with placebo. A mean weight gain of 3 kg was observed in rosiglitazone-treated patients.

Disulfiram-like reactions have very rarely been reported in patients treated with glyburide tablets.

Table 6: Most Common Clinical Adverse Events (> 5 Percent) in Double-Blind Clinical Studies of Glyburide and Metformin Used as Initial or Second-Line Therapy
Adverse EventNumber (%) of Patients
Upper respiratory infection22 (13.7)57 (17.6)51 (16.3)111 (17.3)
Diarrhea9 (5.6)20 (6.2)64 (20.5)109 (17)
Headache17 (10.6)37 (11.4)29 (9.3)57 (8.9)
Nausea/vomiting10 (6.2)17 (5.2)38 (12.2)49 (7.6)
Abdominal pain6 (3.7)10 (3.1)25 (8)44 (6.9)
Dizziness7 (4.3)18 (5.6)12 (3.8)35 (5.5)





What should I look out for while using Glyburide and Metformin?

Glyburide and Metformin Hydrochloride Tablets are contraindicated in patients with:

Glyburide and metformin should be temporarily discontinued in patients undergoing radiologic studies involving intravascular administration of iodinated contrast materials, because use of such products may result in acute alteration of renal function (see also ).


What might happen if I take too much Glyburide and Metformin?


How should I store and handle Glyburide and Metformin?

Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F); excursions permitted to 15° to 30°C (59° to 86°F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Keep tightly closed (protect from moisture). Protect from light.Product: 63629-3998NDC: 63629-3998-1 30 TABLET, FILM COATED in a BOTTLEProduct: 63629-3998NDC: 63629-3998-1 30 TABLET, FILM COATED in a BOTTLE


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Clinical Information

Chemical Structure

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Clinical Pharmacology

Glyburide and metformin combines two antihyperglycemic agents with complementary mechanisms of action, to improve glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes.

Glyburide appears to lower blood glucose acutely by stimulating the release of insulin from the pancreas, an effect dependent upon functioning beta cells in the pancreatic islets. The mechanism by which glyburide lowers blood glucose during long-term administration has not been clearly established. With chronic administration in patients with type 2 diabetes, the blood glucose lowering effect persists despite a gradual decline in the insulin secretory response to the drug. Extrapancreatic effects may be involved in the mechanism of action of oral sulfonylurea hypoglycemic drugs.

Metformin hydrochloride is an antihyperglycemic agent that improves glucose tolerance in patients with type 2 diabetes, lowering both basal and postprandial plasma glucose. Metformin hydrochloride decreases hepatic glucose production, decreases intestinal absorption of glucose, and improves insulin sensitivity by increasing peripheral glucose uptake and utilization.

Non-Clinical Toxicology
Glyburide and Metformin Hydrochloride Tablets are contraindicated in patients with:

Glyburide and metformin should be temporarily discontinued in patients undergoing radiologic studies involving intravascular administration of iodinated contrast materials, because use of such products may result in acute alteration of renal function (see also ).

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Reference

This information is obtained from the National Institute of Health's Standard Packaging Label drug database.
"https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/"

While we update our database periodically, we cannot guarantee it is always updated to the latest version.

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Clonazepam Description Each single-scored tablet, for oral administration, contains 0.5 mg, 1 mg, or 2 mg Clonazepam, USP, a benzodiazepine. Each tablet also contains corn starch, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, and povidone. Clonazepam tablets USP 0.5 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake. Clonazepam tablets USP 1 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake, as well as FD&C Blue No. 1 Aluminum Lake. Chemically, Clonazepam, USP is 5-(o-chlorophenyl)-1,3-dihydro-7-nitro-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one. It is a light yellow crystalline powder. It has the following structural formula: C15H10ClN3O3 M.W. 315.72
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Interactions

Interactions

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