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Glycopyrrolate

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Overview

What is Glycopyrrolate?

Glycopyrrolate tablets contain the synthetic anticholinergic, glycopyrrolate. Glycopyrrolate is a quaternary ammonium compound with the following chemical name:

3-[(cyclopentylhydroxyphenylacetyl)oxy]-1, 1-dimethylpyrrolidinium bromide. Its emprical formula is CHBrNO , its molecular weight is 398.33, and its structural formula is:

Each 1 mg tablet contains: Glycopyrrolate USP, 1 mg

Each 2 mg tablet contains: Glycopyrrolate USP, 2 mg

Inactive ingredients: Dibasic Calcium Phosphate, Lactose, Magnesium Stearate, Povidone, and Sodium Starch Glycolate



What does Glycopyrrolate look like?



What are the available doses of Glycopyrrolate?

Sorry No records found.

What should I talk to my health care provider before I take Glycopyrrolate?

Sorry No records found

How should I use Glycopyrrolate?

For use as adjunctive therapy in the treatment of peptic ulcer.

The dosage of glycopyrrolate should be adjusted to the needs of the individual patient to assure symptomatic control with a minimum of adverse reactions. The presently recommended maximum daily dosage of glycopyrrolate is 8 mg.

Glycopyrrolate, 1 mg tablets: The recommended initial dosage of glycopyrrolate for adults is one tablet three times daily (in the morning, early afternoon, and at bedtime). Some patients may require two tablets at bedtime to assure overnight control of symptoms. For maintenance, a dosage of one tablet twice a day is frequently adequate.

Glycopyrrolate, 2 mg tablets: The recommended dosage of glycopyrrolate for adults is one tablet two or three times daily at equally spaced intervals.

Glycopyrrolate tablets are not recommended for use in pediatric patients under the age of 12 years.


What interacts with Glycopyrrolate?

Glaucoma; obstructive uropathy (for example, bladder neck obstruction due to prostatic hypertrophy); obstructive disease of the gastrointestinal tract (as in achalasia, pyloroduodenal stenosis, etc.); paralytic ileus; intestinal atony of the elderly or debilitated patient; unstable cardiovascular status in acute hemorrhage; severe ulcerative colitis; toxic megacolon complicating ulcerative colitis; myasthenia gravis. Glycopyrrolate tablets are contraindicated in those patients with a hypersensitivity to glycopyrrolate.



What are the warnings of Glycopyrrolate?

Due to its potential anticholinergic action, this drug should be used with caution in patients with asthma, glaucoma, or enlargement of the prostate gland.

In the presence of a high environmental temperature, heat prostration (fever and heat stroke due to decreased sweating) can occur with use of glycopyrrolate.

Diarrhea may be an early symptom of incomplete intestinal obstruction, especially in patients with ileostomy or colostomy. In this instance treatment with this drug would be inappropriate and possibly harmful.

Glycopyrrolate may produce drowsiness or blurred vision. In this event, the patient should be warned not to engage in activities requiring mental alertness such as operating a motor vehicle or other machinery, or performing hazardous work while taking this drug.

Theoretically, with overdosage, a curare-like action may occur, i.e., neuro-muscular blockade leading to muscular weakness and possible paralysis.


What are the precautions of Glycopyrrolate?

Use Glycopyrrolate with caution in the elderly and in all patients with:

  • Autonomic neuropathy.
  • Hepatic or renal disease.
  • Ulcerative colitis–large doses may suppress intestinal motility to the point of producing a paralytic ileus and for this reason may precipitate or aggravate “toxic megacolon,” a serious complication of the disease.
  • Hyperthyroidism, coronary heart disease, congestive heart failure, cardiac tachyarrhythmias,tachycardia, hypertension and prostatic hypertrophy.
  • Hiatal hernia associated with reflux esophagitis, since anticholinergic drugs may aggravate this condition.



What are the side effects of Glycopyrrolate?

Anticholinergics produce certain effects, most of which are extensions of their fundamental pharmacological actions. Adverse reactions to anticholinergics in general may include xerostomia;decreased sweating; urinary hesitancy and retention; blurred vision;tachycardia; palpitations; dilatation of the pupil; cycloplegia; increased ocular tension; loss of taste; headaches; nervousness; mental confusion; drowsiness; weakness; dizziness; insomnia; nausea; vomiting; constipation; bloated feeling;impotence; suppression of lactation; severe allergic reaction or drug idiosyncrasies including anaphylaxis, urticaria and other dermal manifestations.

Glycopyrrolate is chemically a quaternary ammonium compound; hence, its passage across lipid membranes, such as the blood-brain barrier, is limited in contrast to atropine sulfate and scopolamine hydrobromide. For this reason the occurrence of CNS related side effects is lower, in comparison to their incidence following administration of anticholinergics which are chemically tertiary amines that can cross this barrier readily.

CALL YOUR DOCTOR FOR MEDICAL ADVICE ABOUT SIDE EFFECTS. YOU MAY REPORT SIDE EFFECTS TO THE FDA AT 1-800-FDA-1088 OR LEADING PHARMA, LLC AT 1-844-740-7500.


What should I look out for while using Glycopyrrolate?

Glaucoma; obstructive uropathy (for example, bladder neck obstruction due to prostatic hypertrophy); obstructive disease of the gastrointestinal tract (as in achalasia, pyloroduodenal stenosis, etc.); paralytic ileus; intestinal atony of the elderly or debilitated patient; unstable cardiovascular status in acute hemorrhage; severe ulcerative colitis; toxic megacolon complicating ulcerative colitis; myasthenia gravis. Glycopyrrolate tablets are contraindicated in those patients with a hypersensitivity to glycopyrrolate.

In the presence of a high environmental temperature, heat prostration (fever and heat stroke due to decreased sweating) can occur with use of glycopyrrolate.

Diarrhea may be an early symptom of incomplete intestinal obstruction, especially in patients with ileostomy or colostomy. In this instance treatment with this drug would be inappropriate and possibly harmful.

Glycopyrrolate may produce drowsiness or blurred vision. In this event, the patient should be warned not to engage in activities requiring mental alertness such as operating a motor vehicle or other machinery, or performing hazardous work while taking this drug.

Theoretically, with overdosage, a curare-like action may occur, i.e., neuro-muscular blockade leading to muscular weakness and possible paralysis.


What might happen if I take too much Glycopyrrolate?

The symptoms of overdosage of glycopyrrolate are peripheral in nature rather than central.


How should I store and handle Glycopyrrolate?

Store at controlled room temperature 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [see USP].Glycopyrrolate tablets 1 mg are bisected, compressed white, round tablets debossed “EP” above the bisect and “139” below the bisect on one side of the tablet, and plain on the other side.Available in bottles of 100 (NDC 69315-139-01)Glycopyrrolate tablets 2 mg are bisected, compressed white, round tablets debossed “EP” above the bisect and “140” below the bisect on one side of the tablet, and plain on the other side.Available in bottles of 100 (NDC 69315-140-01).Glycopyrrolate tablets 1 mg are bisected, compressed white, round tablets debossed “EP” above the bisect and “139” below the bisect on one side of the tablet, and plain on the other side.Available in bottles of 100 (NDC 69315-139-01)Glycopyrrolate tablets 2 mg are bisected, compressed white, round tablets debossed “EP” above the bisect and “140” below the bisect on one side of the tablet, and plain on the other side.Available in bottles of 100 (NDC 69315-140-01).


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Clinical Information

Chemical Structure

No Image found
Clinical Pharmacology

Glycopyrrolate, like other anticholinergic (antimuscarinic) agents, inhibits the action of acetylcholine on structures innervated by postganglionic cholinergic nerves and on smooth muscles that respond to acetylcholine but lack cholinergic innervation. These peripheral cholinergic receptors are present in the autonomic effector cells of smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, the sino-atrial node, the atrioventricular node, exocrine glands, and, to a limited degree, in the autonomic ganglia. Thus, it diminishes the volume and free acidity of gastric secretions and controls excessive pharyngeal, tracheal, and bronchial secretions.

Glycopyrrolate antagonizes muscarinic symptoms (e.g., bronchorrhea, bronchospasm, bradycardia, and intestinal hypermotility) induced by cholinergic drugs such as the anticholinesterases.

The highly polar quaternary ammonium group of glycopyrrolate limits its passage across lipid membranes, such as the blood-brain barrier, in contrast to atropine sulfate and scopolamine hydrobromide, which are non-polar tertiary amines which penetrate lipid barriers easily.

Non-Clinical Toxicology
Glaucoma; obstructive uropathy (for example, bladder neck obstruction due to prostatic hypertrophy); obstructive disease of the gastrointestinal tract (as in achalasia, pyloroduodenal stenosis, etc.); paralytic ileus; intestinal atony of the elderly or debilitated patient; unstable cardiovascular status in acute hemorrhage; severe ulcerative colitis; toxic megacolon complicating ulcerative colitis; myasthenia gravis. Glycopyrrolate tablets are contraindicated in those patients with a hypersensitivity to glycopyrrolate.

In the presence of a high environmental temperature, heat prostration (fever and heat stroke due to decreased sweating) can occur with use of glycopyrrolate.

Diarrhea may be an early symptom of incomplete intestinal obstruction, especially in patients with ileostomy or colostomy. In this instance treatment with this drug would be inappropriate and possibly harmful.

Glycopyrrolate may produce drowsiness or blurred vision. In this event, the patient should be warned not to engage in activities requiring mental alertness such as operating a motor vehicle or other machinery, or performing hazardous work while taking this drug.

Theoretically, with overdosage, a curare-like action may occur, i.e., neuro-muscular blockade leading to muscular weakness and possible paralysis.

In controlled trials, terazosin have been added to diuretics, and several beta-adrenergic blockers; no unexpected interactions were observed. Terazosin  has also been used in patients on a variety of concomitant therapies; while these were not formal interaction studies, no interactions were observed. Terazosin has been used concomitantly in at least 50 patients on the following drugs or drug classes:

Use Glycopyrrolate with caution in the elderly and in all patients with:

Anticholinergics produce certain effects, most of which are extensions of their fundamental pharmacological actions. Adverse reactions to anticholinergics in general may include xerostomia;decreased sweating; urinary hesitancy and retention; blurred vision;tachycardia; palpitations; dilatation of the pupil; cycloplegia; increased ocular tension; loss of taste; headaches; nervousness; mental confusion; drowsiness; weakness; dizziness; insomnia; nausea; vomiting; constipation; bloated feeling;impotence; suppression of lactation; severe allergic reaction or drug idiosyncrasies including anaphylaxis, urticaria and other dermal manifestations.

Glycopyrrolate is chemically a quaternary ammonium compound; hence, its passage across lipid membranes, such as the blood-brain barrier, is limited in contrast to atropine sulfate and scopolamine hydrobromide. For this reason the occurrence of CNS related side effects is lower, in comparison to their incidence following administration of anticholinergics which are chemically tertiary amines that can cross this barrier readily.

CALL YOUR DOCTOR FOR MEDICAL ADVICE ABOUT SIDE EFFECTS. YOU MAY REPORT SIDE EFFECTS TO THE FDA AT 1-800-FDA-1088 OR LEADING PHARMA, LLC AT 1-844-740-7500.

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Reference

This information is obtained from the National Institute of Health's Standard Packaging Label drug database.
"https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/"

While we update our database periodically, we cannot guarantee it is always updated to the latest version.

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Professional

Clonazepam Description Each single-scored tablet, for oral administration, contains 0.5 mg, 1 mg, or 2 mg Clonazepam, USP, a benzodiazepine. Each tablet also contains corn starch, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, and povidone. Clonazepam tablets USP 0.5 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake. Clonazepam tablets USP 1 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake, as well as FD&C Blue No. 1 Aluminum Lake. Chemically, Clonazepam, USP is 5-(o-chlorophenyl)-1,3-dihydro-7-nitro-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one. It is a light yellow crystalline powder. It has the following structural formula: C15H10ClN3O3 M.W. 315.72
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Tips

Tips

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Interactions

Interactions

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