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Iopidine

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Overview

What is Iopidine?

IOPIDINE 0.5% Ophthalmic Solution contains apraclonidine hydrochloride, an alpha adrenergic agonist, in a sterile isotonic solution for topical application to the eye. Apraclonidine hydrochloride is a white to off-white powder and is highly soluble in water. Its chemical name is 2-[(4-amino-2,6 dichlorophenyl) imino]imidazolidine monohydrochloride with an empirical formula of CHClN and a molecular weight of 281.57. The chemical structure of apraclonidine hydrochloride is:

Each mL of IOPIDINE 0.5% Ophthalmic Solution contains: Active:

Inactives:



What does Iopidine look like?



What are the available doses of Iopidine?

Sorry No records found.

What should I talk to my health care provider before I take Iopidine?

Sorry No records found

How should I use Iopidine?

IOPIDINE 0.5% Ophthalmic Solution is indicated for short-term adjunctive therapy in patients on maximally tolerated medical therapy, who require additional IOP reduction. Patients on maximally tolerated medical therapy, who are treated with IOPIDINE 0.5% Ophthalmic Solution to delay surgery, should have frequent follow-up examinations and treatment should be discontinued if the IOP rises significantly.

The addition of IOPIDINE 0.5% Ophthalmic Solution to patients already using two aqueous suppressing drugs (i.e., beta-blocker plus carbonic anhydrase inhibitor) as part of their maximally tolerated medical therapy may not provide additional benefit. This is because IOPIDINE 0.5% Ophthalmic Solution is an aqueous suppressing drug and the addition of a third aqueous suppressant may not significantly reduce IOP.

The IOP lowering efficacy of IOPIDINE 0.5% Ophthalmic Solution diminishes over time in some patients. This loss of effect, or tachyphylaxis, appears to be an individual occurrence with a variable time of onset and should be closely monitored. The benefit for most patients is less than one month.

One to two drops of IOPIDINE 0.5% Ophthalmic Solution should be instilled in the affected eye(s) three times daily. Since IOPIDINE 0.5% Ophthalmic Solution will be used with other ocular glaucoma therapies, an approximate 5 minute interval between instillation of each medication should be practiced to prevent washout of the previous dose. NOT FOR INJECTION INTO THE EYE. NOT FOR ORAL INGESTION.


What interacts with Iopidine?

Sorry No Records found


What are the warnings of Iopidine?

Sorry No Records found


What are the precautions of Iopidine?

Sorry No Records found


What are the side effects of Iopidine?

Sorry No records found


What should I look out for while using Iopidine?

IOPIDINE 0.5% Ophthalmic Solution is contraindicated in patients with hypersensitivity to apraclonidine or any other component of this medication, as well as systemic clonidine. It is also contraindicated in patients receiving monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors.

Not for injection or oral ingestion. FOR TOPICAL OPHTHALMIC USE ONLY.


What might happen if I take too much Iopidine?

Ingestion of IOPIDINE 0.5% Ophthalmic Solution has been reported to cause bradycardia, drowsiness, and hypothermia.

Accidental or intentional ingestion of oral clonidine has been reported to cause apnea, arrhythmias, asthenia, bradycardia, conduction defects, diminished or absent reflexes, dryness of the mouth, hypotension, hypothermia, hypoventilation, irritability, lethargy, miosis, pallor, respiratory depression, sedation or coma, seizure, somnolence, transient hypertension, and vomiting.

Treatment of an oral overdose includes supportive and symptomatic therapy; a patent airway should be maintained. Hemodialysis is of limited value since a maximum of 5% of circulating drug is removed.


How should I store and handle Iopidine?

Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F)Protect from moisture.Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F)Protect from moisture.IOPIDINE* 0.5% Ophthalmic Solution as base in a sterile, isotonic, aqueous solution containing apraclonidine hydrochloride. Supplied in plastic ophthalmic DROP-TAINER® dispenser as follows:5 mL 0065-0665-0510 mL 0065-0665-10Storage: Protect from freezing and light.Distributed by:ALCON LABORATORIES, INC.Fort Worth, Texas 76134 USA Alcon®A Novartis companya trademark of Novartis© NovartisT2018-16March 2018IOPIDINE* 0.5% Ophthalmic Solution as base in a sterile, isotonic, aqueous solution containing apraclonidine hydrochloride. Supplied in plastic ophthalmic DROP-TAINER® dispenser as follows:5 mL 0065-0665-0510 mL 0065-0665-10Storage: Protect from freezing and light.Distributed by:ALCON LABORATORIES, INC.Fort Worth, Texas 76134 USA Alcon®A Novartis companya trademark of Novartis© NovartisT2018-16March 2018IOPIDINE* 0.5% Ophthalmic Solution as base in a sterile, isotonic, aqueous solution containing apraclonidine hydrochloride. Supplied in plastic ophthalmic DROP-TAINER® dispenser as follows:5 mL 0065-0665-0510 mL 0065-0665-10Storage: Protect from freezing and light.Distributed by:ALCON LABORATORIES, INC.Fort Worth, Texas 76134 USA Alcon®A Novartis companya trademark of Novartis© NovartisT2018-16March 2018IOPIDINE* 0.5% Ophthalmic Solution as base in a sterile, isotonic, aqueous solution containing apraclonidine hydrochloride. Supplied in plastic ophthalmic DROP-TAINER® dispenser as follows:5 mL 0065-0665-0510 mL 0065-0665-10Storage: Protect from freezing and light.Distributed by:ALCON LABORATORIES, INC.Fort Worth, Texas 76134 USA Alcon®A Novartis companya trademark of Novartis© NovartisT2018-16March 2018IOPIDINE* 0.5% Ophthalmic Solution as base in a sterile, isotonic, aqueous solution containing apraclonidine hydrochloride. Supplied in plastic ophthalmic DROP-TAINER® dispenser as follows:5 mL 0065-0665-0510 mL 0065-0665-10Storage: Protect from freezing and light.Distributed by:ALCON LABORATORIES, INC.Fort Worth, Texas 76134 USA Alcon®A Novartis companya trademark of Novartis© NovartisT2018-16March 2018IOPIDINE* 0.5% Ophthalmic Solution as base in a sterile, isotonic, aqueous solution containing apraclonidine hydrochloride. Supplied in plastic ophthalmic DROP-TAINER® dispenser as follows:5 mL 0065-0665-0510 mL 0065-0665-10Storage: Protect from freezing and light.Distributed by:ALCON LABORATORIES, INC.Fort Worth, Texas 76134 USA Alcon®A Novartis companya trademark of Novartis© NovartisT2018-16March 2018IOPIDINE* 0.5% Ophthalmic Solution as base in a sterile, isotonic, aqueous solution containing apraclonidine hydrochloride. Supplied in plastic ophthalmic DROP-TAINER® dispenser as follows:5 mL 0065-0665-0510 mL 0065-0665-10Storage: Protect from freezing and light.Distributed by:ALCON LABORATORIES, INC.Fort Worth, Texas 76134 USA Alcon®A Novartis companya trademark of Novartis© NovartisT2018-16March 2018IOPIDINE* 0.5% Ophthalmic Solution as base in a sterile, isotonic, aqueous solution containing apraclonidine hydrochloride. Supplied in plastic ophthalmic DROP-TAINER® dispenser as follows:5 mL 0065-0665-0510 mL 0065-0665-10Storage: Protect from freezing and light.Distributed by:ALCON LABORATORIES, INC.Fort Worth, Texas 76134 USA Alcon®A Novartis companya trademark of Novartis© NovartisT2018-16March 2018IOPIDINE* 0.5% Ophthalmic Solution as base in a sterile, isotonic, aqueous solution containing apraclonidine hydrochloride. Supplied in plastic ophthalmic DROP-TAINER® dispenser as follows:5 mL 0065-0665-0510 mL 0065-0665-10Storage: Protect from freezing and light.Distributed by:ALCON LABORATORIES, INC.Fort Worth, Texas 76134 USA Alcon®A Novartis companya trademark of Novartis© NovartisT2018-16March 2018IOPIDINE* 0.5% Ophthalmic Solution as base in a sterile, isotonic, aqueous solution containing apraclonidine hydrochloride. Supplied in plastic ophthalmic DROP-TAINER® dispenser as follows:5 mL 0065-0665-0510 mL 0065-0665-10Storage: Protect from freezing and light.Distributed by:ALCON LABORATORIES, INC.Fort Worth, Texas 76134 USA Alcon®A Novartis companya trademark of Novartis© NovartisT2018-16March 2018IOPIDINE* 0.5% Ophthalmic Solution as base in a sterile, isotonic, aqueous solution containing apraclonidine hydrochloride. Supplied in plastic ophthalmic DROP-TAINER® dispenser as follows:5 mL 0065-0665-0510 mL 0065-0665-10Storage: Protect from freezing and light.Distributed by:ALCON LABORATORIES, INC.Fort Worth, Texas 76134 USA Alcon®A Novartis companya trademark of Novartis© NovartisT2018-16March 2018IOPIDINE* 0.5% Ophthalmic Solution as base in a sterile, isotonic, aqueous solution containing apraclonidine hydrochloride. Supplied in plastic ophthalmic DROP-TAINER® dispenser as follows:5 mL 0065-0665-0510 mL 0065-0665-10Storage: Protect from freezing and light.Distributed by:ALCON LABORATORIES, INC.Fort Worth, Texas 76134 USA Alcon®A Novartis companya trademark of Novartis© NovartisT2018-16March 2018


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Clinical Information

Chemical Structure

No Image found
Clinical Pharmacology

Apraclonidine hydrochloride is a relatively selective alpha-2-adrenergic agonist. When instilled in the eye, IOPIDINE 0.5% Ophthalmic Solution, has the action of reducing elevated, as well as normal, intraocular pressure (IOP), whether or not accompanied by glaucoma. Ophthalmic apraclonidine has minimal effect on cardiovascular parameters.

Elevated IOP presents a major risk factor in glaucomatous field loss. The higher the level of IOP, the greater the likelihood of optic nerve damage and visual field loss. IOPIDINE 0.5% Ophthalmic Solution has the action of reducing IOP. The onset of action of apraclonidine can usually be noted within one hour, and maximum IOP reduction occurs about three hours after instillation. Aqueous fluorophotometry studies demonstrate that apraclonidine's predominant mechanism of action is reduction of aqueous flow via stimulation of the alpha-adrenergic system.

Repeated dose-response and comparative studies (0.125% - 1.0% apraclonidine) demonstrate that 0.5% apraclonidine is at the top of the dose-response IOP reduction curve.

The clinical utility of IOPIDINE 0.5% Ophthalmic Solution is most apparent for those glaucoma patients on maximally tolerated medical therapy. Patients on maximally tolerated medical therapy with uncontrolled IOP, and scheduled to undergo laser trabeculoplasty or trabeculectomy surgery were enrolled into a double-masked, placebo-controlled, multicenter clinical trial to determine if IOPIDINE 0.5% Ophthalmic Solution, dosed three times daily, could delay the need for surgery for up to three months.

All patients enrolled into this trial had advanced glaucoma and were undergoing maximally tolerated medical therapy, i.e., patients were using combinations of a topical beta blocker, sympathomimetics, parasympathomimetics and oral carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Patients were considered to be treatment failures in this study if, in the opinion of the investigators, their IOP was uncontrolled by the masked study medication or there was evidence of further optic nerve damage or visual field loss, and surgery was indicated. Of 171 patients receiving masked medication, 84 were treated with IOPIDINE* 0.5% Ophthalmic Solution and 87 were treated with placebo (apraclonidine vehicle).

Apraclonidine treatment resulted in a significantly greater percentage of treatment successes compared to patients treated with placebo. In this placebo-controlled maximum therapy trial, 14.3% of patients treated with IOPIDINE 0.5% Ophthalmic Solution were discontinued due to adverse events, primarily allergic-like reactions (12.9%).

The IOP lowering efficacy of IOPIDINE 0.5% Ophthalmic Solution diminishes over time in some patients. This loss of effect, or tachyphylaxis, appears to be an individual occurrence with a variable time of onset and should be closely monitored.

An unpredictable decrease of IOP control in some patients, incidence of ocular allergic responses and systemic side effects, may limit the utility of IOPIDINE 0.5% Ophthalmic Solution. However, patients on maximally tolerated medical therapy may still benefit from the additional IOP reduction provided by the short-term use of IOPIDINE 0.5% Ophthalmic Solution.

Topical use of IOPIDINE 0.5% Ophthalmic Solution leads to systemic absorption. Studies of IOPIDINE 0.5% Ophthalmic Solution dosed one drop three times a day in both eyes for 10 days, in normal volunteers, yielded mean peak and trough concentrations of 0.9 ng/mL and 0.5 ng/mL, respectively. The half-life of IOPIDINE 0.5% Ophthalmic Solution was calculated to be 8 hours.

IOPIDINE 0.5% Ophthalmic Solution, because of its alpha adrenergic activity, is a vasoconstrictor. Single dose ocular blood flow studies in monkeys, using the microsphere technique, demonstrated a reduced blood flow for the anterior segment; however, no reduction in blood flow was observed in the posterior segment of the eye after a topical dose of IOPIDINE 0.5% Ophthalmic Solution. Ocular blood flow studies have not been conducted in humans.

Non-Clinical Toxicology
IOPIDINE 0.5% Ophthalmic Solution is contraindicated in patients with hypersensitivity to apraclonidine or any other component of this medication, as well as systemic clonidine. It is also contraindicated in patients receiving monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors.

Not for injection or oral ingestion. FOR TOPICAL OPHTHALMIC USE ONLY.

General

Glaucoma patients on maximally tolerated medical therapy who are treated with IOPIDINE* 0.5% Ophthalmic Solution to delay surgery should have their visual fields monitored periodically.

Although the topical use of IOPIDINE 0.5% Ophthalmic Solution has not been studied in renal failure patients, structurally related clonidine undergoes a significant increase in half-life in patients with severe renal impairment. Close monitoring of cardiovascular parameters in patients with impaired renal function is advised if they are candidates for topical apraclonidine therapy. Close monitoring of cardiovascular parameters in patients with impaired liver function is also advised as the systemic dosage form of clonidine is partly metabolized in the liver.

While the topical administration of IOPIDINE 0.5% Ophthalmic Solution had minimal effect on heart rate or blood pressure in clinical studies evaluating glaucoma patients, the preclinical pharmacology profile of this drug suggests that caution should be observed in treating patients with severe, uncontrolled cardiovascular disease, including hypertension. The possibility of a vasovagal attack should be considered and caution should be exercised in patients with a history of such episodes.

IOPIDINE 0.5% Ophthalmic Solution should be used with caution in patients with coronary insufficiency, recent myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular disease, chronic renal failure, Raynaud's disease, or thromboangiitis obliterans. Caution and monitoring of depressed patients are advised since apraclonidine has been infrequently associated with depression.

Apraclonidine can cause dizziness and somnolence. Patients who engage in hazardous activities requiring mental alertness should be warned of the potential for a decrease in mental alertness while using apraclonidine.

Topical ocular administration of two drops of 0.5%, 1.0%, and 1.5% apraclonidine ophthalmic solution to New Zealand albino rabbits three times daily for one month resulted in sporadic and transient instances of minimal corneal edema in the 1.5% group only; no histopathological changes were noted in those eyes.

Use of IOPIDINE 0.5% Ophthalmic Solution can lead to an allergic-like reaction characterized wholly or in part by the symptoms of hyperemia, pruritus, discomfort, tearing, foreign body sensation, and edema of the lids and conjunctiva. If ocular allergic-like symptoms occur, IOPIDINE 0.5% Ophthalmic Solution therapy should be discontinued.

In clinical studies the overall discontinuation rate related to IOPIDINE* 0.5% Ophthalmic Solution was 15%. The most commonly reported events leading to discontinuation included (in decreasing order of frequency) hyperemia, pruritus, tearing, discomfort, lid edema, dry mouth, and foreign body sensation.

The following adverse reactions (incidences) were reported in clinical studies of IOPIDINE 0.5% Ophthalmic Solution as being possibly, probably, or definitely related to therapy:

Ocular

The following adverse reactions were reported in 5% to 15% of the patients: discomfort, hyperemia, and pruritus.

The following adverse reactions were reported in 1% to 5% of the patients: blanching, blurred vision, conjunctivitis, discharge, dry eye, foreign body sensation, lid edema, and tearing.

The following adverse reactions were reported in less than 1% of the patients: abnormal vision, blepharitis, blepharoconjunctivitis, conjunctival edema, conjunctival follicles, corneal erosion, corneal infiltrate, corneal staining, edema, irritation, keratitis, keratopathy, lid disorder, lid erythema, lid margin crusting, lid retraction, lid scales, pain, photophobia.

Nonocular

Dry mouth occurred in approximately 10% of the patients.

The following adverse reactions were reported in less than 3% of the patients: abnormal coordination, asthenia, arrhythmia, asthma, chest pain, constipation, contact dermatitis, depression, dermatitis, dizziness, dry nose, dyspnea, facial edema, headache, insomnia, malaise, myalgia, nausea, nervousness, paresthesia, parosmia, peripheral edema, pharyngitis, rhinitis, somnolence, and taste perversion.

Clinical Practice

The following events have been identified during postmarketing use of IOPIDINE 0.5% Ophthalmic Solution in clinical practice. Because they are reported voluntarily from a population of unknown size, estimates of frequency cannot be made. The events, which have been chosen for inclusion due to either their seriousness, frequency of reporting, possible causal connection to IOPIDINE 0.5% Ophthalmic Solution, or a combination of these factors, include bradycardia and hypersensitivity.

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Reference

This information is obtained from the National Institute of Health's Standard Packaging Label drug database.
"https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/"

While we update our database periodically, we cannot guarantee it is always updated to the latest version.

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Professional

Clonazepam Description Each single-scored tablet, for oral administration, contains 0.5 mg, 1 mg, or 2 mg Clonazepam, USP, a benzodiazepine. Each tablet also contains corn starch, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, and povidone. Clonazepam tablets USP 0.5 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake. Clonazepam tablets USP 1 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake, as well as FD&C Blue No. 1 Aluminum Lake. Chemically, Clonazepam, USP is 5-(o-chlorophenyl)-1,3-dihydro-7-nitro-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one. It is a light yellow crystalline powder. It has the following structural formula: C15H10ClN3O3 M.W. 315.72
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Tips

Tips

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Interactions

Interactions

A total of 440 drugs (1549 brand and generic names) are known to interact with Imbruvica (ibrutinib). 228 major drug interactions (854 brand and generic names) 210 moderate drug interactions (691 brand and generic names) 2 minor drug interactions (4 brand and generic names) Show all medications in the database that may interact with Imbruvica (ibrutinib).