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Hydrous Dextrose, Sodium Chloride, Sodium Gluconate, Sodium Acetate Trihydrate, Potassium Chloride and Magnesium Chloride Hexahydrate

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Overview

What is Isolyte S in Dextrose?

Each 100 mL of Isolyte S (Multi-Electrolyte Injection) in 5% Dextrose contains: Hydrous Dextrose USP 5 g; Sodium Chloride USP 0.53 gSodium Gluconate USP 0.5 g; Sodium Acetate Trihydrate USP 0.37 gPotassium Chloride USP 0.037 gMagnesium Chloride Hexahydrate USP 0.03 gWater for Injection USP qspH adjusted with Hydrochloric Acid NFpH: 5.0 (4.0–6.0)    Calories per liter: 170Calculated Osmolarity: 550 mOsmol/liter, hypertonicConcentration of Electrolytes (mEq/liter): Sodium 140; Chloride 106Acetate (CHCOO) 27; Gluconate (HOCH(CHOH)COO) 23Potassium 5; Magnesium 3

Isolyte S in 5% Dextrose is sterile, nonpyrogenic, and contains no bacteriostatic or antimicrobial agents or added buffers. This product is intended for intravenous administration in a single dose container.

The formulas of the active ingredients are:

The EXCEL Container is Latex-free, PVC-free, and DEHP-free.

The plastic container is made from a multilayered film specifically developed for parenteral drugs. It contains no plasticizers. The solution contact layer is a rubberized copolymer of ethylene and propylene. Solutions in contact with the plastic container may leach out certain chemical components from the plastic in very small amounts; however, biological testing was supportive of the safety of the plastic container materials. The container-solution unit is a closed system and is not dependent upon entry of external air during administration. The container is overwrapped to provide protection from the physical environment and to provide an additional moisture barrier when necessary. Exposure to temperatures above 25°C/77°F during transport and storage will lead to minor losses in moisture content. Higher temperatures lead to greater losses. It is unlikely that these minor losses will lead to clinically significant changes within the expiration period.

Addition of medication should be accomplished using complete aseptic technique.

The closure system has two ports; the one for the administration set has a tamper evident plastic protector and the other is a medication site. Refer to the  of the container.



What does Isolyte S in Dextrose look like?



What are the available doses of Isolyte S in Dextrose?

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What should I talk to my health care provider before I take Isolyte S in Dextrose?

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How should I use Isolyte S in Dextrose?

This solution is indicated for use in adults as a source of electrolytes, calories and water for hydration, and as an alkalinizing agent.

This solution is for intravenous use only.

Dosage is to be directed by a physician and is dependent upon age, weight, clinical condition of the patient and laboratory determinations. Frequent laboratory determinations and clinical evaluation are essential to monitor changes in blood glucose and electrolyte concentrations, and fluid and electrolyte balance during prolonged parenteral therapy.

When a hypertonic solution is to be administered peripherally, it should be slowly infused through a small bore needle, placed well within the lumen of a large vein to minimize venous irritation. Carefully avoid infiltration.

Fluid administration should be based on calculated maintenance or replacement fluid requirements for each patient.

The presence of magnesium ions in this solution should be considered when phosphate is present in the additive solution, in order to avoid precipitation.

Some additives may be incompatible. Consult with pharmacist. When introducing additives, use aseptic techniques. Mix thoroughly. Do not store.

Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration, whenever solution and container permit.


What interacts with Isolyte S in Dextrose?

Solutions containing dextrose may be contraindicated in patients with hypersensitivity to corn products.



What are the warnings of Isolyte S in Dextrose?

Lithium may prolong the effects of neuromuscular blocking agents. Therefore, neuromuscular blocking agents should be given with caution to patients receiving lithium.

The administration of intravenous solutions can cause fluid and/or solute overload resulting in dilution of serum electrolyte concentrations, overhydration, congested states or pulmonary edema. The risk of dilutional states is inversely proportional to the electrolyte concentration. The risk of solute overload causing congested states with peripheral and pulmonary edema is directly proportional to the electrolyte concentration.

Solutions containing sodium ions should be used with great care, if at all, in patients with congestive heart failure, severe renal insufficiency, and in clinical states in which there is sodium retention with edema.

Solutions containing potassium ions should be used with great care, if at all, in patients with hyperkalemia, severe renal failure, and in conditions in which potassium retention is present.

In patients with diminished renal function, administration of solutions containing sodium or potassium ions may result in sodium or potassium retention.

Solutions containing acetate should be used with great care in patients with metabolic or respiratory alkalosis. The administration of acetate or gluconate ions should be done with great care in those conditions in which there is an increased level or an impaired utilization of these ions, such as severe hepatic insufficiency.


What are the precautions of Isolyte S in Dextrose?

General

This solution should be used with care in patients with hypervolemia, renal insufficiency, urinary tract obstruction, or impending or frank cardiac decompensation.

Extraordinary electrolyte losses such as may occur during protracted nasogastric suction, vomiting, diarrhea or gastrointestinal fistula drainage may necessitate additional electrolyte supplementation.

Additional essential electrolytes, minerals, and vitamins should be supplied as needed.

Care should be exercised in administering solutions containing sodium or potassium to patients with renal or cardiovascular insufficiency, with or without congestive heart failure, particularly if they are postoperative or elderly.

Potassium therapy should be guided primarily by serial electrocardiograms, especially in patients receiving digitalis. Serum potassium levels are not necessarily indicative of tissue potassium levels.

Solutions containing potassium or magnesium should be used with caution in the presence of cardiac disease, particularly in the presence of renal disease.

Solutions containing acetate or gluconate should be used with caution. Excess administration may result in metabolic alkalosis.

Solutions containing dextrose should be used with caution in patients with overt or known subclinical diabetes mellitus, or carbohydrate intolerance for any reason.

To minimize the risk of possible incompatibilities arising from mixing this solution with other additives that may be prescribed, the final infusate should be inspected for cloudiness or precipitation immediately after mixing, prior to administration, and periodically during administration.

Do not use plastic container in series connection.

If administration is controlled by a pumping device, care must be taken to discontinue pumping action before the container runs dry or air embolism may result. If administration is not controlled by a pumping device, refrain from applying excessive pressure (>300mmHg) causing distortion to the container such as wringing or twisting.  Such handling could result in breakage of the container.

This solution is intended for intravenous administration using sterile equipment.

Use only if solution is clear and container and seals are intact.

Laboratory Tests

Clinical evaluation and periodic laboratory determinations are necessary to monitor changes in fluid balance, electrolyte concentrations, and acid-base balance during prolonged parenteral therapy or whenever the condition of the patient warrants such evaluation. Significant deviations from normal concentrations may require tailoring of the electrolyte pattern, in this or an alternative solution.

Drug Interactions

Sodium-containing solutions should be administered with caution to patients receiving corticosteroids or corticotropin, or to other salt-retaining patients.

Administration of barbiturates, narcotics, hypnotics, or systemic anesthetics should be adjusted with caution in patients also receiving magnesium-containing solutions because of an additive central depressive effect.

Parenteral magnesium should be administered with extreme caution to patients receiving digitalis preparations.

Carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, impairment of fertility

Studies with Isolyte S (Multi-Electrolyte Injection) in 5% Dextrose have not been performed to evaluate carcinogenic potential, mutagenic potential, or effects on fertility.

Pregnancy

Nursing Mothers

It is not known whether this drug is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when Isolyte S (Multi-Electrolyte Injection) in 5% Dextrose is administered to a nursing woman.

Pediatric Use

Safety and effectiveness of Isolyte S (Multi-Electrolyte Injection) in 5% Dextrose in pediatric patients have not been established by adequate and well controlled trials, however, the use of electrolyte and dextrose solutions in the pediatric population is referenced in the medical literature. The warnings, precautions and adverse reactions identified in the label copy should be observed in the pediatric population.

In very low birth weight infants, excessive or rapid administration of dextrose injection may result in increased serum osmolality and possible hemorrhage.

Geriatric Use

Clinical studies of Isolyte S (Multi-Electrolyte Injection) in 5% Dextrose did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or drug therapy.


What are the side effects of Isolyte S in Dextrose?

Reactions which may occur because of the solution or the technique of administration include febrile response, infection at the site of injection, venous thrombosis or phlebitis extending from the site of injection, extravasation and hypervolemia.

Too rapid infusion of hypertonic solutions may cause local pain and venous irritation. Rate of administration should be adjusted according to tolerance.

Use of the largest peripheral vein and a small bore needle is recommended.

Symptoms may result from an excess or deficit of one or more of the ions present in the solution; therefore, frequent monitoring of electrolyte levels is essential.

Hypernatremia may be associated with edema and exacerbation of congestive heart failure due to the retention of water, resulting in an expanded extracellular fluid volume.

Reactions reported with the use of potassium-containing solutions include nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and diarrhea. The signs and symptoms of potassium intoxication include paresthesias of the extremities, areflexia, muscular or respiratory paralysis, mental confusion, weakness, hypotension, cardiac arrhythmias, heart block, electrocardiographic abnormalities and cardiac arrest. Potassium deficits result in disruption of neuromuscular function, and intestinal ileus and dilatation.

If infused in large amounts, chloride ions may cause a loss of bicarbonate ions, resulting in an acidifying effect.

Abnormally high plasma levels of magnesium can result in flushing, sweating, hypotension, circulatory collapse, and depression of cardiac and central nervous system function. Respiratory depression is the most immediate threat to life.

Magnesium deficits can result in tachycardia, hypertension, hyperirritability and psychotic behavior.

The physician should also be alert to the possibility of adverse reactions to drug additives. Prescribing information for drug additives to be administered in this manner should be consulted.

If an adverse reaction does occur, discontinue the infusion, evaluate the patient, institute appropriate therapeutic countermeasures and save the remainder of the fluid for examination if deemed necessary.


What should I look out for while using Isolyte S in Dextrose?

Solutions containing dextrose may be contraindicated in patients with hypersensitivity to corn products.

The administration of intravenous solutions can cause fluid and/or solute overload resulting in dilution of serum electrolyte concentrations, overhydration, congested states or pulmonary edema. The risk of dilutional states is inversely proportional to the electrolyte concentration. The risk of solute overload causing congested states with peripheral and pulmonary edema is directly proportional to the electrolyte concentration.

Solutions containing sodium ions should be used with great care, if at all, in patients with congestive heart failure, severe renal insufficiency, and in clinical states in which there is sodium retention with edema.

Solutions containing potassium ions should be used with great care, if at all, in patients with hyperkalemia, severe renal failure, and in conditions in which potassium retention is present.

In patients with diminished renal function, administration of solutions containing sodium or potassium ions may result in sodium or potassium retention.

Solutions containing acetate should be used with great care in patients with metabolic or respiratory alkalosis. The administration of acetate or gluconate ions should be done with great care in those conditions in which there is an increased level or an impaired utilization of these ions, such as severe hepatic insufficiency.


What might happen if I take too much Isolyte S in Dextrose?

In the event of a fluid or solute overload during parenteral therapy, reevaluate the patient's condition, and institute appropriate corrective treatment.


How should I store and handle Isolyte S in Dextrose?

Isolyte S (Multi-Electrolyte Injection) in 5% Dextrose is supplied sterile and nonpyrogenic in 1000 mL EXCEL Containers packaged 12 per case.Exposure of pharmaceutical products to heat should be minimized. Avoid excessive heat. Protect from freezing. It is recommended that the product be stored at room temperature (25°C).Isolyte S (Multi-Electrolyte Injection) in 5% Dextrose is supplied sterile and nonpyrogenic in 1000 mL EXCEL Containers packaged 12 per case.Exposure of pharmaceutical products to heat should be minimized. Avoid excessive heat. Protect from freezing. It is recommended that the product be stored at room temperature (25°C).


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Clinical Information

Chemical Structure

No Image found
Clinical Pharmacology

Isolyte S in 5% Dextrose provides electrolytes and calories, and is a source of water for hydration. It is capable of inducing diuresis depending on the clinical condition of the patient.

Sodium, the major cation of the extracellular fluid, functions primarily in the control of water distribution, fluid balance, and osmotic pressure of body fluids. Sodium is also associated with chloride and bicarbonate in the regulation of the acid-base equilibrium of body fluid.

Potassium, the principal cation of intracellular fluid, participates in carbohydrate utilization and protein synthesis, and is critical in the regulation of nerve conduction and muscle contraction, particularly in the heart.

Chloride, the major extracellular anion, closely follows the metabolism of sodium, and changes in the acid-base balance of the body are reflected by changes in the chloride concentration.

Magnesium, a principal cation of soft tissue, is primarily involved in enzyme activity associated with the metabolism of carbohydrates and protein. Magnesium is also involved in neuromuscular irritability.

Gluconate and acetate are organic ions which are hydrogen ion acceptors and contribute bicarbonate during the metabolism to carbon dioxide and water, and in sufficient quantities may serve as alkalinizing agents.

Dextrose provides a source of calories. Dextrose is readily metabolized, may decrease losses of body protein and nitrogen, promotes glycogen deposition and decreases or prevents ketosis if sufficient doses are provided.

Non-Clinical Toxicology
Solutions containing dextrose may be contraindicated in patients with hypersensitivity to corn products.

The administration of intravenous solutions can cause fluid and/or solute overload resulting in dilution of serum electrolyte concentrations, overhydration, congested states or pulmonary edema. The risk of dilutional states is inversely proportional to the electrolyte concentration. The risk of solute overload causing congested states with peripheral and pulmonary edema is directly proportional to the electrolyte concentration.

Solutions containing sodium ions should be used with great care, if at all, in patients with congestive heart failure, severe renal insufficiency, and in clinical states in which there is sodium retention with edema.

Solutions containing potassium ions should be used with great care, if at all, in patients with hyperkalemia, severe renal failure, and in conditions in which potassium retention is present.

In patients with diminished renal function, administration of solutions containing sodium or potassium ions may result in sodium or potassium retention.

Solutions containing acetate should be used with great care in patients with metabolic or respiratory alkalosis. The administration of acetate or gluconate ions should be done with great care in those conditions in which there is an increased level or an impaired utilization of these ions, such as severe hepatic insufficiency.

Sodium-containing solutions should be administered with caution to patients receiving corticosteroids or corticotropin, or to other salt-retaining patients.

Administration of barbiturates, narcotics, hypnotics, or systemic anesthetics should be adjusted with caution in patients also receiving magnesium-containing solutions because of an additive central depressive effect.

Parenteral magnesium should be administered with extreme caution to patients receiving digitalis preparations.

This solution should be used with care in patients with hypervolemia, renal insufficiency, urinary tract obstruction, or impending or frank cardiac decompensation.

Extraordinary electrolyte losses such as may occur during protracted nasogastric suction, vomiting, diarrhea or gastrointestinal fistula drainage may necessitate additional electrolyte supplementation.

Additional essential electrolytes, minerals, and vitamins should be supplied as needed.

Care should be exercised in administering solutions containing sodium or potassium to patients with renal or cardiovascular insufficiency, with or without congestive heart failure, particularly if they are postoperative or elderly.

Potassium therapy should be guided primarily by serial electrocardiograms, especially in patients receiving digitalis. Serum potassium levels are not necessarily indicative of tissue potassium levels.

Solutions containing potassium or magnesium should be used with caution in the presence of cardiac disease, particularly in the presence of renal disease.

Solutions containing acetate or gluconate should be used with caution. Excess administration may result in metabolic alkalosis.

Solutions containing dextrose should be used with caution in patients with overt or known subclinical diabetes mellitus, or carbohydrate intolerance for any reason.

To minimize the risk of possible incompatibilities arising from mixing this solution with other additives that may be prescribed, the final infusate should be inspected for cloudiness or precipitation immediately after mixing, prior to administration, and periodically during administration.

Do not use plastic container in series connection.

If administration is controlled by a pumping device, care must be taken to discontinue pumping action before the container runs dry or air embolism may result. If administration is not controlled by a pumping device, refrain from applying excessive pressure (>300mmHg) causing distortion to the container such as wringing or twisting.  Such handling could result in breakage of the container.

This solution is intended for intravenous administration using sterile equipment.

Use only if solution is clear and container and seals are intact.

Reactions which may occur because of the solution or the technique of administration include febrile response, infection at the site of injection, venous thrombosis or phlebitis extending from the site of injection, extravasation and hypervolemia.

Too rapid infusion of hypertonic solutions may cause local pain and venous irritation. Rate of administration should be adjusted according to tolerance.

Use of the largest peripheral vein and a small bore needle is recommended.

Symptoms may result from an excess or deficit of one or more of the ions present in the solution; therefore, frequent monitoring of electrolyte levels is essential.

Hypernatremia may be associated with edema and exacerbation of congestive heart failure due to the retention of water, resulting in an expanded extracellular fluid volume.

Reactions reported with the use of potassium-containing solutions include nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and diarrhea. The signs and symptoms of potassium intoxication include paresthesias of the extremities, areflexia, muscular or respiratory paralysis, mental confusion, weakness, hypotension, cardiac arrhythmias, heart block, electrocardiographic abnormalities and cardiac arrest. Potassium deficits result in disruption of neuromuscular function, and intestinal ileus and dilatation.

If infused in large amounts, chloride ions may cause a loss of bicarbonate ions, resulting in an acidifying effect.

Abnormally high plasma levels of magnesium can result in flushing, sweating, hypotension, circulatory collapse, and depression of cardiac and central nervous system function. Respiratory depression is the most immediate threat to life.

Magnesium deficits can result in tachycardia, hypertension, hyperirritability and psychotic behavior.

The physician should also be alert to the possibility of adverse reactions to drug additives. Prescribing information for drug additives to be administered in this manner should be consulted.

If an adverse reaction does occur, discontinue the infusion, evaluate the patient, institute appropriate therapeutic countermeasures and save the remainder of the fluid for examination if deemed necessary.

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Reference

This information is obtained from the National Institute of Health's Standard Packaging Label drug database.
"https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/"

While we update our database periodically, we cannot guarantee it is always updated to the latest version.

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Professional

Clonazepam Description Each single-scored tablet, for oral administration, contains 0.5 mg, 1 mg, or 2 mg Clonazepam, USP, a benzodiazepine. Each tablet also contains corn starch, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, and povidone. Clonazepam tablets USP 0.5 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake. Clonazepam tablets USP 1 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake, as well as FD&C Blue No. 1 Aluminum Lake. Chemically, Clonazepam, USP is 5-(o-chlorophenyl)-1,3-dihydro-7-nitro-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one. It is a light yellow crystalline powder. It has the following structural formula: C15H10ClN3O3 M.W. 315.72
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Tips

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Interactions

Interactions

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