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Isosorbide Mononitrate

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Overview

What is Isosorbide Mononitrate?

Isosorbide mononitrate, an organic nitrate, is a vasodilator with effects on both arteries and veins. The molecular formula is CHNO and the molecular weight is 191.14. The chemical name for isosorbide mononitrate is 1,4:3,6-Dianhydro-D-glucitol 5-nitrate and the compound has the following structural formula:

Isosorbide mononitrate tablets, for oral administration, contain 20 mg of isosorbide mononitrate. In addition, each white tablet contains the following inactive ingredients: Colloidal Silicon Dioxide, Dibasic Ammonium Phosphate, Lactose Monohydrate, Microcrystalline Cellulose, Povidone, and Sodium Starch Glycolate. Film coating contains: Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose, Polyethylene Glycol, and Titanium Dioxide.



What does Isosorbide Mononitrate look like?



What are the available doses of Isosorbide Mononitrate?

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What should I talk to my health care provider before I take Isosorbide Mononitrate?

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How should I use Isosorbide Mononitrate?

Isosorbide mononitrate is indicated for the prevention and treatment of angina pectoris due to coronary artery disease. The onset of action of oral isosorbide mononitrate is not sufficiently rapid for this product to be useful in aborting an acute anginal episode.

The recommended regimen of isosorbide mononitrate tablets is 20 mg twice daily, with the doses seven hours apart. A starting dose of 5 mg (½ tablet of the 10 mg dosing strength) might be appropriate for persons of particularly small stature but should be increased to at least 10 mg by the second or third day of therapy. Dosage adjustments are not necessary for elderly patients or patients with altered hepatic or renal function.

As noted above (), multiple studies of organic nitrates have shown that maintenance of continuous 24-hour plasma levels results in refractory tolerance. The asymmetric (2 doses, 7 hours apart) dosing regimen for isosorbide mononitrate tablets provides a daily nitrate-free interval to minimize the development of tolerance.

As also noted under , well-controlled studies have shown that tolerance to isosorbide mononitrate tablets occurs to some extent when using the twice-daily regimen in which the two doses are given seven hours apart. This regimen has been shown to have antianginal efficacy beginning one hour after the first dose and lasting at least seven hours after the second dose. The duration (if any) of antianginal activity beyond fourteen hours has not been studied.

In clinical trials, isosorbide mononitrate has been administered in a variety of regimens and doses. Doses above 20 mg twice a day (with the doses seven hours apart) have not been adequately studied. Doses of 5 mg twice a day are clearly effective (effectiveness based on exercise tolerance) for only the first day of a twice-a-day (with doses 7 hours apart) regimen.


What interacts with Isosorbide Mononitrate?

Allergic reactions to organic nitrates are extremely rare, but they do occur. Isosorbide mononitrate is contraindicated in patients who are allergic to it.



What are the warnings of Isosorbide Mononitrate?

As the rate of theophylline clearance may be dose-dependent (i.e., steady-state serum concentrations may increase disproportionately to the increase in dose), an increase in dose based upon a sub-therapeutic serum concentration measurement should be conservative. In general, limiting dose increases to about 25% of the previous total daily dose will reduce the risk of unintended excessive increases in serum theophylline concentration (see , Table VI).

Amplification of the vasodilatory effects of isosorbide mononitrate by sildenafil can result in severe hypotension. The time course and dose dependence of this interaction have not been studied. Appropriate supportive care has not been studied, but it seems reasonable to treat this as a nitrate overdose, with elevation of the extremities and with central volume expansion.

The benefits of isosorbide mononitrate in patients with acute myocardial infarction or congestive heart failure have not been established. Because the effects of isosorbide mononitrate are difficult to terminate rapidly, this drug is not recommended in these settings.

If isosorbide mononitrate is used in these conditions, careful clinical or hemodynamic monitoring must be used to avoid the hazards of hypotension and tachycardia.


What are the precautions of Isosorbide Mononitrate?

General

Severe hypotension, particularly with upright posture, may occur with even small doses of isosorbide mononitrate. This drug should therefore be used with caution in patients who may be volume depleted or who, for whatever reason, are already hypotensive. Hypotension induced by isosorbide mononitrate may be accompanied by paradoxical bradycardia and increased angina pectoris.

Nitrate therapy may aggravate the angina caused by hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

In industrial workers who have had long-term exposure to unknown (presumably high) doses of organic nitrates, tolerance clearly occurs. Chest pain, acute myocardial infarction, and even sudden death have occurred during temporary withdrawal of nitrates from these workers, demonstrating the existence of true physical dependence. The importance of these observations to the routine, clinical use of oral isosorbide mononitrate is not known.

Information for Patients

Patients should be told that the antianginal efficacy of isosorbide mononitrate tablets can be maintained by carefully following the prescribed schedule of dosing (two doses taken seven hours apart). For most patients, this can be accomplished by taking the first dose on awakening and the second dose 7 hours later.

As with other nitrates, daily headaches sometimes accompany treatment with isosorbide mononitrate. In patients who get these headaches, the headaches are a marker of the activity of the drug. Patients should resist the temptation to avoid headaches by altering the schedule of their treatment with isosorbide mononitrate, since loss of headache may be associated with simultaneous loss of antianginal efficacy. Aspirin and/or acetaminophen, on the other hand, often successfully relieve isosorbide mononitrate-induced headaches with no deleterious effect on isosorbide mononitrate’s anti-anginal efficacy.

Treatment with isosorbide mononitrate may be associated with light-headedness on standing, especially just after rising from a recumbent or seated position. This effect may be more frequent in patients who have also consumed alcohol.

Drug Interactions

The vasodilating effects of isosorbide mononitrate may be additive with those of other vasodilators. Alcohol, in particular, has been found to exhibit additive effects of this variety.

Marked symptomatic orthostatic hypotension has been reported when calcium channel blockers and organic nitrates were used in combination. Dose adjustments of either class of agents may be necessary.

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

No evidence of carcinogenicity was observed in rats exposed to isosorbide mononitrate in their diets at doses of up to 900 mg/kg/day for the first six months and 500 mg/kg/day for the remaining duration of a study in which males were dosed for up to 121 weeks and females were dosed for up to 137 weeks. No evidence of mutagenicity was seen in the Salmonella test (Ames test), in human peripheral lymphocytes, in Chinese hamster cells (V79) or, in the rat micronucleus test. In a study on the fertility and breeding capacity of two generations of rats, isosorbide mononitrate had no adverse effects on fertility or general reproductive performance with oral doses up to 120 mg/kg/day. A dose of 360 mg/kg/day was associated with increased mortality in treated males and females and a reduced fertility index. (See table at end of section for animal-to-human dosage comparisons.)

Pregnancy

Pregnancy Category B

Birth weights, neonatal survival and development, and incidence of stillbirths were adversely affected when pregnant rats were administered oral doses of 540 (but not 270) mg isosorbide mononitrate/kg/day during late gestation and lactation. This dose was associated with decreased maternal body weight gain and decreased maternal motor activity.

Calculations assume a human weight of 50 kg and human body surface area of 1.46 m, a rabbit weight of 2 kg and rabbit body surface area of 0.163 m, and a rat weight of 150 g and rat body surface area of 0.025 m.

*Maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) is 20 mg bid.

 Species Daily Dose(mg/kg)
   Body Weight Body Surface
 Rabbit 810 1013 375
 Rat 900 1125 175
  540 675 117
  500 625 108
  360 450 78
  270 388 59


Nursing Mothers

It is not known whether isosorbide mononitrate is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when isosorbide mononitrate is administered to a nursing woman.

Geriatric Use

Clinical studies of isosorbide mononitrate did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.

Pediatric Use

Safety and effectiveness of isosorbide mononitrate in pediatric patients have not been established.


What are the side effects of Isosorbide Mononitrate?

Headache is the most frequent side effect and was the cause of 2% of all dropouts from controlled-clinical trials. Headache decreased in incidence after the first few days of therapy.

The following table shows the frequency of adverse reactions observed in 1% or more of subjects in 6 placebo-controlled trials, conducted in the United States and abroad. The same table shows the frequency of withdrawal for these adverse reactions. In many cases the adverse reactions were of uncertain relation to drug treatment.

Other adverse reactions, each reported by fewer than 1% of exposed patients, and in many cases of uncertain relation to drug treatment, were:

Cardiovascular: acute myocardial infarction, apoplexy, arrhythmias, bradycardia, edema, hypertension, hypotension, pallor, palpitations, tachycardia.

Dermatologic: sweating.

Gastrointestinal: anorexia, dry mouth, dyspepsia, thirst, vomiting, decreased weight.

Genitourinary: prostatic disorder.

Miscellaneous: amblyopia, back pain, bitter taste, muscle cramps, neck pain, paresthesia, susurrus aurium.

Neurologic: anxiety, impaired concentration, depression, insomnia, nervousness, nightmares, restlessness, tremor, vertigo.

Respiratory: asthma, dyspnea, sinusitis.

Extremely rarely, ordinary doses of organic nitrates have caused methemoglobinemia in normal-seeming patients; for further discussion of its diagnosis and treatment see under .

Frequency of Adverse Reactions (Discontinuations)*
 Dose Placebo 5 mg 10 mg 20 mg
 Patients 160 54 52 159
 Headache 6% (0%) 17% (0%) 13% (0%) 35% (5%)
 Fatigue 2% (0%) 0% (0%) 4% (0%) 1% (0%)
 Upper RespiratoryInfection  0% (0%) 4% (0%) 1% (0%)
 Pain  4% (0%) 0% (0%) 
 Dizziness 1% (0%) 0% (0%) 0% (0%) 4% (0%)
 Nausea  0% (0%) 0% (0%) 3% (2%)
 Increased Cough  0% (0%) 2% (0%) 
 Rash 0% (0%) 2% (2%) 0% (0%) 
 Abdominal Pain  0% (0%) 2% (0%) 0% (0%)
 Allergic Reaction 0% (0%) 0% (0%) 2% (0%) 0% (0%)
 CardiovascularDisorder 0% (0%) 2% (0%) 0% (0%) 0% (0%)
 Chest Pain  0% (0%) 2% (0%) 
 Diarrhea 0% (0%) 0% (0%) 2% (0%) 0% (0%)
 Flushing 0% (0%) 0% (0%) 2% (0%) 0% (0%)
 Emotional Lability 0% (0%) 2% (0%) 0% (0%) 0% (0%)
 Pruritus 1% (0%) 2% (2%) 0% (0%) 0% (0%)



What should I look out for while using Isosorbide Mononitrate?

Allergic reactions to organic nitrates are extremely rare, but they do occur. Isosorbide mononitrate is contraindicated in patients who are allergic to it.

Amplification of the vasodilatory effects of isosorbide mononitrate by sildenafil can result in severe hypotension. The time course and dose dependence of this interaction have not been studied. Appropriate supportive care has not been studied, but it seems reasonable to treat this as a nitrate overdose, with elevation of the extremities and with central volume expansion.

The benefits of isosorbide mononitrate in patients with acute myocardial infarction or congestive heart failure have not been established. Because the effects of isosorbide mononitrate are difficult to terminate rapidly, this drug is not recommended in these settings.

If isosorbide mononitrate is used in these conditions, careful clinical or hemodynamic monitoring must be used to avoid the hazards of hypotension and tachycardia.


What might happen if I take too much Isosorbide Mononitrate?

Hemodynamic Effects:

Laboratory determinations of serum levels of isosorbide mononitrate and its metabolites are not widely available, and such determinations have, in any event, no established role in the management of isosorbide mononitrate overdose.

There are no data suggesting what dose of isosorbide mononitrate is likely to be life-threatening in humans. In rats and mice, there is significant lethality at oral doses of 1965 mg/kg and 2581 mg/kg, respectively.

No data are available to suggest physiological maneuvers (e.g., maneuvers to change the pH of the urine) that might accelerate elimination of isosorbide mononitrate. Isosorbide mononitrate is significantly removed from the blood during hemodialysis.

No specific antagonist to the vasodilator effects of isosorbide mononitrate is known, and no intervention has been subject to controlled study as a therapy of isosorbide mononitrate overdose. Because the hypotension associated with isosorbide mononitrate overdose is the result of venodilatation and arterial hypovolemia, prudent therapy in this situation should be directed toward an increase in central fluid volume. Passive elevation of the patient’s legs may be sufficient, but intravenous infusion of normal saline or similar fluid may also be necessary.

The use of epinephrine or other arterial vasoconstrictors in this setting is likely to do more harm than good.

In patients with renal disease or congestive heart failure, therapy resulting in central volume expansion is not without hazard. Treatment of isosorbide mononitrate overdose in these patients may be subtle and difficult, and invasive monitoring may be required.

Methemoglobinemia:

Notwithstanding these observations, there are case reports of significant methemoglobinemia in association with moderate overdoses of organic nitrates. None of the affected patients had been thought to be unusually susceptible.

Methemoglobin levels are available from most clinical laboratories. The diagnosis should be suspected in patients who exhibit signs of impaired oxygen delivery despite adequate cardiac output and adequate arterial pO. Classically, methemoglobinemic blood is described as chocolate brown, without color change on exposure to air.

When methemoglobinemia is diagnosed, the treatment of choice is methylene blue, 1-2 mg/kg intravenously.


How should I store and handle Isosorbide Mononitrate?

Store at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted to 15-30°C (59-86°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature].Keep out of reach of children.Store at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted to 15-30°C (59-86°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature].Keep out of reach of children.Isosorbide Mononitrate Tablets 20 mg: white coated, round, scored tablet; embossed "WW33".    Bottles of 30 tablets.    Bottles of 90 tablets.    Bottles of 100 tablets.    Bottles of 1000 tablets.Store at 20-25°C (68-77°F). [See USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Protect from light and moisture.Dispense in a tight, light-resistant container as defined in the USP using a child-resistant closure.Manufactured by: Eatontown, NJ 07724 USA  Revised April 2006Isosorbide Mononitrate Tablets 20 mg: white coated, round, scored tablet; embossed "WW33".    Bottles of 30 tablets.    Bottles of 90 tablets.    Bottles of 100 tablets.    Bottles of 1000 tablets.Store at 20-25°C (68-77°F). [See USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Protect from light and moisture.Dispense in a tight, light-resistant container as defined in the USP using a child-resistant closure.Manufactured by: Eatontown, NJ 07724 USA  Revised April 2006Isosorbide Mononitrate Tablets 20 mg: white coated, round, scored tablet; embossed "WW33".    Bottles of 30 tablets.    Bottles of 90 tablets.    Bottles of 100 tablets.    Bottles of 1000 tablets.Store at 20-25°C (68-77°F). [See USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Protect from light and moisture.Dispense in a tight, light-resistant container as defined in the USP using a child-resistant closure.Manufactured by: Eatontown, NJ 07724 USA  Revised April 2006Isosorbide Mononitrate Tablets 20 mg: white coated, round, scored tablet; embossed "WW33".    Bottles of 30 tablets.    Bottles of 90 tablets.    Bottles of 100 tablets.    Bottles of 1000 tablets.Store at 20-25°C (68-77°F). [See USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Protect from light and moisture.Dispense in a tight, light-resistant container as defined in the USP using a child-resistant closure.Manufactured by: Eatontown, NJ 07724 USA  Revised April 2006Isosorbide Mononitrate Tablets 20 mg: white coated, round, scored tablet; embossed "WW33".    Bottles of 30 tablets.    Bottles of 90 tablets.    Bottles of 100 tablets.    Bottles of 1000 tablets.Store at 20-25°C (68-77°F). [See USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Protect from light and moisture.Dispense in a tight, light-resistant container as defined in the USP using a child-resistant closure.Manufactured by: Eatontown, NJ 07724 USA  Revised April 2006


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Clinical Information

Chemical Structure

No Image found
Clinical Pharmacology

Isosorbide mononitrate is the major active metabolite of isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN), and most of the clinical activity of the dinitrate is attributable to the mononitrate.

The principal pharmacological action of isosorbide mononitrate is relaxation of vascular smooth muscle and consequent dilatation of peripheral arteries and veins, especially the latter. Dilatation of the veins promotes peripheral pooling of blood and decreases venous return to the heart, thereby reducing left ventricular end-diastolic pressure and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (preload). Arteriolar relaxation reduces systemic vascular resistance, systolic arterial pressure, and mean arterial pressure (afterload). Dilatation of the coronary arteries also occurs. The relative importance of preload reduction, afterload reduction and coronary dilatation remains undefined.

Pharmacodynamics:

The drug-free interval sufficient to avoid tolerance to isosorbide mononitrate has not been completely defined. In the only regimen of twice-daily isosorbide mononitrate that has been shown to avoid development of tolerance, the two doses of isosorbide mononitrate tablets are given 7 hours apart, so there is a gap of 17 hours between the second dose of each day and the first dose of the next day. Taking account of the relatively long half-life of isosorbide mononitrate this result is consistent with those obtained for other organic nitrates.

The asymmetric twice-daily regimen of isosorbide mononitrate tablets successfully avoided significant rebound/withdrawal effects. The incidence and magnitude of such phenomena have appeared, in studies of other nitrates, to be highly dependent upon the schedule of nitrate administration.

Pharmacokinetics:

When radiolabelled isosorbide mononitrate was administered to humans in order to elucidate the metabolic fate, about half of the dose was found denitrated and renally excreted as isosorbide and sorbitol. One quarter of the dose was accounted for as conjugates of the parent drug in the urine. None of these metobolites is vasoactive. Only 2% of the dose was excreted as unchanged drug.

The overall elimination half-life of isosorbide mononitrate is about 5 hours. The rate of clearance is the same in healthy young adults, in patients with various degrees of renal, hepatic or cardiac dysfunction and in the elderly. When radiolabelled isosorbide mononitrate was administered to humans, 93% of the dose was excreted within 48 hours into the urine. Renal excretion was virtually complete after 5 days; fecal excretion amounted to only 1% of the dose.

Isosorbide mononitrate has no known effect on renal and hepatic function. In patients with varying degrees of renal failure, dosage adjustment does not appear necessary. In patients with liver cirrhosis, the pharmacokinetic parameters after a single dose of isosorbide mononitrate were similar to the values found in healthy volunteers.

Isosorbide mononitrate is significantly removed from the blood during hemodialysis; however, an additional dose to compensate for drug lost is not necessary. In patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis, blood levels are similar to patients not on dialysis.

Clinical Trials:

In one multicenter placebo-controlled trial, isosorbide mononitrate was found to be safe and effective during acute and chronic (3 weeks) treatment of angina pectoris. Two hundred fourteen (214) patients were enrolled in the trial; 54 patients were randomized to receive placebo and 106 patients were randomized to receive 10 or 20 mg of isosorbide mononitrate twice daily seven hours apart. The largest effect of isosorbide mononitrate, compared to placebo, was on day one — dose one. Although 14 hours after the first dose of day 14, the increase in exercise tolerance due to isosorbide mononitrate was statistically significant, the increase was about half of that seen 2 hours after the first dose of day one. On day 21, two hours after the first dose the effect of isosorbide mononitrate was 60 to 70% of that seen on day one.

Non-Clinical Toxicology
Allergic reactions to organic nitrates are extremely rare, but they do occur. Isosorbide mononitrate is contraindicated in patients who are allergic to it.

Amplification of the vasodilatory effects of isosorbide mononitrate by sildenafil can result in severe hypotension. The time course and dose dependence of this interaction have not been studied. Appropriate supportive care has not been studied, but it seems reasonable to treat this as a nitrate overdose, with elevation of the extremities and with central volume expansion.

The benefits of isosorbide mononitrate in patients with acute myocardial infarction or congestive heart failure have not been established. Because the effects of isosorbide mononitrate are difficult to terminate rapidly, this drug is not recommended in these settings.

If isosorbide mononitrate is used in these conditions, careful clinical or hemodynamic monitoring must be used to avoid the hazards of hypotension and tachycardia.

The vasodilating effects of isosorbide mononitrate may be additive with those of other vasodilators. Alcohol, in particular, has been found to exhibit additive effects of this variety.

Marked symptomatic orthostatic hypotension has been reported when calcium channel blockers and organic nitrates were used in combination. Dose adjustments of either class of agents may be necessary.

Severe hypotension, particularly with upright posture, may occur with even small doses of isosorbide mononitrate. This drug should therefore be used with caution in patients who may be volume depleted or who, for whatever reason, are already hypotensive. Hypotension induced by isosorbide mononitrate may be accompanied by paradoxical bradycardia and increased angina pectoris.

Nitrate therapy may aggravate the angina caused by hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

In industrial workers who have had long-term exposure to unknown (presumably high) doses of organic nitrates, tolerance clearly occurs. Chest pain, acute myocardial infarction, and even sudden death have occurred during temporary withdrawal of nitrates from these workers, demonstrating the existence of true physical dependence. The importance of these observations to the routine, clinical use of oral isosorbide mononitrate is not known.

Headache is the most frequent side effect and was the cause of 2% of all dropouts from controlled-clinical trials. Headache decreased in incidence after the first few days of therapy.

The following table shows the frequency of adverse reactions observed in 1% or more of subjects in 6 placebo-controlled trials, conducted in the United States and abroad. The same table shows the frequency of withdrawal for these adverse reactions. In many cases the adverse reactions were of uncertain relation to drug treatment.

Other adverse reactions, each reported by fewer than 1% of exposed patients, and in many cases of uncertain relation to drug treatment, were:

Cardiovascular: acute myocardial infarction, apoplexy, arrhythmias, bradycardia, edema, hypertension, hypotension, pallor, palpitations, tachycardia.

Dermatologic: sweating.

Gastrointestinal: anorexia, dry mouth, dyspepsia, thirst, vomiting, decreased weight.

Genitourinary: prostatic disorder.

Miscellaneous: amblyopia, back pain, bitter taste, muscle cramps, neck pain, paresthesia, susurrus aurium.

Neurologic: anxiety, impaired concentration, depression, insomnia, nervousness, nightmares, restlessness, tremor, vertigo.

Respiratory: asthma, dyspnea, sinusitis.

Extremely rarely, ordinary doses of organic nitrates have caused methemoglobinemia in normal-seeming patients; for further discussion of its diagnosis and treatment see under .

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Reference

This information is obtained from the National Institute of Health's Standard Packaging Label drug database.
"https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/"

While we update our database periodically, we cannot guarantee it is always updated to the latest version.

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Clonazepam Description Each single-scored tablet, for oral administration, contains 0.5 mg, 1 mg, or 2 mg Clonazepam, USP, a benzodiazepine. Each tablet also contains corn starch, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, and povidone. Clonazepam tablets USP 0.5 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake. Clonazepam tablets USP 1 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake, as well as FD&C Blue No. 1 Aluminum Lake. Chemically, Clonazepam, USP is 5-(o-chlorophenyl)-1,3-dihydro-7-nitro-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one. It is a light yellow crystalline powder. It has the following structural formula: C15H10ClN3O3 M.W. 315.72
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Interactions

Interactions

A total of 440 drugs (1549 brand and generic names) are known to interact with Imbruvica (ibrutinib). 228 major drug interactions (854 brand and generic names) 210 moderate drug interactions (691 brand and generic names) 2 minor drug interactions (4 brand and generic names) Show all medications in the database that may interact with Imbruvica (ibrutinib).