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Lopinavir and Ritonavir

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Overview

What is Kaletra?

KALETRA is a co-formulation of lopinavir and ritonavir. Lopinavir is an inhibitor of the HIV-1 protease. As co-formulated in KALETRA, ritonavir inhibits the CYP3A-mediated metabolism of lopinavir, thereby providing increased plasma levels of lopinavir.

Lopinavir is chemically designated as [1 -[1 *,( *), 3 *, 4 *]]- -[4-[[(2,6-dimethylphenoxy)acetyl]amino]-3-hydroxy-5-phenyl-1-(phenylmethyl)pentyl]tetrahydro-alpha-(1-methylethyl)-2-oxo-1(2 )-pyrimidineacetamide. Its molecular formula is C H N O , and its molecular weight is 628.80. Lopinavir is a white to light tan powder. It is freely soluble in methanol and ethanol, soluble in isopropanol and practically insoluble in water. Lopinavir has the following structural formula:

Ritonavir is chemically designated as 10-hydroxy-2-methyl-5-(1-methylethyl)-1- [2-(1-methylethyl)-4-thiazolyl]-3,6-dioxo-8,11-bis(phenylmethyl)-2,4,7,12-tetraazatridecan-13-oic acid, 5-thiazolylmethyl ester, [5 -(5 *,8 *,10 *,11 *)]. Its molecular formula is C H N O S , and its molecular weight is 720.95. Ritonavir is a white to light tan powder. It is freely soluble in methanol and ethanol, soluble in isopropanol and practically insoluble in water. Ritonavir has the following structural formula:

KALETRA tablets are available for oral administration in two strengths:

The yellow, 200 mg lopinavir and 50 mg ritonavir, tablets contain the following inactive ingredients: colloidal silicon dioxide, copovidone, sodium stearyl fumarate and sorbitan monolaurate. The following are the ingredients in the film coating: colloidal silicon dioxide, hydroxypropyl cellulose, hypromellose, polyethylene glycol 400, polyethylene glycol 3350, polysorbate 80, talc, titanium dioxide, and yellow ferric oxide E172.

The pale yellow, 100 mg lopinavir and 25 mg ritonavir, tablets contain the following inactive ingredients: colloidal silicon dioxide, copovidone, sodium stearyl fumarate, and sorbitan monolaurate. The following are the ingredients in the film coating: polyethylene glycol 3350, polyvinyl alcohol, talc, titanium dioxide, and yellow ferric oxide E172.

KALETRA oral solution is available for oral administration as 80 mg lopinavir and 20 mg ritonavir per milliliter with the following inactive ingredients: acesulfame potassium, artificial cotton candy flavor, citric acid, ethanol, glycerin, high fructose corn syrup, Magnasweet-110 flavor, menthol, natural & artificial vanilla flavor, peppermint oil, polyoxyl 40 hydrogenated castor oil, povidone, propylene glycol, saccharin sodium, sodium chloride, sodium citrate, and water.

KALETRA oral solution contains approximately 42% (v/v) ethanol and approximately 15% (w/v) propylene glycol.



What does Kaletra look like?



What are the available doses of Kaletra?

What should I talk to my health care provider before I take Kaletra?

Lactation: Breastfeeding not recommended. ( )

How should I use Kaletra?

KALETRA is indicated in combination with other antiretroviral agents for the treatment of HIV-1 infection in adults and pediatric patients 14 days and older.

Limitations of Use:

KALETRA tablets may be taken with or without food. The tablets should be swallowed whole and not chewed, broken, or crushed. KALETRA oral solution must be taken with food.


What interacts with Kaletra?

Sorry No Records found


What are the warnings of Kaletra?

Sorry No Records found


What are the precautions of Kaletra?

Sorry No Records found


What are the side effects of Kaletra?

Sorry No records found


What should I look out for while using Kaletra?

Hypersensitivity to KALETRA (e.g., toxic epidermal necrolysis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, erythema multiforme, urticaria, angioedema) or any of its ingredients, including ritonavir. ( )

Co-administration with drugs highly dependent on CYP3A for clearance and for which elevated plasma levels may result in serious and/or life-threatening events. ( )

Co-administration with potent CYP3A inducers where significantly reduced lopinavir plasma concentrations may be associated with the potential for loss of virologic response and possible resistance and cross resistance. ( )


What might happen if I take too much Kaletra?

Overdoses with KALETRA oral solution have been reported. One of these reports described fatal cardiogenic shock in a 2.1 kg infant who received a single dose of 6.5 mL of KALETRA oral solution (520 mg lopinavir, approximately 10-fold above the recommended lopinavir dose) nine days prior. The following events have been reported in association with unintended overdoses in preterm neonates: complete AV block, cardiomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and acute renal failure . Healthcare professionals should be aware that KALETRA oral solution is highly concentrated and therefore, should pay special attention to accurate calculation of the dose of KALETRA, transcription of the medication order, dispensing information and dosing instructions to minimize the risk for medication errors and overdose. This is especially important for infants and young children.

KALETRA oral solution contains approximately 42% (v/v) ethanol and approximately 15% (w/v) propylene glycol. Ingestion of the product over the recommended dose by an infant or a young child could result in significant toxicity and could potentially be lethal.

Human experience of acute overdosage with KALETRA is limited. Treatment of overdose with KALETRA should consist of general supportive measures including monitoring of vital signs and observation of the clinical status of the patient. There is no specific antidote for overdose with KALETRA. If indicated, elimination of unabsorbed drug should be achieved by gastric lavage. Administration of activated charcoal may also be used to aid in removal of unabsorbed drug. Since lopinavir is highly protein bound, dialysis is unlikely to be beneficial in significant removal of the drug. However, dialysis can remove both ethanol and propylene glycol in the case of overdose with KALETRA oral solution.


How should I store and handle Kaletra?

Store at 20º to 25ºC (68º to 77ºF); excursions permitted to 15º to 30ºC (59º to 86ºF) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature].KALETRA (lopinavir and ritonavir) tablets are available in the following strengths and package sizes: KALETRA Tablets, 200 mg lopinavir and 50 mg ritonavir PresentationYellow film-coated ovaloid tablets debossed with the “a” logo and the code KABottles of 12 tablets (NDC 55289-947-12)Recommended Storage:Store KALETRA tablets at 20°- 25°C (68°- 77°F); excursions permitted to 15°- 30°C (59°- 86°F) [see USP controlled room temperature]. Dispense in original container or USP equivalent tight container. For patient use: exposure of this product to high humidity outside the original container or USP equivalent tight container for longer than 2 weeks is not recommended.KALETRA (lopinavir and ritonavir) tablets are available in the following strengths and package sizes: KALETRA Tablets, 200 mg lopinavir and 50 mg ritonavir PresentationYellow film-coated ovaloid tablets debossed with the “a” logo and the code KABottles of 12 tablets (NDC 55289-947-12)Recommended Storage:Store KALETRA tablets at 20°- 25°C (68°- 77°F); excursions permitted to 15°- 30°C (59°- 86°F) [see USP controlled room temperature]. Dispense in original container or USP equivalent tight container. For patient use: exposure of this product to high humidity outside the original container or USP equivalent tight container for longer than 2 weeks is not recommended.KALETRA (lopinavir and ritonavir) tablets are available in the following strengths and package sizes: KALETRA Tablets, 200 mg lopinavir and 50 mg ritonavir PresentationYellow film-coated ovaloid tablets debossed with the “a” logo and the code KABottles of 12 tablets (NDC 55289-947-12)Recommended Storage:Store KALETRA tablets at 20°- 25°C (68°- 77°F); excursions permitted to 15°- 30°C (59°- 86°F) [see USP controlled room temperature]. Dispense in original container or USP equivalent tight container. For patient use: exposure of this product to high humidity outside the original container or USP equivalent tight container for longer than 2 weeks is not recommended.KALETRA (lopinavir and ritonavir) tablets are available in the following strengths and package sizes: KALETRA Tablets, 200 mg lopinavir and 50 mg ritonavir PresentationYellow film-coated ovaloid tablets debossed with the “a” logo and the code KABottles of 12 tablets (NDC 55289-947-12)Recommended Storage:Store KALETRA tablets at 20°- 25°C (68°- 77°F); excursions permitted to 15°- 30°C (59°- 86°F) [see USP controlled room temperature]. Dispense in original container or USP equivalent tight container. For patient use: exposure of this product to high humidity outside the original container or USP equivalent tight container for longer than 2 weeks is not recommended.KALETRA (lopinavir and ritonavir) tablets are available in the following strengths and package sizes: KALETRA Tablets, 200 mg lopinavir and 50 mg ritonavir PresentationYellow film-coated ovaloid tablets debossed with the “a” logo and the code KABottles of 12 tablets (NDC 55289-947-12)Recommended Storage:Store KALETRA tablets at 20°- 25°C (68°- 77°F); excursions permitted to 15°- 30°C (59°- 86°F) [see USP controlled room temperature]. Dispense in original container or USP equivalent tight container. For patient use: exposure of this product to high humidity outside the original container or USP equivalent tight container for longer than 2 weeks is not recommended.KALETRA (lopinavir and ritonavir) tablets are available in the following strengths and package sizes: KALETRA Tablets, 200 mg lopinavir and 50 mg ritonavir PresentationYellow film-coated ovaloid tablets debossed with the “a” logo and the code KABottles of 12 tablets (NDC 55289-947-12)Recommended Storage:Store KALETRA tablets at 20°- 25°C (68°- 77°F); excursions permitted to 15°- 30°C (59°- 86°F) [see USP controlled room temperature]. Dispense in original container or USP equivalent tight container. For patient use: exposure of this product to high humidity outside the original container or USP equivalent tight container for longer than 2 weeks is not recommended.KALETRA (lopinavir and ritonavir) tablets are available in the following strengths and package sizes: KALETRA Tablets, 200 mg lopinavir and 50 mg ritonavir PresentationYellow film-coated ovaloid tablets debossed with the “a” logo and the code KABottles of 12 tablets (NDC 55289-947-12)Recommended Storage:Store KALETRA tablets at 20°- 25°C (68°- 77°F); excursions permitted to 15°- 30°C (59°- 86°F) [see USP controlled room temperature]. Dispense in original container or USP equivalent tight container. For patient use: exposure of this product to high humidity outside the original container or USP equivalent tight container for longer than 2 weeks is not recommended.


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Clinical Information

Chemical Structure

No Image found
Clinical Pharmacology

KALETRA is a fixed-dose combination of HIV-1 antiviral drugs lopinavir and ritonavir. As co-formulated in KALETRA, ritonavir inhibits the CYP3A-mediated metabolism of lopinavir, thereby providing increased plasma levels of lopinavir.

Non-Clinical Toxicology
Hypersensitivity to KALETRA (e.g., toxic epidermal necrolysis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, erythema multiforme, urticaria, angioedema) or any of its ingredients, including ritonavir. ( )

Co-administration with drugs highly dependent on CYP3A for clearance and for which elevated plasma levels may result in serious and/or life-threatening events. ( )

Co-administration with potent CYP3A inducers where significantly reduced lopinavir plasma concentrations may be associated with the potential for loss of virologic response and possible resistance and cross resistance. ( )

See , , .

Initiation of KALETRA, a CYP3A inhibitor, in patients receiving medications metabolized by CYP3A or initiation of medications metabolized by CYP3A in patients already receiving KALETRA, may increase plasma concentrations of medications metabolized by CYP3A. Initiation of medications that inhibit or induce CYP3A may increase or decrease concentrations of KALETRA, respectively. These interactions may lead to:

See Table 13 for steps to prevent or manage these possible and known significant drug interactions, including dosing recommendations . Consider the potential for drug interactions prior to and during KALETRA therapy; review concomitant medications during KALETRA therapy, and monitor for the adverse reactions associated with the concomitant medications and .

The following adverse reactions are discussed in greater detail in other sections of the labeling.

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Reference

This information is obtained from the National Institute of Health's Standard Packaging Label drug database.
"https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/"

While we update our database periodically, we cannot guarantee it is always updated to the latest version.

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Professional

Clonazepam Description Each single-scored tablet, for oral administration, contains 0.5 mg, 1 mg, or 2 mg Clonazepam, USP, a benzodiazepine. Each tablet also contains corn starch, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, and povidone. Clonazepam tablets USP 0.5 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake. Clonazepam tablets USP 1 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake, as well as FD&C Blue No. 1 Aluminum Lake. Chemically, Clonazepam, USP is 5-(o-chlorophenyl)-1,3-dihydro-7-nitro-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one. It is a light yellow crystalline powder. It has the following structural formula: C15H10ClN3O3 M.W. 315.72
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Tips

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Interactions

Interactions

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