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Levonorgestrel and Ethinyl Estradiol

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Overview

What is LEVONORGESTREL AND ETHINYL ESTRADIOL?

Each active, light yellow tablet (21) contains 0.1 mg of levonorgestrel, d(-)-13-β-ethyl-17-α-ethinyl-17-β-hydroxygon-4-en-3-one, a totally synthetic progestogen, and 0.02 mg of ethinyl estradiol, 17-α-ethinyl-1,3,5(10)-estratriene-3,17-β-diol. The inactive ingredients present are croscarmellose sodium, ferric oxide of iron (yellow), ferric oxide of iron (red), lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, povidone K-25, and sodium lauryl sulfate.

Each inactive, brown tablet (7) contains the following inactive ingredients: croscarmellose sodium, ferric oxide of iron (brown), lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, and povidone K-25.



What does LEVONORGESTREL AND ETHINYL ESTRADIOL look like?



What are the available doses of LEVONORGESTREL AND ETHINYL ESTRADIOL?

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What should I talk to my health care provider before I take LEVONORGESTREL AND ETHINYL ESTRADIOL?

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How should I use LEVONORGESTREL AND ETHINYL ESTRADIOL?

Levonorgestrel and ethinyl estradiol tablets, USP are indicated for the prevention of pregnancy in women who elect to use oral contraceptives as a method of contraception.

Oral contraceptives are highly effective. Table II lists the typical accidental pregnancy rates for users of combination oral contraceptives and other methods of contraception. The efficacy of these contraceptive methods, except sterilization, the IUD, and Norplant System, depends upon the reliability with which they are used. Correct and consistent use of methods can result in lower failure rates.

In a clinical trial with levonorgestrel and ethinyl estradiol tablets, 1,477 subjects had 7,720 cycles of use and a total of 5 pregnancies were reported. This represents an overall pregnancy rate of 0.84 per 100 women-years. This rate includes patients who did not take the drug correctly. One or more pills were missed during 1,479 (18.8%) of the 7,870 cycles; thus all tablets were taken during 6,391 (81.2%) of the 7,870 cycles. Of the total 7,870 cycles, a total of 150 cycles were excluded from the calculation of the Pearl index due to the use of backup contraception and/or missing 3 or more consecutive pills.

To achieve maximum contraceptive effectiveness, levonorgestrel and ethinyl estradiol tablets must be taken exactly as directed and at intervals not exceeding 24 hours. The dosage of levonorgestrel and ethinyl estradiol tablet is one light yellow tablet daily for 21 consecutive days, followed by one brown inert tablet daily for 7 consecutive days, according to the prescribed schedule. It is recommended that levonorgestrel and ethinyl estradiol tablets be taken at the same time each day.

During The First Cycle Of Use

The possibility of ovulation and conception prior to initiation of medication should be considered. The patient should be instructed to begin taking levonorgestrel and ethinyl estradiol tablets on either the first Sunday after the onset of menstruation (Sunday Start) or on Day 1 of menstruation (Day 1 Start).

Sunday start

The patient is instructed to begin taking levonorgestrel and ethinyl estradiol tablets on the first Sunday after the onset of menstruation. If menstruation begins on a Sunday, the first tablet (light yellow) is taken that day. One light yellow tablet should be taken daily for 21 consecutive days, followed by one brown inert tablet daily for 7 consecutive days. Withdrawal bleeding should usually occur within 3 days following discontinuation of light yellow tablets and may not have finished before the next pack is started. During the first cycle, contraceptive reliance should not be placed on levonorgestrel and ethinyl estradiol tablets until a light yellow tablet has been taken daily for 7 consecutive days, and a nonhormonal back-up method of birth control should be used during those 7 days.

Day 1 start

During the first cycle of medication, the patient is instructed to begin taking levonorgestrel and ethinyl estradiol tablets during the first 24 hours of her period (day one of her menstrual cycle). One light yellow tablet should be taken daily for 21 consecutive days, followed by one brown inert tablet daily for 7 consecutive days. Withdrawal bleeding should usually occur within 3 days following discontinuation of light yellow tablets and may not have finished before the next pack is started. If medication is begun on day one of the menstrual cycle, no back-up contraception is necessary. If levonorgestrel and ethinyl estradiol tablets are started later than day one of the first menstrual cycle or postpartum, contraceptive reliance should not be placed on levonorgestrel and ethinyl estradiol tablets until after the first 7 consecutive days of administration, and a nonhormonal back-up method of birth control should be used during those 7 days.

After the first cycle of use

The patient begins her next and all subsequent courses of tablets on the day after taking her last brown tablet. She should follow the same dosing schedule: 21 days on light yellow tablets followed by 7 days on brown tablets. If in any cycle the patient starts tablets later than the proper day, she should protect herself against pregnancy by using a nonhormonal back-up method of birth control until she has taken a light yellow tablet daily for 7 consecutive days.

Switching from another hormonal method of contraception

When the patient is switching from a 21-day regimen of tablets, she should wait 7 days after her last tablet before she starts levonorgestrel and ethinyl estradiol tablets. She will probably experience withdrawal bleeding during that week. She should be sure that no more than 7 days pass after her previous 21-day regimen. When the patient is switching from a 28-day regimen of tablets, she should start her first pack of levonorgestrel and ethinyl estradiol tablets on the day after her last tablet. She should not wait any days between packs. The patient may switch any day from a progestin-only pill and should begin levonorgestrel and ethinyl estradiol tablets the next day. If switching from an implant or injection, the patient should start levonorgestrel and ethinyl estradiol tablets on the day of implant removal or, if using an injection, the day the next injection would be due. In switching from a progestin-only pill, injection, or implant, the patient should be advised to use a nonhormonal back-up method of birth control for the first 7 days of tablet-taking.

If spotting or breakthrough bleeding occurs

If spotting or breakthrough bleeding occur, the patient is instructed to continue on the same regimen. This type of bleeding is usually transient and without significance; however, if the bleeding is persistent or prolonged, the patient is advised to consult her physician.

Risk of pregnancy if tablets are missed

While there is little likelihood of ovulation occurring if only one or two light yellow tablets are missed, the possibility of ovulation increases with each successive day that scheduled light yellow tablets are missed. Although the occurrence of pregnancy is unlikely if levonorgestrel and ethinyl estradiol tablets is taken according to directions, if withdrawal bleeding does not occur, the possibility of pregnancy must be considered. If the patient has not adhered to the prescribed schedule (missed one or more tablets or started taking them on a day later than she should have), the probability of pregnancy should be considered at the time of the first missed period and appropriate diagnostic measures taken. If the patient has adhered to the prescribed regimen and misses two consecutive periods, pregnancy should be ruled out.

The risk of pregnancy increases with each active (light yellow) tablet missed. For additional patient instructions regarding missed tablets, see the section in the  below.

Use after pregnancy, abortion or miscarriage

Levonorgestrel and ethinyl estradiol tablets may be initiated no earlier than day 28 postpartum in the nonlactating mother or after a second trimester abortion due to the increased risk for thromboembolism (see  , and concerning thromboembolic disease). The patient should be advised to use a non-hormonal back-up method for the first 7 days of tablet taking.

Levonorgestrel and ethinyl estradiol tablets may be initiated immediately after a first trimester abortion or miscarriage. If the patient starts levonorgestrel and ethinyl estradiol tablets immediately, back-up contraception is not needed.


What interacts with LEVONORGESTREL AND ETHINYL ESTRADIOL?

Combination oral contraceptives should not be used in women with any of the following conditions:


Thrombophlebitis or thromboembolic disorders


A history of deep-vein thrombophlebitis or thromboembolic disorders


Cerebrovascular or coronary artery disease (current or past history)


Valvular heart disease with thrombogenic complications


Thrombogenic rhythm disorders


Hereditary or acquired thrombophilias


Major surgery with prolonged immobilization


Diabetes with vascular involvement


Headaches with focal neurological symptoms


Uncontrolled hypertension


Known or suspected carcinoma of the breast or personal history of breast cancer


Carcinoma of the endometrium or other known or suspected estrogen-dependent neoplasia


Undiagnosed abnormal genital bleeding


Cholestatic jaundice of pregnancy or jaundice with prior pill use


Hepatic adenomas or carcinomas, or active liver disease


Known or suspected pregnancy


Hypersensitivity to any of the components of levonorgestrel and ethinyl estradiol tablets


Are receiving Hepatitis C drug combinations containing ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir, with or without dasabuvir, due to the potential for ALT elevations (see , ).



What are the warnings of LEVONORGESTREL AND ETHINYL ESTRADIOL?

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What are the precautions of LEVONORGESTREL AND ETHINYL ESTRADIOL?

1.General

Patients should be counseled that oral contraceptives do not protect against transmission of HIV (AIDS) and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) such as chlamydia, genital herpes, genital warts, gonorrhea, hepatitis B, and syphilis.

2. Physical Examination and Follow-Up

A periodic personal and family medical history and complete physical examination are appropriate for all women, including women using oral contraceptives. The physical examination, however, may be deferred until after initiation of oral contraceptives if requested by the woman and judged appropriate by the clinician. The physical examination should include special reference to blood pressure, breasts, abdomen, and pelvic organs, including cervical cytology, and relevant laboratory tests. In case of undiagnosed, persistent, or recurrent abnormal vaginal bleeding, appropriate diagnostic measures should be conducted to rule out malignancy. Women with a strong family history of breast cancer or who have breast nodules should be monitored with particular care.

3. Lipid Disorders

Women who are being treated for hyperlipidemias should be followed closely if they elect to use oral contraceptives. Some progestogens may elevate LDL levels and may render the control of hyperlipidemias more difficult. (See , and )

A small proportion of women will have adverse lipid changes while taking oral contraceptives. Nonhormonal contraception should be considered in women with uncontrolled dyslipidemias. Persistent hypertriglyceridemia may occur in a small population of combination oral contraceptive users. Elevations of plasma triglycerides may lead to pancreatitis and other complications.

4. Liver Function

If jaundice develops in any woman receiving such drugs, the medication should be discontinued. Steroid hormones may be poorly metabolized in patients with impaired liver function.

5. Fluid Retention

Oral contraceptives may cause some degree of fluid retention. They should be prescribed with caution, and only with careful monitoring, in patients with conditions which might be aggravated by fluid retention.

6. Emotional Disorders

Patients becoming significantly depressed while taking oral contraceptives should stop the medication and use an alternate method of contraception in an attempt to determine whether the symptom is drug related. Women with a history of depression should be carefully observed and the drug discontinued if depression recurs to a serious degree.

7. Contact Lenses

Contact-lens wearers who develop visual changes or changes in lens tolerance should be assessed by an ophthalmologist.

8. Gastrointestinal

Diarrhea and /or vomiting may reduce hormone absorption resulting in decreased serum concentrations.

9. Drug Interactions

Changes in Contraceptive Effectiveness Associated with Coadministration of Other Products:

Contraceptive effectiveness may be reduced when hormonal contraceptives are coadministered with antibiotics, anticonvulsants, and other drugs that increase the metabolism of contraceptive steroids. This could result in unintended pregnancy or breakthrough bleeding. Examples include rifampin, rifabutin, barbiturates, primidone, phenylbutazone, phenytoin, dexamethasone, carbamazepine, felbamate, oxcarbazepine, topiramate, griseofulvin, and modafinil. In such cases a back-up nonhormonal method of birth control should be considered.

Several cases of contraceptive failure and breakthrough bleeding have been reported in the literature with concomitant administration of antibiotics such as ampicillin and other penicillins, and tetracyclines. However, clinical pharmacology studies investigating drug interactions between combined oral contraceptives and these antibiotics have reported inconsistent results.

Several of the anti-HIV protease inhibitors have been studied with co-administration of oral combination hormonal contraceptives; significant changes (increase and decrease) in the plasma levels of the estrogen and progestin have been noted in some cases. The safety and efficacy of oral contraceptive products may be affected with coadministration of anti-HIV protease inhibitors. Healthcare providers should refer to the label of the individual anti-HIV protease inhibitors for further drug-drug interaction information.

Concomitant Use with HCV Combination Therapy – Liver Enzyme Elevation

Do not co-administer levonorgestrel and ethinyl estradiol with HCV drug combinations containing ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ ritonavir, with or without dasabuvir, due to potential for ALT elevations (see , ).

Herbal products containing St. John's Wort (Hypericum perforatum) may induce hepatic enzymes (cytochrome P 450) and p-glycoprotein transporter and may reduce the effectiveness of contraceptive steroids. This may also result in breakthrough bleeding.

Increase in Plasma Levels Associated with Co-Administered Drugs:

Co-administration of atorvastatin and certain oral contraceptives containing ethinyl estradiol increases AUC values for ethinyl estradiol by approximately 20%. Ascorbic acid and acetaminophen increase the bioavailability of ethinyl estradiol since these drugs act as competitive inhibitors for sulfation of ethinyl estradiol in the gastrointestinal wall, a known pathway of elimination for ethinyl estradiol. CYP 3A4 inhibitors such as indinavir, itraconazole, ketoconazole, fluconazole, and troleandomycin may increase plasma hormone levels. Troleandomycin may also increase the risk of intrahepatic cholestasis during coadministration with combination oral contraceptives.

Changes in Plasma Levels of Co-Administered Drugs:

Combination hormonal contraceptives containing some synthetic estrogens (e.g., ethinyl estradiol) may inhibit the metabolism of other compounds. Increased plasma concentrations of cyclosporine, prednisolone and other corticosteroids, and theophylline have been reported with concomitant administration of oral contraceptives. Decreased plasma concentrations of acetaminophen and increased clearance of temazepam, salicylic acid, morphine, and clofibric acid, due to induction of conjugation (particularly glucuronidation), have been noted when these drugs were administered with oral contraceptives.

The prescribing information of concomitant medications should be consulted to identify potential interactions.

10. Interactions with Laboratory Tests

Certain endocrine- and liver-function tests and blood components may be affected by oral contraceptives:

a. Increased prothrombin and factors VII, VIII, IX, and X; decreased antithrombin 3; increased norepinephrine-induced platelet aggregability.

b. Increased thyroid-binding globulin (TBG) leading to increased circulating total thyroid hormone, as measured by protein-bound iodine (PBI), T4 by column or by radioimmunoassay. Free T3 resin uptake is decreased, reflecting the elevated TBG; free T4 concentration is unaltered.

c. Other binding proteins may be elevated in serum i.e., corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG), sex hormone-binding globulins (SHBG) leading to increased levels of total circulating corticosteroids and sex steroids respectively. Free or biologically active hormone concentrations are unchanged.

d. Triglycerides may be increased and levels of various other lipids and lipoproteins may be affected.

e. Glucose tolerance may be decreased.

f. Serum folate levels may be depressed by oral contraceptive therapy. This may be of clinical significance if a woman becomes pregnant shortly after discontinuing oral contraceptives.

11. Carcinogenesis

See section.

12. Pregnancy

Pregnancy Category X. See and sections.

13. Nursing Mothers

Small amounts of oral contraceptive steroids and/or metabolites have been identified in the milk of nursing mothers, and a few adverse effects on the child have been reported, including jaundice and breast enlargement. In addition, combination oral contraceptives given in the postpartum period may interfere with lactation by decreasing the quantity and quality of breast milk. If possible, the nursing mother should be advised not to use combination oral contraceptives but to use other forms of contraception until she has completely weaned her child.

14. Pediatric Use

Safety and efficacy of levonorgestrel and ethinyl estradiol tablets have been established in women of reproductive age. Safety and efficacy are expected to be the same for postpubertal adolescents under the age of 16 and for users 16 years and older. Use of levonorgestrel and ethinyl estradiol tablets before menarche is not indicated.

15. Geriatric use

Levonorgestrel and ethinyl estradiol tablets have not been studied in women over 65 years of age and are not indicated in this population.

16. Information for the Patient

See Patient Labeling Printed Below.


What are the side effects of LEVONORGESTREL AND ETHINYL ESTRADIOL?

An increased risk of the following serious adverse reactions (see section for additional information) has been associated with the use of oral contraceptives:

Thromboembolic and thrombotic disorders and other vascular problems (including thrombophlebitis and venous thrombosis with or without pulmonary embolism, mesenteric thrombosis, arterial thromboembolism, myocardial infarction, cerebral hemorrhage, cerebral thrombosis), carcinoma of the reproductive organs and breasts, hepatic neoplasia (including hepatic adenomas or benign liver tumors), ocular lesions (including retinal vascular thrombosis), gallbladder disease, carbohydrate and lipid effects, elevated blood pressure, and headache including migraine.

The following adverse reactions have been reported in patients receiving oral contraceptives and are believed to be drug related (alphabetically listed):

Acne

Amenorrhea

Anaphylactic/anaphylactoid reactions, including urticaria, angioedema and severe reactions with respiratory and circulatory symptoms

Breast changes: tenderness, pain, enlargement, secretion

Budd-Chiari syndrome

Cervical erosion and secretion, change in

Cholestatic jaundice

Chorea, exacerbation of

Colitis

Contact lenses, intolerance to

Corneal curvature (steepening), change in

Dizziness

Edema/fluid retention

Erythema multiforme

Erythema nodosum

Gastrointestinal symptoms (such as abdominal pain, cramps, and bloating)

Hirsutism

Infertility after discontinuation of treatment, temporary

Lactation, diminution in, when given immediately postpartum

Libido, change in

Melasma/chloasma which may persist

Menstrual flow, change in

Mood changes, including depression

Nausea

Nervousness

Pancreatitis

Porphyria, exacerbation of

Rash (allergic)

Scalp hair, loss of

Serum folate levels, decrease in

Spotting

Systemic lupus erythematosus, exacerbation of

Unscheduled bleeding

Vaginitis, including candidiasis

Varicose veins, aggravation of

Vomiting

Weight or appetite (increase or decrease), change in

The following adverse reactions have been reported in users of oral contraceptives:

Cataracts

Cystitis-like syndrome

Dysmenorrhea

Hemolytic uremic syndrome

Hemorrhagic eruption

Optic neuritis, which may lead to partial or complete loss of vision

Premenstrual syndrome

Renal function, impaired


What should I look out for while using LEVONORGESTREL AND ETHINYL ESTRADIOL?

Combination oral contraceptives should not be used in women with any of the following conditions:

Thrombophlebitis or thromboembolic disorders

A history of deep-vein thrombophlebitis or thromboembolic disorders

Cerebrovascular or coronary artery disease (current or past history)

Valvular heart disease with thrombogenic complications

Thrombogenic rhythm disorders

Hereditary or acquired thrombophilias

Major surgery with prolonged immobilization

Diabetes with vascular involvement

Headaches with focal neurological symptoms

Uncontrolled hypertension

Known or suspected carcinoma of the breast or personal history of breast cancer

Carcinoma of the endometrium or other known or suspected estrogen-dependent neoplasia

Undiagnosed abnormal genital bleeding

Cholestatic jaundice of pregnancy or jaundice with prior pill use

Hepatic adenomas or carcinomas, or active liver disease

Known or suspected pregnancy

Hypersensitivity to any of the components of levonorgestrel and ethinyl estradiol tablets

Are receiving Hepatitis C drug combinations containing ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir, with or without dasabuvir, due to the potential for ALT elevations (see , ).


What might happen if I take too much LEVONORGESTREL AND ETHINYL ESTRADIOL?

Symptoms of oral contraceptive overdosage in adults and children may include nausea, vomiting, and drowsiness/fatigue; withdrawal bleeding may occur in females. There is no specific antidote and further treatment of overdose, if necessary, is directed to the symptoms.


How should I store and handle LEVONORGESTREL AND ETHINYL ESTRADIOL?

Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F). [See USP Controlled Room Temperature.]Manufactured for: Pulaski, TN 38478 Mfg. Rev. 06/12            AV 09/14 (P) CTI-12 Rev. C Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F). [See USP Controlled Room Temperature.]Manufactured for: Pulaski, TN 38478 Mfg. Rev. 06/12            AV 09/14 (P) CTI-12 Rev. C Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F). [See USP Controlled Room Temperature.]Manufactured for: Pulaski, TN 38478 Mfg. Rev. 06/12            AV 09/14 (P) CTI-12 Rev. C Levonorgestrel and ethinyl estradiol tablets, USP are available in 28 tablets. Each pack contains:21 active tablets: light yellow colored, uncoated, round, unscored, flat tablets debossed with 201 on one side and blank on the other side.7 inert tablets: brown colored, uncoated, round, unscored flat tablets debossed with 271 on one side and blank on the other side.Levonorgestrel and Ethinyl Estradiol Tablets, USP are available as follows:NDC 0378-7287-53, Carton of 3 pouches, each pouch containing 28 tabletsNDC 0378-7287-56, Carton of 6 pouches, each pouch containing 28 tabletsStore at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature].References available upon request.Levonorgestrel and ethinyl estradiol tablets, USP are available in 28 tablets. Each pack contains:21 active tablets: light yellow colored, uncoated, round, unscored, flat tablets debossed with 201 on one side and blank on the other side.7 inert tablets: brown colored, uncoated, round, unscored flat tablets debossed with 271 on one side and blank on the other side.Levonorgestrel and Ethinyl Estradiol Tablets, USP are available as follows:NDC 0378-7287-53, Carton of 3 pouches, each pouch containing 28 tabletsNDC 0378-7287-56, Carton of 6 pouches, each pouch containing 28 tabletsStore at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature].References available upon request.Levonorgestrel and ethinyl estradiol tablets, USP are available in 28 tablets. Each pack contains:21 active tablets: light yellow colored, uncoated, round, unscored, flat tablets debossed with 201 on one side and blank on the other side.7 inert tablets: brown colored, uncoated, round, unscored flat tablets debossed with 271 on one side and blank on the other side.Levonorgestrel and Ethinyl Estradiol Tablets, USP are available as follows:NDC 0378-7287-53, Carton of 3 pouches, each pouch containing 28 tabletsNDC 0378-7287-56, Carton of 6 pouches, each pouch containing 28 tabletsStore at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature].References available upon request.Levonorgestrel and ethinyl estradiol tablets, USP are available in 28 tablets. Each pack contains:21 active tablets: light yellow colored, uncoated, round, unscored, flat tablets debossed with 201 on one side and blank on the other side.7 inert tablets: brown colored, uncoated, round, unscored flat tablets debossed with 271 on one side and blank on the other side.Levonorgestrel and Ethinyl Estradiol Tablets, USP are available as follows:NDC 0378-7287-53, Carton of 3 pouches, each pouch containing 28 tabletsNDC 0378-7287-56, Carton of 6 pouches, each pouch containing 28 tabletsStore at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature].References available upon request.Levonorgestrel and ethinyl estradiol tablets, USP are available in 28 tablets. Each pack contains:21 active tablets: light yellow colored, uncoated, round, unscored, flat tablets debossed with 201 on one side and blank on the other side.7 inert tablets: brown colored, uncoated, round, unscored flat tablets debossed with 271 on one side and blank on the other side.Levonorgestrel and Ethinyl Estradiol Tablets, USP are available as follows:NDC 0378-7287-53, Carton of 3 pouches, each pouch containing 28 tabletsNDC 0378-7287-56, Carton of 6 pouches, each pouch containing 28 tabletsStore at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature].References available upon request.Levonorgestrel and ethinyl estradiol tablets, USP are available in 28 tablets. Each pack contains:21 active tablets: light yellow colored, uncoated, round, unscored, flat tablets debossed with 201 on one side and blank on the other side.7 inert tablets: brown colored, uncoated, round, unscored flat tablets debossed with 271 on one side and blank on the other side.Levonorgestrel and Ethinyl Estradiol Tablets, USP are available as follows:NDC 0378-7287-53, Carton of 3 pouches, each pouch containing 28 tabletsNDC 0378-7287-56, Carton of 6 pouches, each pouch containing 28 tabletsStore at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature].References available upon request.Levonorgestrel and ethinyl estradiol tablets, USP are available in 28 tablets. Each pack contains:21 active tablets: light yellow colored, uncoated, round, unscored, flat tablets debossed with 201 on one side and blank on the other side.7 inert tablets: brown colored, uncoated, round, unscored flat tablets debossed with 271 on one side and blank on the other side.Levonorgestrel and Ethinyl Estradiol Tablets, USP are available as follows:NDC 0378-7287-53, Carton of 3 pouches, each pouch containing 28 tabletsNDC 0378-7287-56, Carton of 6 pouches, each pouch containing 28 tabletsStore at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature].References available upon request.Levonorgestrel and ethinyl estradiol tablets, USP are available in 28 tablets. Each pack contains:21 active tablets: light yellow colored, uncoated, round, unscored, flat tablets debossed with 201 on one side and blank on the other side.7 inert tablets: brown colored, uncoated, round, unscored flat tablets debossed with 271 on one side and blank on the other side.Levonorgestrel and Ethinyl Estradiol Tablets, USP are available as follows:NDC 0378-7287-53, Carton of 3 pouches, each pouch containing 28 tabletsNDC 0378-7287-56, Carton of 6 pouches, each pouch containing 28 tabletsStore at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature].References available upon request.


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Clinical Information

Chemical Structure

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Clinical Pharmacology

Absorption

No specific investigation of the absolute bioavailability of levonorgestrel and ethinyl estradiol tablets in humans has been conducted. However, literature indicates that levonorgestrel is rapidly and completely absorbed after oral administration (bioavailability about 100%) and is not subject to first-pass metabolism. Ethinyl estradiol is rapidly and almost completely absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract but, due to first-pass metabolism in gut mucosa and liver, the bioavailability of ethinyl estradiol is between 38% and 48%.

After a single dose of levonorgestrel and ethinyl estradiol tablets to 22 women under fasting conditions, maximum serum concentrations of levonorgestrel are 2.8 ± 0.9 ng/mL (mean ± SD) at 1.6 ± 0.9 hours. At steady state, attained from day 19 onwards, maximum levonorgestrel concentrations of 6.0 ± 2.7 ng/mL are reached at 1.5 ± 0.5 hours after the daily dose. The minimum serum levels of levonorgestrel at steady state are 1.9 ± 1.0 ng/mL. Observed levonorgestrel concentrations increased from day 1 (single dose) to days 6 and 21 (multiple doses) by 34% and 96%, respectively (Figure I). Unbound levonorgestrel concentrations increased from day 1 to days 6 and 21 by 25% and 83%, respectively. The kinetics of total levonorgestrel are non-linear due to an increase in binding of levonorgestrel to sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), which is attributed to increased SHBG levels that are induced by the daily administration of ethinyl estradiol.

Following a single dose, maximum serum concentrations of ethinyl estradiol of 62 ± 21 pg/mL are reached at 1.5 ± 0.5 hours. At steady state, attained from at least day 6 onwards, maximum concentrations of ethinyl estradiol were 77 ± 30 pg/mL and were reached at 1.3 ± 0.7 hours after the daily dose. The minimum serum levels of ethinyl estradiol at steady state are 10.5 ± 5.1 pg/mL. Ethinyl estradiol concentrations did not increase from days 1 to 6, but did increase by 19% from days 1 to 21 (FIGURE I).

FIGURE I: Mean (SE) levonorgestrel and ethinyl estradiol serum concentrations in 22 subjects receiving levonorgestrel and ethinyl estradiol tablets (100 mcg levonorgestrel and 20 mcg ethinyl estradiol)

Table I provides a summary of levonorgestrel and ethinyl estradiol pharmacokinetic parameters.

TABLE I: MEAN (SD) PHARMACOKINETIC PARAMETERS OF LEVONORGESTREL AND ETHINYL ESTRADIOL TABLETS OVER A 21-DAY DOSING PERIOD

Distribution

Levonorgestrel in serum is primarily bound to SHBG. Ethinyl estradiol is about 97% bound to plasma albumin. Ethinyl estradiol does not bind to SHBG, but induces SHBG synthesis.

Metabolism

Levonorgestrel: The most important metabolic pathway occurs in the reduction of the Δ4-3-oxo group and hydroxylation at positions 2α, 1β, and 16β, followed by conjugation. Most of the metabolites that circulate in the blood are sulfates of 3α, 5β-tetrahydro-levonorgestrel, while excretion occurs predominantly in the form of glucuronides. Some of the parent levonorgestrel also circulates as 17β-sulfate. Metabolic clearance rates may differ among individuals by several-fold, and this may account in part for the wide variation observed in levonorgestrel concentrations among users.

Ethinyl estradiol: Cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP3A4) in the liver are responsible for the 2-hydroxylation that is the major oxidative reaction. The 2-hydroxy metabolite is further transformed by methylation and glucuronidation prior to urinary and fecal excretion. Levels of Cytochrome P450 (CYP3A) vary widely among individuals and can explain the variation in rates of ethinyl estradiol 2-hydroxylation. Ethinyl estradiol is excreted in the urine and feces as glucuronide and sulfate conjugates, and undergoes enterohepatic circulation.

Excretion

The elimination half-life for levonorgestrel is approximately 36 ± 13 hours at steady state. Levonorgestrel and its metabolites are primarily excreted in the urine (40% to 68%) and about 16% to 48% are excreted in feces. The elimination half-life of ethinyl estradiol is 18 ± 4.7 hours at steady state.

Non-Clinical Toxicology
Combination oral contraceptives should not be used in women with any of the following conditions:

Thrombophlebitis or thromboembolic disorders

A history of deep-vein thrombophlebitis or thromboembolic disorders

Cerebrovascular or coronary artery disease (current or past history)

Valvular heart disease with thrombogenic complications

Thrombogenic rhythm disorders

Hereditary or acquired thrombophilias

Major surgery with prolonged immobilization

Diabetes with vascular involvement

Headaches with focal neurological symptoms

Uncontrolled hypertension

Known or suspected carcinoma of the breast or personal history of breast cancer

Carcinoma of the endometrium or other known or suspected estrogen-dependent neoplasia

Undiagnosed abnormal genital bleeding

Cholestatic jaundice of pregnancy or jaundice with prior pill use

Hepatic adenomas or carcinomas, or active liver disease

Known or suspected pregnancy

Hypersensitivity to any of the components of levonorgestrel and ethinyl estradiol tablets

Are receiving Hepatitis C drug combinations containing ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir, with or without dasabuvir, due to the potential for ALT elevations (see , ).

Thiazides may add to or potentiate the action of other antihypertensive drugs.

The thiazides may decrease arterial responsiveness to norepinephrine. This diminution is not sufficient to preclude effectiveness of the pressor agent for therapeutic use. Thiazides have also been shown to increase responsiveness to tubocurarine.

Lithium generally should not be given with diuretics because they reduce its renal clearance and add a high risk of lithium toxicity. Refer to the package insert on lithium before use of such concomitant therapy.

Acute renal failure has been reported in a few patients receiving indomethacin and formulations containing triamterene and hydrochlorothiazide. Caution is therefore advised when administering nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents with triamterene and hydrochlorothiazide.

Potassium-sparing agents should be used very cautiously, if at all, in conjunction with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors due to a greatly increased risk of hyperkalemia. Serum potassium should be monitored frequently.

Patients should be counseled that oral contraceptives do not protect against transmission of HIV (AIDS) and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) such as chlamydia, genital herpes, genital warts, gonorrhea, hepatitis B, and syphilis.

An increased risk of the following serious adverse reactions (see section for additional information) has been associated with the use of oral contraceptives:

Thromboembolic and thrombotic disorders and other vascular problems (including thrombophlebitis and venous thrombosis with or without pulmonary embolism, mesenteric thrombosis, arterial thromboembolism, myocardial infarction, cerebral hemorrhage, cerebral thrombosis), carcinoma of the reproductive organs and breasts, hepatic neoplasia (including hepatic adenomas or benign liver tumors), ocular lesions (including retinal vascular thrombosis), gallbladder disease, carbohydrate and lipid effects, elevated blood pressure, and headache including migraine.

The following adverse reactions have been reported in patients receiving oral contraceptives and are believed to be drug related (alphabetically listed):

Acne

Amenorrhea

Anaphylactic/anaphylactoid reactions, including urticaria, angioedema and severe reactions with respiratory and circulatory symptoms

Breast changes: tenderness, pain, enlargement, secretion

Budd-Chiari syndrome

Cervical erosion and secretion, change in

Cholestatic jaundice

Chorea, exacerbation of

Colitis

Contact lenses, intolerance to

Corneal curvature (steepening), change in

Dizziness

Edema/fluid retention

Erythema multiforme

Erythema nodosum

Gastrointestinal symptoms (such as abdominal pain, cramps, and bloating)

Hirsutism

Infertility after discontinuation of treatment, temporary

Lactation, diminution in, when given immediately postpartum

Libido, change in

Melasma/chloasma which may persist

Menstrual flow, change in

Mood changes, including depression

Nausea

Nervousness

Pancreatitis

Porphyria, exacerbation of

Rash (allergic)

Scalp hair, loss of

Serum folate levels, decrease in

Spotting

Systemic lupus erythematosus, exacerbation of

Unscheduled bleeding

Vaginitis, including candidiasis

Varicose veins, aggravation of

Vomiting

Weight or appetite (increase or decrease), change in

The following adverse reactions have been reported in users of oral contraceptives:

Cataracts

Cystitis-like syndrome

Dysmenorrhea

Hemolytic uremic syndrome

Hemorrhagic eruption

Optic neuritis, which may lead to partial or complete loss of vision

Premenstrual syndrome

Renal function, impaired

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Reference

This information is obtained from the National Institute of Health's Standard Packaging Label drug database.
"https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/"

While we update our database periodically, we cannot guarantee it is always updated to the latest version.

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Professional

Clonazepam Description Each single-scored tablet, for oral administration, contains 0.5 mg, 1 mg, or 2 mg Clonazepam, USP, a benzodiazepine. Each tablet also contains corn starch, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, and povidone. Clonazepam tablets USP 0.5 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake. Clonazepam tablets USP 1 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake, as well as FD&C Blue No. 1 Aluminum Lake. Chemically, Clonazepam, USP is 5-(o-chlorophenyl)-1,3-dihydro-7-nitro-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one. It is a light yellow crystalline powder. It has the following structural formula: C15H10ClN3O3 M.W. 315.72
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Tips

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Interactions

Interactions

A total of 440 drugs (1549 brand and generic names) are known to interact with Imbruvica (ibrutinib). 228 major drug interactions (854 brand and generic names) 210 moderate drug interactions (691 brand and generic names) 2 minor drug interactions (4 brand and generic names) Show all medications in the database that may interact with Imbruvica (ibrutinib).