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Losortan Potassium

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Overview

What is Losortan Potassium?



What does Losortan Potassium look like?



What are the available doses of Losortan Potassium?

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What should I talk to my health care provider before I take Losortan Potassium?

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How should I use Losortan Potassium?

Losartan potassium tablets are indicated for the treatment of hypertension. It may be used alone or in combination with other antihypertensive agents, including diuretics.

Adult Hypertensive Patients:

Losartan potassium tablets may be administered with other antihypertensive agents, and with or without food.

Dosing must be individualized. The usual starting dose of losartan potassium tablets is 50 mg once daily, with 25 mg used in patients with possible depletion of intravascular volume (e.g., patients treated with diuretics) (see ) and patients with a history of hepatic impairment (see ). Losartan potassium tablets can be administered once or twice daily with total daily doses ranging from 25 mg to 100 mg.

If the antihypertensive effect measured at trough using once-a-day dosing is inadequate, a twice-a-day regimen at the same total daily dose or an increase in dose may give a more satisfactory response. The effect of losartan is substantially present within one week but in some studies the maximal effect occurred in 3 to 6 weeks (see ).

If blood pressure is not controlled by losartan potassium tablets alone, a low dose of a diuretic may be added. Hydrochlorothiazide has been shown to have an additive effect (see ).

No initial dosage adjustment is necessary for elderly patients or for patients with renal impairment, including patients on dialysis.

Pediatric Hypertensive patient ≥ 6 years of age:

The usual recommended starting dose is 0.7 mg/kg once daily (up to 50 mg total) administered as a tablet or a suspension (see Dosage should be adjusted according to blood pressure response. Doses above 1.4 mg/kg (or in excess of 100 mg) daily have not been studied in pediatric patients (see and and

Losartan potassium tablets are not recommended in pediatric patients


What interacts with Losortan Potassium?


Losartan potassium tablets are contraindicated in patients who are hypersensitive to any component of this product.


Do not co-administer aliskiren with losartan potassium tablets in patients with diabetes.



What are the warnings of Losortan Potassium?

Fetal Toxicity

Pregnancy Category D

Use of drugs that act on the renin-angiotensin system during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy reduces renal function and increases fetal and neonatal morbidity and death. Resulting oligohydramnios can be associated with fetal lung hypoplasia and skeletal deformations. Potential neonatal adverse effects include skull hypoplasia, anuria, hypotension, renal failure, and death. When pregnancy is detected, discontinue losartan potassium as soon as possible. These adverse outcomes are usually associated with the use of these drugs in the second and third trimester of pregnancy. Most epidemiologic studies examining fetal abnormalities after exposure to antihypertensive use in the first trimester have not distinguished drugs affecting the renin-angiotensin system from other antihypertensive agents. Appropriate management of maternal hypertension during pregnancy is important to optimize outcomes for both mother and fetus.

In the unusual case that there is no appropriate alternative to therapy with drugs affecting the renin angiotensin system for a particular patient, apprise the mother of the potential risk to the fetus. Perform serial ultrasound examinations to assess the intra-amniotic environment.

If oligohydramnios is observed, discontinue losartan potassium, unless it is considered life-saving for the mother. Fetal testing may be appropriate, based on the week of pregnancy. Patients and physicians should be aware, however, that oligohydramnios may not appear until after the fetus has sustained irreversible injury.

Closely observe infants with histories of exposure to losartan potassium for hypotension, oliguria, and hyperkalemia (see PRECAUTIONS, ).

Losartan potassium has been shown to produce adverse effects in rat fetuses and neonates, including decreased body weight, delayed physical and behavioral development, mortality and renal toxicity. With the exception of neonatal weight gain (which was affected at doses as low as 10 mg/kg/day), doses associated with these effects exceeded 25 mg/kg/day (approximately three times the maximum recommended human dose of 100 mg on a mg/m basis). These findings are attributed to drug exposure in late gestation and during lactation. Significant levels of losartan and its active metabolite were shown to be present in rat fetal plasma during late gestation and in rat milk.

Hypotension — Volume-Depleted Patients:

In patients who are intravascularly volume-depleted (e.g., those treated with diuretics), symptomatic hypotension may occur after initiation of therapy with losartan potassium tablets. These conditions should be corrected prior to administration of losartan potassium tablets, or a lower starting dose should be used (see


What are the precautions of Losortan Potassium?

General:

Hypersensitivity

Angioedema (see ADVERSE REACTIONS, ).

Impaired Hepatic Function:

Based on pharmacokinetic data, which demonstrate significantly increased plasma concentrations of losartan in cirrhotic patients, a lower dose should be considered for patients with impaired liver function (see and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, ).

Impaired Renal Function:

As a consequence of inhibiting the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, changes in renal function have been reported in susceptible individuals treated with losartan potassium tablets; in some patients, these changes in renal function were reversible upon discontinuation of therapy.

In patients whose renal function may depend on the activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (e.g., patients with severe congestive heart failure), treatment with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors has been associated with oliguria and/or progressive azotemia and (rarely) with acute renal failure and/or death. Similar outcomes have been reported with losartan potassium tablets.

In studies of ACE inhibitors in patients with unilateral or bilateral renal artery stenosis, increases in serum creatinine or blood urea nitrogen (BUN) have been reported. Similar effects have been reported with losartan potassium tablets; in some patients, these effects were reversible upon discontinuation of therapy.

Electrolyte Imbalance:

Electrolyte imbalances are common in patients with renal impairment, with or without diabetes, and should be addressed. In a clinical study conducted in type 2 diabetic patients with proteinuria, the incidence of hyperkalemia was higher in the group treated with losartan potassium as compared to the placebo group; however, few patients discontinued therapy due to hyperkalemia (see

Information for Patients:

Pregnancy:

Female patients of childbearing age should be told about the consequences of exposure to losartan potassium during pregnancy. Discuss treatment options with women planning to become pregnant. Patients should be asked to report pregnancies to their physicians as soon as possible.

Potassium Supplements:

A patient receiving losartan potassium tablets should be told not to use potassium supplements or salt substitutes containing potassium without consulting the prescribing physician (see

Drug Interactions:

No significant drug-drug pharmacokinetic interactions have been found in interaction studies with hydrochlorothiazide, digoxin, warfarin, cimetidine and phenobarbital. Rifampin, an inducer of drug metabolism, decreased the concentrations of losartan and its active metabolite (see In humans, two inhibitors of P450 3A4 have been studied. Ketoconazole did not affect the conversion of losartan to the active metabolite after intravenous administration of losartan, and erythromycin had no clinically significant effect after oral administration. Fluconazole, an inhibitor of P450 2C9, decreased active metabolite concentration and increased losartan concentration. The pharmacodynamic consequences of concomitant use of losartan and inhibitors of P450 2C9 have not been examined. Subjects who do not metabolize losartan to active metabolite have been shown to have a specific, rare defect in cytochrome P450 2C9. These data suggest that the conversion of losartan to its active metabolite is mediated primarily by P450 2C9 and not P450 3A4.

As with other drugs that block angiotensin II or its effects, concomitant use of potassium-sparing diuretics (e.g., spironolactone, triamterene, amiloride), potassium supplements, or salt substitutes containing potassium may lead to increases in serum potassium.

Lithium:

As with other drugs which affect the excretion of sodium, lithium excretion may be reduced. Therefore, serum lithium levels should be monitored carefully if lithium salts are to be co-administered with angiotensin II receptor antagonists.

Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) Including Selective Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibitors (COX-2 Inhibitors):

In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function, co-administration of NSAIDs, including selective COX-2 inhibitors, with angiotensin II receptor antagonists (including losartan) may result in deterioration of renal function, including possible acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Monitor renal function periodically in patients receiving losartan and NSAID therapy.

The antihypertensive effect of angiotensin II receptor antagonists, including losartan, may be attenuated by NSAIDs, including selective COX-2 inhibitors.

Dual Blockade of the Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS)

Dual blockade of the RAS with angiotensin receptor blockers, ACE inhibitors, or aliskiren is associated with increased risks of hypotension, syncope, hyperkalemia, and changes in renal function (including acute renal failure) compared to monotherapy. Closely monitor blood pressure, renal function, and electrolytes in patients on losartan potassium and other agents that affect the RAS.

Do not co-administer aliskiren with losartan potassium tablets in patients with diabetes. Avoid use of aliskiren with losartan potassium tablets in patients with renal impairment (GFR
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility:

Losartan potassium was not carcinogenic when administered at maximally tolerated dosages to rats and mice for 105 and 92 weeks, respectively. Female rats given the highest dose (270 mg/kg/day) had a slightly higher incidence of pancreatic acinar adenoma. The maximally tolerated dosages (270 mg/kg/day in rats, 200 mg/kg/day in mice) provided systemic exposures for losartan and its pharmacologically active metabolite that were approximately 160 and 90 times (rats) and 30 and 15 times (mice) the exposure of a 50 kg human given 100 mg per day.

Losartan potassium was negative in the microbial mutagenesis and V-79 mammalian cell mutagenesis assays and in the alkaline elution and and chromosomal aberration assays. In addition, the active metabolite showed no evidence of genotoxicity in the microbial mutagenesis, alkaline elution, and chromosomal aberration assays.

Fertility and reproductive performance were not affected in studies with male rats given oral doses of losartan potassium up to approximately 150 mg/kg/day. The administration of toxic dosage levels in females (300/200 mg/kg/day) was associated with a significant (p
Nursing Mothers:

It is not known whether losartan is excreted in human milk, but significant levels of losartan and its active metabolite were shown to be present in rat milk. Because of the potential for adverse effects on the nursing infant, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.

Pediatric Use:

Neonates with a history of in utero exposure to losartan potassium

If oliguria or hypotension occurs, direct attention toward support of blood pressure and renal perfusion. Exchange transfusions or dialysis may be required as a means of reversing hypotension and/or substituting for disordered renal function.

Antihypertensive effects of losartan potassium tablets have been established in hypertensive pediatric patients aged 6 to 16 years. There are no data on the effect of losartan potassium tablets on blood pressure in pediatric patients under the age of 6 or in pediatric patients with glomerular filtration rate
Geriatric Use:

Of the total number of patients receiving losartan potassium tablets in controlled clinical studies for hypertension, 391 patients (19%) were 65 years and over, while 37 patients (2%) were 75 years and over. In a controlled clinical study for renal protection in type 2 diabetic patients with proteinuria, 248 patients (33%) were 65 years and over. In a controlled clinical study for the reduction in the combined risk of cardiovascular death, stroke and myocardial infarction in hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy, 2857 patients (62%) were 65 years and over, while 808 patients (18%) were 75 years and over. No overall differences in effectiveness or safety were observed between these patients and younger patients, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out.

Race:

In the LIFE study, Black patients with hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy had a lower risk of stroke on atenolol than on losartan potassium tablets. Given the difficulty in interpreting subset differences in large trials, it cannot be known whether the observed difference is the result of chance. However, the LIFE study does not provide evidence that the benefits of losartan potassium tablets on reducing the risk of cardiovascular events in hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy apply to Black patients (see


What are the side effects of Losortan Potassium?

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What should I look out for while using Losortan Potassium?


What might happen if I take too much Losortan Potassium?


How should I store and handle Losortan Potassium?

Buspirone HCl Tablets USP are supplied as follows:10 mg tablets: White to off-white, oval, biconvex, scored tablets, debossed WATSON and 658, in bottles of 30, 60 and 90..Store at 20° - 25°C (68°- 77°F). [See USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Protect from temperatures greater than 30°C (86°F).Dispense in a tight, light-resistant container as defined in USP/NF.Buspirone HCl Tablets USP are supplied as follows:10 mg tablets: White to off-white, oval, biconvex, scored tablets, debossed WATSON and 658, in bottles of 30, 60 and 90..Store at 20° - 25°C (68°- 77°F). [See USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Protect from temperatures greater than 30°C (86°F).Dispense in a tight, light-resistant container as defined in USP/NF.Buspirone HCl Tablets USP are supplied as follows:10 mg tablets: White to off-white, oval, biconvex, scored tablets, debossed WATSON and 658, in bottles of 30, 60 and 90..Store at 20° - 25°C (68°- 77°F). [See USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Protect from temperatures greater than 30°C (86°F).Dispense in a tight, light-resistant container as defined in USP/NF.Buspirone HCl Tablets USP are supplied as follows:10 mg tablets: White to off-white, oval, biconvex, scored tablets, debossed WATSON and 658, in bottles of 30, 60 and 90..Store at 20° - 25°C (68°- 77°F). [See USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Protect from temperatures greater than 30°C (86°F).Dispense in a tight, light-resistant container as defined in USP/NF.


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Clinical Information

Chemical Structure

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Clinical Pharmacology

Angiotensin II [formed from angiotensin I in a reaction catalyzed by angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE, kininase II)], is a potent vasoconstrictor, the primary vasoactive hormone of the renin-angiotensin system and an important component in the pathophysiology of hypertension. It also stimulates aldosterone secretion by the adrenal cortex. Losartan and its principal active metabolite block the vasoconstrictor and aldosterone-secreting effects of angiotensin II by selectively blocking the binding of angiotensin II to the AT receptor found in many tissues, (e.g., vascular smooth muscle, adrenal gland). There is also an ATreceptor found in many tissues but it is not known to be associated with cardiovascular homeostasis. Both losartan and its principal active metabolite do not exhibit any partial agonist activity at the AT receptor and have much greater affinity (about 1000-fold) for the AT receptor than for the AT receptor. binding studies indicate that losartan is a reversible, competitive inhibitor of the AT receptor. The active metabolite is 10 to 40 times more potent by weight than losartan and appears to be a reversible, non-competitive inhibitor of the AT receptor.

Neither losartan nor its active metabolite inhibits ACE (kininase II, the enzyme that converts angiotensin I to angiotensin II and degrades bradykinin); nor do they bind to or block other hormone receptors or ion channels known to be important in cardiovascular regulation.

Non-Clinical Toxicology
Psychotropic Agents





Amitriptyline

Diazepam

Haloperidol

Nefazodone

Trazodone

Triazolam/Flurazepam

Other Psychotropics

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Reference

This information is obtained from the National Institute of Health's Standard Packaging Label drug database.
"https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/"

While we update our database periodically, we cannot guarantee it is always updated to the latest version.

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Clonazepam Description Each single-scored tablet, for oral administration, contains 0.5 mg, 1 mg, or 2 mg Clonazepam, USP, a benzodiazepine. Each tablet also contains corn starch, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, and povidone. Clonazepam tablets USP 0.5 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake. Clonazepam tablets USP 1 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake, as well as FD&C Blue No. 1 Aluminum Lake. Chemically, Clonazepam, USP is 5-(o-chlorophenyl)-1,3-dihydro-7-nitro-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one. It is a light yellow crystalline powder. It has the following structural formula: C15H10ClN3O3 M.W. 315.72
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Tips

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Interactions

Interactions

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