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amlodipine besylate and benazepril hydrochloride

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Overview

What is Lotrel?

Lotrel is a combination of amlodipine besylate and benazepril hydrochloride.

Benazepril hydrochloride is a white to off-white crystalline powder, soluble (greater than 100 mg/mL) in water, in ethanol, and in methanol. Benazepril hydrochloride’s chemical name is 3-[[1-(ethoxycarbonyl)-3-phenyl-(1S)-propyl]amino]-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-2-oxo-1 -1-(3S)-benzazepine-1-acetic acid monohydrochloride; its structural formula is:

        

Its empirical formula is C H N O •HCl, and its molecular weight is 460.96.

Benazeprilat, the active metabolite of benazepril, is a nonsulfhydryl angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor. Benazepril is converted to benazeprilat by hepatic cleavage of the ester group.

Amlodipine besylate is a white to pale yellow crystalline powder, slightly soluble in water and sparingly soluble in ethanol. Its chemical name is (R,S)3-ethyl-5-methyl-2-(2-aminoethoxymethyl)-4-(2-chlorophenyl)-1,4-dihydro-6-methyl-3,5-pyridinedicarboxylate benzenesulfonate; its structural formula is:

         

Its empirical formula is C H ClN O •C H O S, and its molecular weight is 567.1.

Amlodipine besylate is the besylate salt of amlodipine, a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker.

Lotrel capsules are formulated in 6 different strengths for oral administration with a combination of amlodipine besylate equivalent to 2.5 mg, 5 mg or 10 mg of amlodipine, with 10 mg, 20 mg or 40 mg of benazepril hydrochloride providing for the following available combinations: 2.5/10 mg, 5/10 mg, 5/20 mg, 5/40 mg, 10/20 mg and 10/40 mg.

The inactive ingredients of the capsules are calcium phosphate, cellulose compounds, colloidal silicon dioxide, crospovidone, gelatin, hydrogenated castor oil (not present in 5/40 mg or 10/40 mg strengths), iron oxides, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, polysorbate 80, silicon dioxide, sodium lauryl sulfate, sodium starch (potato) glycolate, starch (corn), talc, and titanium dioxide.



What does Lotrel look like?



What are the available doses of Lotrel?

Capsules (amlodipine/benazepril mg): 2.5/10, 5/10, 5/20, 5/40, 10/20, 10/40 ( )

What should I talk to my health care provider before I take Lotrel?

Nursing Mothers:

8.3

How should I use Lotrel?

Lotrel is a combination capsule of amlodipine, a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker (DHP CCB) and benazepril, an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor. Lotrel is indicated for the treatment of hypertension in patients not adequately controlled on monotherapy with either agent. ( )

The recommended initial dose of Lotrel is 1 capsule of amlodipine 2.5 mg/benazepril 10 mg orally once-daily.

It is usually appropriate to begin therapy with Lotrel only after a patient has either (a) failed to achieve the desired antihypertensive effect with amlodipine or benazepril monotherapy, or (b) demonstrated inability to achieve adequate antihypertensive effect with amlodipine therapy without developing edema.

The antihypertensive effect of Lotrel is largely attained within 2 weeks. If blood pressure remains uncontrolled, the dose may be titrated up to amlodipine 10 mg/benazepril 40 mg once-daily. The dosing should be individualized and adjusted according to the patient’s clinical response.

Amlodipine is an effective treatment of hypertension in once-daily doses of 2.5 to 10 mg while benazepril is effective in doses of 10 to 80 mg. In clinical trials of amlodipine/benazepril combination therapy using amlodipine doses of 2.5 to 10 mg and benazepril doses of 10 to 40 mg, the antihypertensive effects increased with increasing dose of amlodipine in all patient groups, and the effects increased with increasing dose of benazepril in nonblack groups.


What interacts with Lotrel?

Sorry No Records found


What are the warnings of Lotrel?

Sorry No Records found


What are the precautions of Lotrel?

Sorry No Records found


What are the side effects of Lotrel?

Sorry No records found


What should I look out for while using Lotrel?

Do not coadminister aliskiren with ACE inhibitors, including Lotrel, in patients with diabetes. ( )

Lotrel is contraindicated in patients with a history of angioedema or patients who are hypersensitive to benazepril or to amlodipine. ( )

When pregnancy is detected, discontinue Lotrel as soon as possible (5.5).

Drugs that act directly on the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) can cause injury and death to the developing fetus (5.5)


What might happen if I take too much Lotrel?

Only a few cases of human overdose with amlodipine have been reported. One patient was asymptomatic after a 250 mg ingestion; another, who combined 70 mg of amlodipine with an unknown large quantity of a benzodiazepine, developed refractory shock and died.

Human overdoses with any combination of amlodipine and benazepril have not been reported. In scattered reports of human overdoses with benazepril and other ACE inhibitors, there are no reports of death.

Treatment:

In the event of a potentially life-threatening oral overdose, use induction of vomiting or gastric lavage and/or activated charcoal to remove the drug from the gastrointestinal tract (only if presented within 1 hour after ingestion of Lotrel).

Other clinical manifestations of overdose should be managed symptomatically based on modern methods of intensive care.

To obtain up-to-date information about the treatment of overdose, a good resource is your certified Regional Poison-Control Center. Telephone numbers of certified poison-control centers are listed in the Physicians’ Desk Reference (PDR). In managing overdose, consider the possibilities of multiple-drug overdoses, drug-drug interactions, and unusual drug kinetics in your patient.

The most likely effect of overdose with Lotrel is vasodilation, with consequent hypotension and tachycardia. Simple repletion of central fluid volume (Trendelenburg positioning, infusion of crystalloids) may be sufficient therapy, but pressor agents (norepinephrine or high-dose dopamine) may be required. With abrupt return of peripheral vascular tone, overdoses of other dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers have sometimes progressed to pulmonary edema, and patients must be monitored for this complication.

Analyses of bodily fluids for concentrations of amlodipine, benazepril, or their metabolites are not widely available. Such analyses are, in any event, not known to be of value in therapy or prognosis.

No data are available to suggest physiologic maneuvers (e.g., maneuvers to change the pH of the urine) that might accelerate elimination of amlodipine, benazepril, or their metabolites. Benazeprilat is only slightly dialyzable; attempted clearance of amlodipine by hemodialysis or hemo-perfusion has not been reported, but amlodipine’s high protein binding makes it unlikely that these interventions will be of value.

Angiotensin II could presumably serve as a specific antagonist-antidote to benazepril, but angiotensin II is essentially unavailable outside of scattered research laboratories.


How should I store and handle Lotrel?

Store at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted to 15 to 30°C (59 to 86°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature].Lotrel is available as capsules containing amlodipine besylate equivalent to 5 mg of amlodipine, with 10 mg of benazepril hydrochloride providing for the following available combination 5/10 mg. Capsules are imprinted with “Lotrel” and 2260.Capsule is light brown with 2 white bands/2260 Bottle of 30.Storage: Store at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted to 15°C–30°C (59°F–86°F). [See USP controlled room temperature.] Protect from moisture. Dispense in tight container (USP).Lotrel is available as capsules containing amlodipine besylate equivalent to 5 mg of amlodipine, with 10 mg of benazepril hydrochloride providing for the following available combination 5/10 mg. Capsules are imprinted with “Lotrel” and 2260.Capsule is light brown with 2 white bands/2260 Bottle of 30.Storage: Store at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted to 15°C–30°C (59°F–86°F). [See USP controlled room temperature.] Protect from moisture. Dispense in tight container (USP).Lotrel is available as capsules containing amlodipine besylate equivalent to 5 mg of amlodipine, with 10 mg of benazepril hydrochloride providing for the following available combination 5/10 mg. Capsules are imprinted with “Lotrel” and 2260.Capsule is light brown with 2 white bands/2260 Bottle of 30.Storage: Store at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted to 15°C–30°C (59°F–86°F). [See USP controlled room temperature.] Protect from moisture. Dispense in tight container (USP).Lotrel is available as capsules containing amlodipine besylate equivalent to 5 mg of amlodipine, with 10 mg of benazepril hydrochloride providing for the following available combination 5/10 mg. Capsules are imprinted with “Lotrel” and 2260.Capsule is light brown with 2 white bands/2260 Bottle of 30.Storage: Store at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted to 15°C–30°C (59°F–86°F). [See USP controlled room temperature.] Protect from moisture. Dispense in tight container (USP).Lotrel is available as capsules containing amlodipine besylate equivalent to 5 mg of amlodipine, with 10 mg of benazepril hydrochloride providing for the following available combination 5/10 mg. Capsules are imprinted with “Lotrel” and 2260.Capsule is light brown with 2 white bands/2260 Bottle of 30.Storage: Store at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted to 15°C–30°C (59°F–86°F). [See USP controlled room temperature.] Protect from moisture. Dispense in tight container (USP).


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Clinical Information

Chemical Structure

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Clinical Pharmacology

Benazepril

Benazepril and benazeprilat inhibit angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) in human subjects and in animals. ACE is a peptidyl dipeptidase that catalyzes the conversion of angiotensin I to the vasoconstrictor substance angiotensin II. Angiotensin II also stimulates aldosterone secretion by the adrenal cortex.

Inhibition of ACE results in decreased plasma angiotensin II, which leads to decreased vasopressor activity and to decreased aldosterone secretion. The latter decrease may result in a small increase of serum potassium. Hypertensive patients treated with benazepril and amlodipine for up to 56 weeks had elevations of serum potassium up to 0.2 mEq/L .

Removal of angiotensin II negative feedback on renin secretion leads to increased plasma renin activity. In animal studies, benazepril had no inhibitory effect on the vasopressor response to angiotensin II and did not interfere with the hemodynamic effects of the autonomic neurotransmitters acetylcholine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine.

ACE is identical to kininase, an enzyme that degrades bradykinin. Whether increased levels of bradykinin, a potent vasodepressor peptide, play a role in the therapeutic effects of Lotrel remains to be elucidated.

While the mechanism through which benazepril lowers blood pressure is believed to be primarily suppression of the renin-angiotensin aldosterone system, benazepril has an antihypertensive effect even in patients with low-renin hypertension.

Amlodipine

Amlodipine is a dihydropyridine calcium antagonist (calcium ion antagonist or slow channel blocker) that inhibits the transmembrane influx of calcium ions into vascular smooth muscle and cardiac muscle. Experimental data suggest that amlodipine binds to both dihydropyridine and nondihydropyridine binding sites. The contractile processes of cardiac muscle and vascular smooth muscle are dependent upon the movement of extracellular calcium ions into these cells through specific ion channels. Amlodipine inhibits calcium ion influx across cell membranes selectively, with a greater effect on vascular smooth muscle cells than on cardiac muscle cells. Negative inotropic effects can be detected in vitro but such effects have not been seen in intact animals at therapeutic doses. Serum calcium concentration is not affected by amlodipine. Within the physiologic pH range, amlodipine is an ionized compound (pKa=8.6), and its kinetic interaction with the calcium channel receptor is characterized by a gradual rate of association and dissociation with the receptor binding site, resulting in a gradual onset of effect.

Amlodipine is a peripheral arterial vasodilator that acts directly on vascular smooth muscle to cause a reduction in peripheral vascular resistance and reduction in blood pressure.

Non-Clinical Toxicology
Do not coadminister aliskiren with ACE inhibitors, including Lotrel, in patients with diabetes. ( )

Lotrel is contraindicated in patients with a history of angioedema or patients who are hypersensitive to benazepril or to amlodipine. ( )

When pregnancy is detected, discontinue Lotrel as soon as possible (5.5).

Drugs that act directly on the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) can cause injury and death to the developing fetus (5.5)

Presumably because angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors affect the metabolism of eicosanoids and polypeptides, including endogenous bradykinin, patients receiving ACE inhibitors (including Lotrel) may be subject to a variety of adverse reactions, some of them serious. These reactions usually occur after one of the first few doses of the ACE inhibitor, but they sometimes do not appear until after months of therapy. Black patients receiving ACE inhibitors have a higher incidence of angioedema compared to nonblacks.Presumably because angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors affect the metabolism of eicosanoids and polypeptides, including endogenous bradykinin, patients receiving ACE inhibitors (including Lotrel) may be subject to a variety of adverse reactions, some of them serious. These reactions usually occur after one of the first few doses of the ACE inhibitor, but they sometimes do not appear until after months of therapy. Black patients receiving ACE inhibitors have a higher incidence of angioedema compared to nonblacks.

Patients receiving coadministration of ACE inhibitor and mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) inhibitor (e.g., temsirolimus, sirolimus, everolimus) therapy may be at increased risk for angioedema .

Angioedema of the face, extremities, lips, tongue, glottis, and larynx has been reported in patients treated with ACE inhibitors. In U.S. clinical trials, symptoms consistent with angioedema were seen in none of the subjects who received placebo and in about 0.5% of the subjects who received benazepril. Angioedema associated with laryngeal edema can be fatal. If laryngeal stridor or angioedema of the face, tongue, or glottis occurs, discontinue treatment with Lotrel and treat  immediately. [see ]. Angioedema of the face, extremities, lips, tongue, glottis, and larynx has been reported in patients treated with ACE inhibitors. In U.S. clinical trials, symptoms consistent with angioedema were seen in none of the subjects who received placebo and in about 0.5% of the subjects who received benazepril. Angioedema associated with laryngeal edema can be fatal. If laryngeal stridor or angioedema of the face, tongue, or glottis occurs, discontinue treatment with Lotrel and treat  immediately. [see ].

Intestinal angioedema has been reported in patients treated with ACE inhibitors. These patients presented with abdominal pain (with or without nausea or vomiting); in some cases there was no prior history of facial angioedema and C-1 esterase levels were normal. The angioedema was diagnosed by procedures including abdominal CT scan or ultrasound, or at surgery, and symptoms resolved after stopping the ACE inhibitor. Intestinal angioedema should be included in the differential diagnosis of patients on ACE inhibitors presenting with abdominal pain. Intestinal angioedema has been reported in patients treated with ACE inhibitors. These patients presented with abdominal pain (with or without nausea or vomiting); in some cases there was no prior history of facial angioedema and C-1 esterase levels were normal. The angioedema was diagnosed by procedures including abdominal CT scan or ultrasound, or at surgery, and symptoms resolved after stopping the ACE inhibitor. Intestinal angioedema should be included in the differential diagnosis of patients on ACE inhibitors presenting with abdominal pain.

Two patients undergoing desensitizing treatment with hymenoptera (wasp sting) venom while receiving ACE inhibitors sustained life-threatening anaphylactoid reactions. In the same patients, these reactions were avoided when ACE inhibitors were temporarily withheld, but they reappeared upon inadvertent rechallenge. Two patients undergoing desensitizing treatment with hymenoptera (wasp sting) venom while receiving ACE inhibitors sustained life-threatening anaphylactoid reactions. In the same patients, these reactions were avoided when ACE inhibitors were temporarily withheld, but they reappeared upon inadvertent rechallenge.

Anaphylactoid reactions have been reported in patients dialyzed with high-flux membranes and treated concomitantly with an ACE inhibitor. Anaphylactoid reactions have also been reported in patients undergoing low-density lipoprotein apheresis with dextran sulfate absorption. Anaphylactoid reactions have been reported in patients dialyzed with high-flux membranes and treated concomitantly with an ACE inhibitor. Anaphylactoid reactions have also been reported in patients undergoing low-density lipoprotein apheresis with dextran sulfate absorption.

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Reference

This information is obtained from the National Institute of Health's Standard Packaging Label drug database.
"https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/"

While we update our database periodically, we cannot guarantee it is always updated to the latest version.

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Professional

Clonazepam Description Each single-scored tablet, for oral administration, contains 0.5 mg, 1 mg, or 2 mg Clonazepam, USP, a benzodiazepine. Each tablet also contains corn starch, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, and povidone. Clonazepam tablets USP 0.5 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake. Clonazepam tablets USP 1 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake, as well as FD&C Blue No. 1 Aluminum Lake. Chemically, Clonazepam, USP is 5-(o-chlorophenyl)-1,3-dihydro-7-nitro-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one. It is a light yellow crystalline powder. It has the following structural formula: C15H10ClN3O3 M.W. 315.72
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Tips

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Interactions

Interactions

A total of 440 drugs (1549 brand and generic names) are known to interact with Imbruvica (ibrutinib). 228 major drug interactions (854 brand and generic names) 210 moderate drug interactions (691 brand and generic names) 2 minor drug interactions (4 brand and generic names) Show all medications in the database that may interact with Imbruvica (ibrutinib).