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Magnesium Sulfate in 5% Dextrose

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Overview

What is Magnesium Sulfate in 5% Dextrose?

Magnesium Sulfate in 5% Dextrose Injection, USP is a sterile, nonpyrogenic solution of magnesium sulfate heptahydrate and dextrose in water for injection.  Each 100 mL contains 1 g magnesium sulfate heptahydrate and dextrose, hydrous 5 g in water for injection.  May contain sulfuric acid and/or sodium hydroxide for pH adjustment.  The pH is 4.5 (3.5 to 6.5).  It is available in a 1% concentration.  See section for the content and characteristics of available dosage form and size.

Magnesium sulfate, USP heptahydrate is chemically designated MgSO • 7HO, colorless crystals or white powder freely soluble in water.

Dextrose, USP is chemically designated D-glucose, monohydrate, a hexose sugar freely soluble in water.  It has the following structural formula:

               

CHO• HO          M.W. 198.17

Water for injection, USP is chemically designated HO.

The flexible container is fabricated from a specially formulated non-plasticized, film containing polypropylene and thermoplastic elastomers ( bag).  The amount of water that can permeate from the container into the overwrap is insufficient to affect the solution significantly.  Solutions in contact with the flexible container can leach out certain of the container’s chemical components in very small amounts within the expiration period.  The suitability of the container material has been confirmed by tests in animals according to USP biological tests for plastic containers.  Exposure to temperatures above 25ºC/77ºF during transport and storage will lead to minor losses in moisture content.  Higher temperatures lead to greater losses.  It is unlikely that these minor losses will lead to clinically significant changes within the expiration period.



What does Magnesium Sulfate in 5% Dextrose look like?



What are the available doses of Magnesium Sulfate in 5% Dextrose?

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What should I talk to my health care provider before I take Magnesium Sulfate in 5% Dextrose?

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How should I use Magnesium Sulfate in 5% Dextrose?

Magnesium sulfate in 5% dextrose injection, USP is indicated for the prevention and control of seizures in pre-eclampsia and eclampsia, respectively.  When used judiciously it effectively prevents and controls the convulsions of eclampsia without producing deleterious depression of the central nervous system of the mother or infant.  However, other effective drugs are available for this purpose.

Magnesium sulfate in 5% dextrose injection, USP is intended for intravenous use only.  For the management of pre-eclampsia or eclampsia, intravenous infusions of dilute solutions of magnesium (1% to 8%) are often given in combination with intramuscular injections of 50% magnesium sulfate injection, USP.  Therefore, in the clinical conditions cited below, both forms of therapy are noted, as appropriate.  Continuous maternal administration of magnesium sulfate in pregnancy beyond 5 to 7 days can cause fetal abnormalities.


What interacts with Magnesium Sulfate in 5% Dextrose?

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What are the warnings of Magnesium Sulfate in 5% Dextrose?

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What are the precautions of Magnesium Sulfate in 5% Dextrose?

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What are the side effects of Magnesium Sulfate in 5% Dextrose?

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What should I look out for while using Magnesium Sulfate in 5% Dextrose?

Intravenous magnesium should not be given to mothers with toxemia of pregnancy during the two hours preceding delivery.

FETAL HARM: Continuous administration of magnesium sulfate beyond 5 to 7 days to pregnant women can lead to hypocalcemia and bone abnormalities in the developing fetus.  These bone abnormalities include skeletal demineralization and osteopenia.  In addition, cases of neonatal fracture have been reported.  The shortest duration of treatment that can lead to fetal harm is not known.  Magnesium sulfate should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.  If magnesium sulfate is given for treatment of preterm labor, the woman should be informed that the efficacy and safety of such use have not been established and that use of magnesium sulfate beyond 5 to 7 days may cause fetal abnormalities.

Parenteral use in the presence of renal insufficiency may lead to magnesium intoxication.


What might happen if I take too much Magnesium Sulfate in 5% Dextrose?

Magnesium intoxication is manifested by a sharp drop in blood pressure and respiratory paralysis.  Disappearance of the patellar reflex is a useful clinical sign to detect the onset of magnesium intoxication.  In the event of overdosage, artificial ventilation must be provided until a calcium salt can be injected IV to antagonize the effects of magnesium.


How should I store and handle Magnesium Sulfate in 5% Dextrose?

Store at 20°-25°C (68°-77°F) (see USP Controlled Room Temperature).Keep tightly closed. Dispense in a tight container, as defined in the USP.Store at 20°-25°C (68°-77°F) (see USP Controlled Room Temperature).Keep tightly closed. Dispense in a tight container, as defined in the USP.Magnesium Sulfate in 5% Dextrose Injection, USP is supplied in a single dose flexible plastic container as follows:*As the heptahydrate.WARNING: DO NOT USE FLEXIBLE CONTAINER IN SERIES CONNECTIONS. Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature].  Protect from freezing.Magnesium Sulfate in 5% Dextrose Injection, USP is supplied in a single dose flexible plastic container as follows:*As the heptahydrate.WARNING: DO NOT USE FLEXIBLE CONTAINER IN SERIES CONNECTIONS. Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature].  Protect from freezing.Magnesium Sulfate in 5% Dextrose Injection, USP is supplied in a single dose flexible plastic container as follows:*As the heptahydrate.WARNING: DO NOT USE FLEXIBLE CONTAINER IN SERIES CONNECTIONS. Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature].  Protect from freezing.Magnesium Sulfate in 5% Dextrose Injection, USP is supplied in a single dose flexible plastic container as follows:*As the heptahydrate.WARNING: DO NOT USE FLEXIBLE CONTAINER IN SERIES CONNECTIONS. Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature].  Protect from freezing.


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Clinical Information

Chemical Structure

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Clinical Pharmacology

Absorption

Intravenously administered magnesium is immediately absorbed.

Distribution

Approximately 1 to 2% of total body magnesium is located in the extracellular fluid space.  Magnesium is 30% bound to albumin.

Metabolism

Magnesium is not metabolized.

Excretion

Magnesium is excreted solely by the kidney at a rate proportional to the serum concentration and glomerular filtration.

Non-Clinical Toxicology
Intravenous magnesium should not be given to mothers with toxemia of pregnancy during the two hours preceding delivery.

FETAL HARM: Continuous administration of magnesium sulfate beyond 5 to 7 days to pregnant women can lead to hypocalcemia and bone abnormalities in the developing fetus.  These bone abnormalities include skeletal demineralization and osteopenia.  In addition, cases of neonatal fracture have been reported.  The shortest duration of treatment that can lead to fetal harm is not known.  Magnesium sulfate should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.  If magnesium sulfate is given for treatment of preterm labor, the woman should be informed that the efficacy and safety of such use have not been established and that use of magnesium sulfate beyond 5 to 7 days may cause fetal abnormalities.

Parenteral use in the presence of renal insufficiency may lead to magnesium intoxication.

In common with other antibiotics, cefuroxime may affect the gut flora, leading to lower estrogen reabsorption and reduced efficacy of combined estrogen/progesterone oral contraceptives.

Because magnesium is removed from the body solely by the kidneys, the drug should be used with caution in patients with renal impairment.  Urine output should be maintained at a level of 100 mL every four hours.  Monitoring serum magnesium levels and the patient’s clinical status is essential to avoid the consequences of overdosage in toxemia.  Clinical indications of a safe dosage regimen include the presence of the patellar reflex (knee jerk) and absence of respiratory depression (approximately 16 breaths or more/minute).  Serum magnesium levels usually sufficient to control convulsions range from 3 to 6 mg/100 mL (2.5 to 5 mEq/liter).  The strength of the deep tendon reflexes begins to diminish when serum magnesium levels exceed 4 mEq/liter.  Reflexes may be absent at 10 mEq magnesium/liter, where respiratory paralysis is a potential hazard.  An injectable calcium salt should be immediately available to counteract the potential hazards of magnesium intoxication in eclampsia.

Magnesium sulfate in 5% dextrose injection, USP should be administered slowly to avoid producing hypermagnesemia.

The adverse effects of parenterally administered magnesium usually are the result of magnesium intoxication.  These include flushing, sweating, hypotension, depressed reflexes, flaccid paralysis, hypothermia, circulatory collapse, cardiac and central nervous system depression proceeding to respiratory paralysis.  Hypocalcemia with signs of tetany secondary to magnesium sulfate therapy for eclampsia has been reported.

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Reference

This information is obtained from the National Institute of Health's Standard Packaging Label drug database.
"https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/"

While we update our database periodically, we cannot guarantee it is always updated to the latest version.

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Professional

Clonazepam Description Each single-scored tablet, for oral administration, contains 0.5 mg, 1 mg, or 2 mg Clonazepam, USP, a benzodiazepine. Each tablet also contains corn starch, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, and povidone. Clonazepam tablets USP 0.5 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake. Clonazepam tablets USP 1 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake, as well as FD&C Blue No. 1 Aluminum Lake. Chemically, Clonazepam, USP is 5-(o-chlorophenyl)-1,3-dihydro-7-nitro-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one. It is a light yellow crystalline powder. It has the following structural formula: C15H10ClN3O3 M.W. 315.72
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Interactions

Interactions

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