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atovaquone and proguanil hydrochloride

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Overview

What is MALARONE?

MALARONE (atovaquone and proguanil hydrochloride) Tablets (adult strength) and MALARONE (atovaquone and proguanil hydrochloride) Pediatric Tablets, for oral administration, contain a fixed‑dose combination of the antimalarial agents atovaquone and proguanil hydrochloride.

The chemical name of atovaquone is -2-[4-(4-chlorophenyl)cyclohexyl]-3-hydroxy-1,4-naphthalenedione. Atovaquone is a yellow crystalline solid that is practically insoluble in water. It has a molecular weight of 366.84 and the molecular formula CHClO. The compound has the following structural formula:

The chemical name of proguanil hydrochloride is 1-(4-chlorophenyl)-5-isopropyl-biguanide hydrochloride. Proguanil hydrochloride is a white crystalline solid that is sparingly soluble in water. It has a molecular weight of 290.22 and the molecular formula CHClN•HCl. The compound has the following structural formula:

Each MALARONE Tablet (adult strength) contains 250 mg of atovaquone and 100 mg of proguanil hydrochloride and each MALARONE Pediatric Tablet contains 62.5 mg of atovaquone and 25 mg of proguanil hydrochloride. The inactive ingredients in both tablets are low‑substituted hydroxypropyl cellulose, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, poloxamer 188, povidone K30, and sodium starch glycolate. The tablet coating contains hypromellose, polyethylene glycol 400, polyethylene glycol 8000, red iron oxide, and titanium dioxide.



What does MALARONE look like?



What are the available doses of MALARONE?

Each MALARONE Tablet (adult strength) contains 250 mg atovaquone and 100 mg proguanil hydrochloride. MALARONE Tablets are pink, film‑coated, round, biconvex tablets engraved with “GX CM3” on one side.

Each MALARONE Pediatric Tablet contains 62.5 mg atovaquone and 25 mg proguanil hydrochloride. MALARONE Pediatric Tablets are pink, film‑coated, round, biconvex tablets engraved with “GX CG7” on one side.

What should I talk to my health care provider before I take MALARONE?

How should I use MALARONE?

MALARONE is indicated for the prophylaxis of malaria, including in areas where chloroquine resistance has been reported.

The daily dose should be taken at the same time each day with food or a milky drink. In the event of vomiting within 1 hour after dosing, a repeat dose should be taken.

MALARONE may be crushed and mixed with condensed milk just prior to administration to patients who may have difficulty swallowing tablets.


What interacts with MALARONE?

Sorry No Records found


What are the warnings of MALARONE?

Sorry No Records found


What are the precautions of MALARONE?

Sorry No Records found


What are the side effects of MALARONE?

Sorry No records found


What should I look out for while using MALARONE?



4.1

P. falciparum


What might happen if I take too much MALARONE?

There is no information on overdoses of MALARONE substantially higher than the doses recommended for treatment.

There is no known antidote for atovaquone, and it is currently unknown if atovaquone is dialyzable. Overdoses up to 31,500 mg of atovaquone have been reported. In one such patient who also took an unspecified dose of dapsone, methemoglobinemia occurred. Rash has also been reported after overdose.

Overdoses of proguanil hydrochloride as large as 1,500 mg have been followed by complete recovery, and doses as high as 700 mg twice daily have been taken for over 2 weeks without serious toxicity. Adverse experiences occasionally associated with proguanil hydrochloride doses of 100 to 200 mg/day, such as epigastric discomfort and vomiting, would be likely to occur with overdose. There are also reports of reversible hair loss and scaling of the skin on the palms and/or soles, reversible aphthous ulceration, and hematologic side effects.


How should I store and handle MALARONE?

Store at 25°C (77°F): excursions permitted to 15–30°C (59–86°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Keep out of reach of children. Store at 25°C (77°F): excursions permitted to 15–30°C (59–86°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Keep out of reach of children. Product: 50090-0687NDC: 50090-0687-1 16 TABLET, FILM COATED in a BOTTLEProduct: 50090-0687NDC: 50090-0687-1 16 TABLET, FILM COATED in a BOTTLE


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Clinical Information

Chemical Structure

No Image found
Clinical Pharmacology

The constituents of MALARONE, atovaquone and proguanil hydrochloride, interfere with 2 different pathways involved in the biosynthesis of pyrimidines required for nucleic acid replication. Atovaquone is a selective inhibitor of parasite mitochondrial electron transport. Proguanil hydrochloride primarily exerts its effect by means of the metabolite cycloguanil, a dihydrofolate reductase inhibitor. Inhibition of dihydrofolate reductase in the malaria parasite disrupts deoxythymidylate synthesis.

Non-Clinical Toxicology


4.1

P. falciparum

See .

Absorption of atovaquone may be reduced in patients with diarrhea or vomiting. If MALARONE is used in patients who are vomiting, parasitemia should be closely monitored and the use of an antiemetic considered. Vomiting occurred in up to 19% of pediatric patients given treatment doses of MALARONE. In the controlled clinical trials, 15.3% of adults received an antiemetic when they received atovaquone/proguanil and 98.3% of these patients were successfully treated. In patients with severe or persistent diarrhea or vomiting, alternative antimalarial therapy may be required.

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Reference

This information is obtained from the National Institute of Health's Standard Packaging Label drug database.
"https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/"

While we update our database periodically, we cannot guarantee it is always updated to the latest version.

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Professional

Clonazepam Description Each single-scored tablet, for oral administration, contains 0.5 mg, 1 mg, or 2 mg Clonazepam, USP, a benzodiazepine. Each tablet also contains corn starch, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, and povidone. Clonazepam tablets USP 0.5 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake. Clonazepam tablets USP 1 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake, as well as FD&C Blue No. 1 Aluminum Lake. Chemically, Clonazepam, USP is 5-(o-chlorophenyl)-1,3-dihydro-7-nitro-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one. It is a light yellow crystalline powder. It has the following structural formula: C15H10ClN3O3 M.W. 315.72
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Tips

Tips

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Interactions

Interactions

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