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MEMANTINE

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Overview

What is MEMANTINE?

Memantine hydrochloride oral solution is an orally active NMDA receptor antagonist. The chemical name for memantine hydrochloride is 1-amino-3,5-dimethyladamantane hydrochloride with the following structural formula:

The molecular formula is CHN•HCl and the molecular weight is 215.76. Memantine hydrochloride occurs as a fine white to off-white powder and is soluble in water.

Memantine hydrochloride oral solution contains memantine hydrochloride in a strength equivalent to 2 mg of memantine hydrochloride in each mL. The oral solution also contains the following inactive ingredients: citric acid (anhydrous), glycerin, methylparaben, peppermint oil, propylene glycol, propylparaben, purified water, sodium citrate (dihydrate) and sorbitol solution 70%.



What does MEMANTINE look like?



What are the available doses of MEMANTINE?

Memantine hydrochloride 2 mg/mL oral solution: clear, alcohol-free, sugar-free, and peppermint flavored.

What should I talk to my health care provider before I take MEMANTINE?

How should I use MEMANTINE?

Memantine hydrochloride oral solution is indicated for the treatment of moderate to severe dementia of the Alzheimer's type.

The recommended starting dose of memantine hydrochloride oral solution is 5 mg (2.5 mL) once daily. The dose should be increased in 5 mg increments to 10 mg/day (2.5 mL twice daily), 15 mg/day (2.5 mL and 5 mL as separate doses), and 20 mg/day (5 mL twice daily). The minimum recommended interval between dose increases is one week. The dosage shown to be effective in controlled clinical trials is 20 mg/day (5 mL twice daily).

Dosing Titration Schedule

Memantine hydrochloride oral solution can be taken with or without food. If a patient misses a single dose of memantine hydrochloride oral solution, that patient should not double up on the next dose. The next dose should be taken as scheduled. If a patient fails to take memantine hydrochloride oral solution for several days, dosing may need to be resumed at lower doses and retitrated as described above.

Do not mix memantine hydrochloride oral solution with any other liquid. Memantine hydrochloride oral solution is administered with a plastic dispensing syringe and a press-in bottle adapter. The supplied syringe should be used to withdraw the correct volume of oral solution and the oral solution should be slowly squirted into the corner of the patient's mouth.


What interacts with MEMANTINE?

Sorry No Records found


What are the warnings of MEMANTINE?

Sorry No Records found


What are the precautions of MEMANTINE?

Sorry No Records found


What are the side effects of MEMANTINE?

Sorry No records found


What should I look out for while using MEMANTINE?

Memantine hydrochloride oral solution is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to memantine hydrochloride or to any excipients used in the formulation.


What might happen if I take too much MEMANTINE?

Signs and symptoms most often accompanying memantine overdosage in clinical trials and from worldwide marketing experience, alone or in combination with other drugs and/or alcohol, include agitation, asthenia, bradycardia, confusion, coma, dizziness, ECG changes, increased blood pressure, lethargy, loss of consciousness, psychosis, restlessness, slowed movement, somnolence, stupor, unsteady gait, visual hallucinations, vertigo, vomiting, and weakness. The largest known ingestion of memantine worldwide was 2 grams in a patient who took memantine in conjunction with unspecified antidiabetic medications. The patient experienced coma, diplopia, and agitation, but subsequently recovered. Fatal outcome has been very rarely reported with memantine, and the relationship to memantine was unclear.

Because strategies for the management of overdose are continually evolving, it is advisable to contact a poison control center to determine the latest recommendations for the management of an overdose of any drug. As in any cases of overdose, general supportive measures should be utilized, and treatment should be symptomatic. Elimination of memantine can be enhanced by acidification of urine.


How should I store and handle MEMANTINE?

Store at 20 to 25°C (68 to 77°F). [See USP Controlled Room Temperature.] Protect from freezing.Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature].


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Clinical Information

Chemical Structure

No Image found
Clinical Pharmacology

Persistent activation of central nervous system N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors by the excitatory amino acid glutamate has been hypothesized to contribute to the symptomatology of Alzheimer's disease. Memantine is postulated to exert its therapeutic effect through its action as a low to moderate affinity uncompetitive (open-channel) NMDA receptor antagonist which binds preferentially to the NMDA receptor-operated cation channels. There is no evidence that memantine prevents or slows neurodegeneration in patients with Alzheimer's disease.

Non-Clinical Toxicology
Memantine hydrochloride oral solution is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to memantine hydrochloride or to any excipients used in the formulation.

Drugs Metabolized by P450 2D6:

The biochemical activity of the drug metabolizing isozyme cytochrome P450 2D6 (debrisoquin hydroxylase) is reduced in a subset of the Caucasian population (about 7% to 10% of Caucasians are so called "poor metabolizers"); reliable estimates of the prevalence of reduced P450 2D6 isozyme activity among Asian, African and other populations are not yet available. Poor metabolizers have higher than expected plasma concentrations of tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) when given usual doses. Depending on the fraction of drug metabolized by P450 2D6, the increase in plasma concentration may be small, or quite large (8-fold increase in plasma AUC of the TCA).

In addition, certain drugs inhibit the activity of this isozyme and make normal metabolizers resemble poor metabolizers. An individual who is stable on a given dose of TCA may become abruptly toxic when given one of these inhibiting drugs as concomitant therapy. The drugs that inhibit cytochrome P450 2D6 include some that are not metabolized by the enzyme (quinidine; cimetidine) and many that are substrates for P450 2D6 (many other antidepressants, phenothiazines and the Type 1C antiarrhythmics propafenone and flecainide). While all the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), e.g., citalopram, escitalopram, fluoxetine, sertraline and paroxetine, inhibit P450 2D6, they may vary in the extent of inhibition. The extent to which SSRI-TCA interactions may pose clinical problems will depend on the degree of inhibition and the pharmacokinetics of the SSRI involved. Nevertheless, caution is indicated in the co-administration of TCAs with any of the SSRIs and also in switching from one class to the other. Of particular importance, sufficient time must elapse before initiating TCA treatment in a patient being withdrawn from fluoxetine, given the long half-life of the parent and active metabolite (at least 5 weeks may be necessary).

Concomitant use of tricyclic antidepressants with drugs that can inhibit cytochrome P450 2D6 may require lower doses than usually prescribed for either the tricyclic antidepressant or the other drug. Furthermore, whenever one of these other drugs is withdrawn from co-therapy, an increased dose of tricyclic antidepressant may be required. It is desirable to monitor TCA plasma levels whenever a TCA is going to be co-administered with another drug known to be an inhibitor of P450 2D6.

Doxepin is primarily metabolized by CYP2D6 (with CYP1A2 & CYP3A4 as minor pathways). Inhibitors or substrates of CYP2D6 (i.e., quinidine, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors [SSRIs]) may increase the plasma concentration of doxepin when administered concomitantly. The extent of interaction depends on the variability of effect on CYP2D6. The clinical significance of this interaction with doxepin has not been systematically evaluated.

MAO Inhibitors:

Serious side effects and even death have been reported following the concomitant use of certain drugs with MAO inhibitors. Therefore, MAO inhibitors should be discontinued at least two weeks prior to the cautious initiation of therapy with doxepin. The exact length of time may vary and is dependent upon the particular MAO inhibitor being used, the length of time it has been administered, and the dosage involved.

Cimetidine:

Cimetidine has been reported to produce clinically significant fluctuations in steady-state serum concentrations of various tricyclic antidepressants. Serious anticholinergic symptoms (i.e., severe dry mouth, urinary retention and blurred vision) have been associated with elevations in the serum levels of tricyclic antidepressant when cimetidine therapy is initiated. Additionally, higher than expected tricyclic antidepressant levels have been observed when they are begun in patients already taking cimetidine. In patients who have been reported to be well controlled on tricyclic antidepressants receiving concurrent cimetidine therapy, discontinuation of cimetidine has been reported to decrease established steady-state serum tricyclic antidepressant levels and compromise their therapeutic effects.

Alcohol:

It should be borne in mind that alcohol ingestion may increase the danger inherent in any intentional or unintentional doxepin overdosage. This is especially important in patients who may use alcohol excessively.

Tolazamide:

A case of severe hypoglycemia has been reported in a type II diabetic patient maintained on tolazamide (1 gm/day) 11 days after the addition of doxepin (75 mg/day).

Drowsiness:

Since drowsiness may occur with the use of this drug, patients should be warned of the possibility and cautioned against driving a car or operating dangerous machinery while taking the drug. Patients should also be cautioned that their response to alcohol may be potentiated.

Sedating drugs may cause confusion and over sedation in the elderly; elderly patients generally should be started on low doses of doxepin and observed closely (see ).

Suicide:

Since suicide is an inherent risk in any depressed patient and may remain so until significant improvement has occurred, patients should be closely supervised during the early course of therapy. Prescriptions should be written for the smallest feasible amount.

Psychosis:

Should increased symptoms of psychosis or shift to manic symptomatology occur, it may be necessary to reduce dosage or add a major tranquilizer to the dosage regimen.

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Reference

This information is obtained from the National Institute of Health's Standard Packaging Label drug database.
"https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/"

While we update our database periodically, we cannot guarantee it is always updated to the latest version.

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Professional

Clonazepam Description Each single-scored tablet, for oral administration, contains 0.5 mg, 1 mg, or 2 mg Clonazepam, USP, a benzodiazepine. Each tablet also contains corn starch, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, and povidone. Clonazepam tablets USP 0.5 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake. Clonazepam tablets USP 1 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake, as well as FD&C Blue No. 1 Aluminum Lake. Chemically, Clonazepam, USP is 5-(o-chlorophenyl)-1,3-dihydro-7-nitro-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one. It is a light yellow crystalline powder. It has the following structural formula: C15H10ClN3O3 M.W. 315.72
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Tips

Tips

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Interactions

Interactions

A total of 440 drugs (1549 brand and generic names) are known to interact with Imbruvica (ibrutinib). 228 major drug interactions (854 brand and generic names) 210 moderate drug interactions (691 brand and generic names) 2 minor drug interactions (4 brand and generic names) Show all medications in the database that may interact with Imbruvica (ibrutinib).