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Metoclopramide hydrochloride

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Overview

What is Metoclopramide hydrochloride?

Metoclopramide hydrochloride, USP is a white crystalline, odorless substance, freely soluble in water. Chemically, it is 4-amino-5-chloro-N-[2-(diethylamino)ethyl]-2-methoxy benzamide monohydrochloride monohydrate and has the following structural formula:

C14H22ClN3O2•HCl•H2O M.W. 354.3

Metoclopramide injection USP is a clear, colorless, sterile solution with a pH of 2.5-6.5 for intravenous (IV) or intramuscular (IM) administration.

This product is light sensitive. It should be inspected before use and discarded if either color or particulate is observed.

Metoclopramide injection USP is supplied in 2 mL single-use vials.

Each 1 mL contains: Metoclopramide base 5 mg (present as the hydrochloride), Sodium Chloride, USP 8.5 mg, Water for Injection, USP q.s. pH is adjusted with hydrochloric acid and/or sodium hydroxide if necessary.



What does Metoclopramide hydrochloride look like?



What are the available doses of Metoclopramide hydrochloride?

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What should I talk to my health care provider before I take Metoclopramide hydrochloride?

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How should I use Metoclopramide hydrochloride?

Metoclopramide injection USP is indicated for the relief of symptoms associated with acute and recurrent diabetic gastric stasis.

If only the earliest manifestations of diabetic gastric stasis are present, oral administration of metoclopramide may be initiated. However, if severe symptoms are present, therapy should begin with metoclopramide injection USP (IM or IV). Doses of 10 mg may be administered slowly by the intravenous route over a 1- to 2-minute period.

Administration of metoclopramide injection USP up to 10 days may be required before symptoms subside, at which time oral administration of metoclopramide may be instituted. The physician should make a thorough assessment of the risks and benefits prior to prescribing further metoclopramide treatment.


What interacts with Metoclopramide hydrochloride?

Metoclopramide should not be used whenever stimulation of gastrointestinal motility might be dangerous, e.g., in the presence of gastrointestinal hemorrhage, mechanical obstruction, or perforation.


Metoclopramide is contraindicated in patients with pheochromocytoma because the drug may cause a hypertensive crisis, probably due to release of catecholamines from the tumor. Such hypertensive crises may be controlled by phentolamine.


Metoclopramide is contraindicated in patients with known sensitivity or intolerance to the drug.


Metoclopramide should not be used in epileptics or patients receiving other drugs which are likely to cause extrapyramidal reactions, since the frequency and severity of seizures or extrapyramidal reactions may be increased.



What are the warnings of Metoclopramide hydrochloride?

Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS)

There have been rare reports of an uncommon but potentially fatal symptom complex sometimes referred to as Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS) associated with metoclopramide. Clinical manifestations of NMS include hyperthermia, muscle rigidity, altered consciousness, and evidence of autonomic instability (irregular pulse or blood pressure, tachycardia, diaphoresis and cardiac arrhythmias).

The diagnostic evaluation of patients with this syndrome is complicated. In arriving at a diagnosis, it is important to identify cases where the clinical presentation includes both serious medical illness (e.g., pneumonia, systemic infection, etc.) and untreated or inadequately treated extrapyramidal signs and symptoms (EPS). Other important considerations in the differential diagnosis include central anticholinergic toxicity, heat stroke, malignant hyperthermia, drug fever and primary central nervous system (CNS) pathology.

The management of NMS should include 1) immediate discontinuation of metoclopramide and other drugs not essential to concurrent therapy, 2) intensive symptomatic treatment and medical monitoring, and 3) treatment of any concomitant serious medical problems for which specific treatments are available. Bromocriptine and dantrolene sodium have been used in treatment of NMS, but their effectiveness have not been established (see ).

Extrapyramidal Symptoms (EPS)

Array

Acute dystonic reactions occur in approximately 1 in 500 patients treated with the usual adult dosages of 30-40 mg/day of metoclopramide. These usually are seen during the first 24-48 hours of treatment with metoclopramide, occur more frequently in pediatric patients and adult patients less than 30 years of age and are even more frequent at the higher doses used in prophylaxis of vomiting due to cancer chemotherapy. These symptoms may include involuntary movements of limbs and facial grimacing, torticollis, oculogyric crisis, rhythmic protrusion of tongue, bulbar type of speech, trismus, or dystonic reactions resembling tetanus. Rarely, dystonic reactions may present as stridor and dyspnea, possibly due to laryngospasm. If these symptoms should occur, inject 50 mg Benadryl(diphenhydramine hydrochloride) intramuscularly, and they usually will subside. Cogentin(benztropine mesylate), 1 to 2 mg intramuscularly, may also be used to reverse these reactions.

Array

Treatment with metoclopramide can cause tardive dyskinesia (TD), a potentially irreversible and disfiguring disorder characterized by involuntary movements of the face, tongue, or extremities. The risk of developing tardive dyskinesia increases with the duration of treatment and the total cumulative dose. An analysis of utilization patterns showed that about 20% of patients who used metoclopramide took it for longer than 12 weeks. Treatment with metoclopramide for longer than the recommended 12 weeks should be avoided in all but rare cases where therapeutic benefit is thought to outweigh the risk of developing TD.

Although the risk of developing TD in the general population may be increased among the elderly, women, and diabetics, it is not possible to predict which patients will develop metoclopramide-induced TD. Both the risk of developing TD and the likelihood that TD will become irreversible increase with duration of treatment and total cumulative dose.

Metoclopramide should be discontinued in patients who develop signs or symptoms of TD. There is no known effective treatment for established cases of TD, although in some patients, TD may remit, partially or completely, within several weeks to months after metoclopramide is withdrawn.

Metoclopramide itself may suppress, or partially suppress, the signs of TD, thereby masking the underlying disease process. The effect of this symptomatic suppression upon the long-term course of TD is unknown. Therefore, metoclopramide should not be used for the symptomatic control of TD.

Parkinsonian-like Symptoms

Parkinsonian-like symptoms, including bradykinesia, tremor, cogwheel rigidity, or mask-like facies, have occurred more commonly within the first 6 months after beginning treatment with metoclopramide, but occasionally after longer periods. These symptoms generally subside within 2-3 months following discontinuance of metoclopramide. Patients with preexisting Parkinson's disease should be given metoclopramide cautiously, if at all, since such patients may experience exacerbation of parkinsonian symptoms when taking metoclopramide.

Depression

Mental depression has occurred in patients with and without prior history of depression. Symptoms have ranged from mild to severe and have included suicidal ideation and suicide. Metoclopramide should be given to patients with a prior history of depression only if the expected benefits outweigh the potential risks.


What are the precautions of Metoclopramide hydrochloride?

General

In one study in hypertensive patients, intravenously administered metoclopramide was shown to release catecholamines; hence, caution should be exercised when metoclopramide is used in patients with hypertension.

Intravenous injections of undiluted metoclopramide should be made slowly allowing 1 to 2 minutes for 10 mg since a transient but intense feeling of anxiety and restlessness, followed by drowsiness, may occur with rapid administration.

Because metoclopramide produces a transient increase in plasma aldosterone, certain patients, especially those with cirrhosis or congestive heart failure, may be at risk of developing fluid retention and volume overload. If these side effects occur at any time during metoclopramide therapy, the drug should be discontinued.

Intravenous administration of metoclopramide injection USP diluted in a parenteral solution should be made slowly over a period of not less than 15 minutes.

Giving a promotility drug such as metoclopramide theoretically could put increased pressure on suture lines following a gut anastomosis or closure. This possibility should be considered and weighed when deciding whether to use metoclopramide or nasogastric suction in the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting.

Information for Patients

A patient Medication Guide is available for metoclopramide injection USP. The prescriber or health professional should instruct patients, their families, and their caregivers to read the Medication Guide and should assist them in understanding its contents. Patients should be given the opportunity to discuss the contents of the Medication Guide and to obtain answers to any questions they may have. Refer to accompanying Medication Guide.

Metoclopramide may impair the mental and/or physical abilities required for the performance of hazardous tasks such as operating machinery or driving a motor vehicle. The ambulatory patient should be cautioned accordingly.

Drug Interactions

The effects of metoclopramide on gastrointestinal motility are antagonized by anticholinergic drugs and narcotic analgesics. Additive sedative effects can occur when metoclopramide is given with alcohol, sedatives, hypnotics, narcotics, or tranquilizers.

The finding that metoclopramide releases catecholamines in patients with essential hypertension suggests that it should be used cautiously, if at all, in patients receiving monoamine oxidase inhibitors.

Absorption of drugs from the stomach may be diminished (e.g., digoxin) by metoclopramide, whereas the rate and/or extent of absorption of drugs from the small bowel may be increased (e.g., acetaminophen, tetracycline, levodopa, ethanol, cyclosporine).

Gastroparesis (gastric stasis) may be responsible for poor diabetic control in some patients. Exogenously administered insulin may begin to act before food has left the stomach and lead to hypoglycemia. Because the action of metoclopramide will influence the delivery of food to the intestines and thus the rate of absorption, insulin dosage or timing of dosage may require adjustment.

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

A 77-week study was conducted in rats with oral doses up to about 40 times the maximum recommended human daily dose. Metoclopramide elevates prolactin levels and the elevation persists during chronic administration. Tissue culture experiments indicate that approximately one-third of human breast cancers are prolactin-dependent , a factor of potential importance if the prescription of metoclopramide is contemplated in a patient with previously detected breast cancer. Although disturbances such as galactorrhea, amenorrhea, gynecomastia, and impotence have been reported with prolactin-elevating drugs, the clinical significance of elevated serum prolactin levels is unknown for most patients. An increase in mammary neoplasms has been found in rodents after chronic administration of prolactin-stimulating neuroleptic drugs and metoclopramide. Neither clinical studies nor epidemiologic studies conducted to date, however, have shown an association between chronic administration of these drugs and mammary tumorigenesis; the available evidence is too limited to be conclusive at this time.

An Ames mutagenicity test performed on metoclopramide was negative.

Pregnancy Category B

Reproduction studies performed in rats, mice and rabbits by the IM, IV, subcutaneous (SC), and oral routes at maximum levels ranging from 12 to 250 times the human dose have demonstrated no impairment of fertility or significant harm to the fetus due to metoclopramide. There are, however, no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.

Nursing Mothers

Metoclopramide is excreted in human milk. Caution should be exercised when metoclopramide is administered to a nursing mother.

Pediatric Use

Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established except as stated to facilitate small bowel intubation (see and).

Care should be exercised in administering metoclopramide to neonates since prolonged clearance may produce excessive serum concentrations (see ). In addition, neonates have reduced levels of NADH-cytochrome b reductase which, in combination with the aforementioned pharmacokinetic factors, make neonates more susceptible to methemoglobinemia (see ).

The safety profile of metoclopramide in adults cannot be extrapolated to pediatric patients. Dystonias and other extrapyramidal reactions associated with metoclopramide are more common in the pediatric population than in adults. (See and.)

Geriatric Use

Clinical studies of metoclopramide injection USP did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether elderly subjects respond differently from younger subjects.

The risk of developing parkinsonian-like side effects increases with ascending dose. Geriatric patients should receive the lowest dose of metoclopramide injection USP that is effective. If parkinsonian-like symptoms develop in a geriatric patient receiving metoclopramide injection USP, metoclopramide injection USP should generally be discontinued before initiating any specific anti-parkinsonian agents (see ).

The elderly may be at greater risk for tardive dyskinesia (see ).

Sedation has been reported in metoclopramide injection USP users. Sedation may cause confusion and manifest as over-sedation in elderly (see and ).

Metoclopramide injection USP is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of toxic reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function (see ).

For these reasons, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased renal function, concomitant disease, or other drug therapy in the elderly (see ).

Other Special Populations

Patients with NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase deficiency are at an increased risk of developing methemoglobinemia and/or sulfhemoglobinemia when metoclopramide is administered. In patients with G6PD deficiency who experience metoclopramide-induced methemoglobinemia, methylene blue treatment is not recommended (see ).


What are the side effects of Metoclopramide hydrochloride?

In general, the incidence of adverse reactions correlates with the dose and duration of metoclopramide administration. The following reactions have been reported, although in most instances, data do not permit an estimate of frequency:

CNS Effects

Restlessness, drowsiness, fatigue, and lassitude may occur in patients receiving the recommended prescribed dosage of metoclopramide injection USP. Insomnia, headache, confusion, dizziness, or mental depression with suicidal ideation also may occur (see ). In cancer chemotherapy patients being treated with 1-2 mg/kg per dose, incidence of drowsiness is about 70%. There are isolated reports of convulsive seizures without clear-cut relationship to metoclopramide. Rarely, hallucinations have been reported.

Extrapyramidal Reactions (EPS)

Acute dystonic reactions, the most common type of EPS associated with metoclopramide, occur in approximately 0.2% of patients (1 in 500) treated with 30 to 40 mg of metoclopramide per day. In cancer chemotherapy patients receiving 1-2 mg/kg per dose, the incidence is 2% in patients over the ages of 30-35, and 25% or higher in pediatric patients and adult patients less than 30 years of age who have not had prophylactic administration of diphenhydramine. Symptoms include involuntary movements of limbs, facial grimacing, torticollis, oculogyric crisis, rhythmic protrusion of tongue, bulbar type of speech, trismus, opisthotonus (tetanus-like reactions), and, rarely, stridor and dyspnea possibly due to laryngospasm; ordinarily these symptoms are readily reversed by diphenhydramine (see ).

Parkinsonian-like symptoms may include bradykinesia, tremor, cogwheel rigidity, mask-like facies (see ).

Tardive dyskinesia most frequently is characterized by involuntary movements of the tongue, face, mouth, or jaw, and sometimes by involuntary movements of the trunk and/or extremities; movements may be choreoathetotic in appearance (see ).

Motor restlessness (akathisia) may consist of feelings of anxiety, agitation, jitteriness, and insomnia, as well as inability to sit still, pacing, foot tapping. These symptoms may disappear spontaneously or respond to a reduction in dosage.

Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome

Rare occurrences of neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) have been reported. This potentially fatal syndrome is comprised of the symptom complex of hyperthermia, muscular rigidity, altered consciousness, and autonomic instability (see ).

Endocrine Disturbances

Galactorrhea, amenorrhea, gynecomastia, impotence secondary to hyperprolactinemia (see ). Fluid retention secondary to transient elevation of aldosterone (see ).

Cardiovascular

Hypotension, hypertension, supraventricular tachycardia, bradycardia, fluid retention, acute congestive heart failure and possible atrioventricular (AV) block (see and ).

Gastrointestinal

Nausea and bowel disturbances, primarily diarrhea.

Hepatic

Rarely, cases of hepatotoxicity, characterized by such findings as jaundice and altered liver function tests, when metoclopramide was administered with other drugs with known hepatotoxic potential.

Renal

Urinary frequency and incontinence.

Hematologic

A few cases of neutropenia, leukopenia, or agranulocytosis, generally without clear-cut relationship to metoclopramide. Methemoglobinemia in adults and especially with overdosage in neonates (see ). Sulfhemoglobinemia in adults.

Allergic Reactions

A few cases of rash, urticaria, or bronchospasm, especially in patients with a history of asthma. Rarely, angioneurotic edema, including glossal or laryngeal edema.

Miscellaneous

Visual disturbances. Porphyria.

Transient flushing of the face and upper body, without alterations in vital signs, following high doses intravenously.


What should I look out for while using Metoclopramide hydrochloride?

Metoclopramide should not be used whenever stimulation of gastrointestinal motility might be dangerous, e.g., in the presence of gastrointestinal hemorrhage, mechanical obstruction, or perforation.

Metoclopramide is contraindicated in patients with pheochromocytoma because the drug may cause a hypertensive crisis, probably due to release of catecholamines from the tumor. Such hypertensive crises may be controlled by phentolamine.

Metoclopramide is contraindicated in patients with known sensitivity or intolerance to the drug.

Metoclopramide should not be used in epileptics or patients receiving other drugs which are likely to cause extrapyramidal reactions, since the frequency and severity of seizures or extrapyramidal reactions may be increased.


What might happen if I take too much Metoclopramide hydrochloride?

Symptoms of overdosage may include drowsiness, disorientation and extrapyramidal reactions. Anticholinergic or antiparkinson drugs or antihistamines with anticholinergic properties may be helpful in controlling the extrapyramidal reactions. Symptoms are self-limiting and usually disappear within 24 hours.

Hemodialysis removes relatively little metoclopramide, probably because of the small amount of the drug in blood relative to tissues. Similarly, continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis does not remove significant amounts of drug. It is unlikely that dosage would need to be adjusted to compensate for losses through dialysis. Dialysis is not likely to be an effective method of drug removal in overdose situations.

Unintentional overdose due to misadministration has been reported in infants and children with the use of metoclopramide oral solution. While there was no consistent pattern to the reports associated with these overdoses, events included seizures, extrapyramidal reactions, and lethargy.

Methemoglobinemia has occurred in premature and full-term neonates who were given overdoses of metoclopramide (1-4 mg/kg/day orally, intramuscularly or intravenously for 1-3 or more days). Methemoglobinemia can be reversed by the intravenous administration of methylene blue. However, methylene blue may cause hemolytic anemia in patients with G6PD deficiency, which may be fatal (see).


How should I store and handle Metoclopramide hydrochloride?

Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Protect from moisture.Metoclopramide Injection USP is available overbagged with 5 vials per bag, NDC 55154-0450-5.PROTECT FROM LIGHT. Store in shelf pack until time of use.Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature].Inspect the vial before use and discard if either color or particulate is observed. Dilutions may be stored unprotected from light under normal light conditions for up to 24 hours after preparation. Do not freeze. Do not store open single-use vials for later use, as they contain no preservative. Discard unused portion.Rev. B 10/2013Teva Parenteral Medicines, Inc.Irvine, CA 92618Repackaged By:Cardinal HealthZanesville, OH 43701L35627090915Metoclopramide Injection USP is available overbagged with 5 vials per bag, NDC 55154-0450-5.PROTECT FROM LIGHT. Store in shelf pack until time of use.Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature].Inspect the vial before use and discard if either color or particulate is observed. Dilutions may be stored unprotected from light under normal light conditions for up to 24 hours after preparation. Do not freeze. Do not store open single-use vials for later use, as they contain no preservative. Discard unused portion.Rev. B 10/2013Teva Parenteral Medicines, Inc.Irvine, CA 92618Repackaged By:Cardinal HealthZanesville, OH 43701L35627090915Metoclopramide Injection USP is available overbagged with 5 vials per bag, NDC 55154-0450-5.PROTECT FROM LIGHT. Store in shelf pack until time of use.Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature].Inspect the vial before use and discard if either color or particulate is observed. Dilutions may be stored unprotected from light under normal light conditions for up to 24 hours after preparation. Do not freeze. Do not store open single-use vials for later use, as they contain no preservative. Discard unused portion.Rev. B 10/2013Teva Parenteral Medicines, Inc.Irvine, CA 92618Repackaged By:Cardinal HealthZanesville, OH 43701L35627090915Metoclopramide Injection USP is available overbagged with 5 vials per bag, NDC 55154-0450-5.PROTECT FROM LIGHT. Store in shelf pack until time of use.Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature].Inspect the vial before use and discard if either color or particulate is observed. Dilutions may be stored unprotected from light under normal light conditions for up to 24 hours after preparation. Do not freeze. Do not store open single-use vials for later use, as they contain no preservative. Discard unused portion.Rev. B 10/2013Teva Parenteral Medicines, Inc.Irvine, CA 92618Repackaged By:Cardinal HealthZanesville, OH 43701L35627090915Metoclopramide Injection USP is available overbagged with 5 vials per bag, NDC 55154-0450-5.PROTECT FROM LIGHT. Store in shelf pack until time of use.Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature].Inspect the vial before use and discard if either color or particulate is observed. Dilutions may be stored unprotected from light under normal light conditions for up to 24 hours after preparation. Do not freeze. Do not store open single-use vials for later use, as they contain no preservative. Discard unused portion.Rev. B 10/2013Teva Parenteral Medicines, Inc.Irvine, CA 92618Repackaged By:Cardinal HealthZanesville, OH 43701L35627090915Metoclopramide Injection USP is available overbagged with 5 vials per bag, NDC 55154-0450-5.PROTECT FROM LIGHT. Store in shelf pack until time of use.Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature].Inspect the vial before use and discard if either color or particulate is observed. Dilutions may be stored unprotected from light under normal light conditions for up to 24 hours after preparation. Do not freeze. Do not store open single-use vials for later use, as they contain no preservative. Discard unused portion.Rev. B 10/2013Teva Parenteral Medicines, Inc.Irvine, CA 92618Repackaged By:Cardinal HealthZanesville, OH 43701L35627090915Metoclopramide Injection USP is available overbagged with 5 vials per bag, NDC 55154-0450-5.PROTECT FROM LIGHT. Store in shelf pack until time of use.Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature].Inspect the vial before use and discard if either color or particulate is observed. Dilutions may be stored unprotected from light under normal light conditions for up to 24 hours after preparation. Do not freeze. Do not store open single-use vials for later use, as they contain no preservative. Discard unused portion.Rev. B 10/2013Teva Parenteral Medicines, Inc.Irvine, CA 92618Repackaged By:Cardinal HealthZanesville, OH 43701L35627090915Metoclopramide Injection USP is available overbagged with 5 vials per bag, NDC 55154-0450-5.PROTECT FROM LIGHT. Store in shelf pack until time of use.Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature].Inspect the vial before use and discard if either color or particulate is observed. Dilutions may be stored unprotected from light under normal light conditions for up to 24 hours after preparation. Do not freeze. Do not store open single-use vials for later use, as they contain no preservative. Discard unused portion.Rev. B 10/2013Teva Parenteral Medicines, Inc.Irvine, CA 92618Repackaged By:Cardinal HealthZanesville, OH 43701L35627090915Metoclopramide Injection USP is available overbagged with 5 vials per bag, NDC 55154-0450-5.PROTECT FROM LIGHT. Store in shelf pack until time of use.Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature].Inspect the vial before use and discard if either color or particulate is observed. Dilutions may be stored unprotected from light under normal light conditions for up to 24 hours after preparation. Do not freeze. Do not store open single-use vials for later use, as they contain no preservative. Discard unused portion.Rev. B 10/2013Teva Parenteral Medicines, Inc.Irvine, CA 92618Repackaged By:Cardinal HealthZanesville, OH 43701L35627090915Metoclopramide Injection USP is available overbagged with 5 vials per bag, NDC 55154-0450-5.PROTECT FROM LIGHT. Store in shelf pack until time of use.Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature].Inspect the vial before use and discard if either color or particulate is observed. Dilutions may be stored unprotected from light under normal light conditions for up to 24 hours after preparation. Do not freeze. Do not store open single-use vials for later use, as they contain no preservative. Discard unused portion.Rev. B 10/2013Teva Parenteral Medicines, Inc.Irvine, CA 92618Repackaged By:Cardinal HealthZanesville, OH 43701L35627090915Metoclopramide Injection USP is available overbagged with 5 vials per bag, NDC 55154-0450-5.PROTECT FROM LIGHT. Store in shelf pack until time of use.Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature].Inspect the vial before use and discard if either color or particulate is observed. Dilutions may be stored unprotected from light under normal light conditions for up to 24 hours after preparation. Do not freeze. Do not store open single-use vials for later use, as they contain no preservative. Discard unused portion.Rev. B 10/2013Teva Parenteral Medicines, Inc.Irvine, CA 92618Repackaged By:Cardinal HealthZanesville, OH 43701L35627090915


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Clinical Information

Chemical Structure

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Clinical Pharmacology

Metoclopramide stimulates motility of the upper gastrointestinal tract without stimulating gastric, biliary, or pancreatic secretions. Its mode of action is unclear. It seems to sensitize tissues to the action of acetylcholine. The effect of metoclopramide on motility is not dependent on intact vagal innervation, but it can be abolished by anticholinergic drugs.

Metoclopramide increases the tone and amplitude of gastric (especially antral) contractions, relaxes the pyloric sphincter and the duodenal bulb, and increases peristalsis of the duodenum and jejunum resulting in accelerated gastric emptying and intestinal transit. It increases the resting tone of the lower esophageal sphincter. It has little, if any, effect on the motility of the colon or gallbladder.

In patients with gastroesophageal reflux and low LESP (lower esophageal sphincter pressure), single oral doses of metoclopramide produce dose-related increases in LESP. Effects begin at about 5 mg and increase through 20 mg (the largest dose tested). The increase in LESP from a 5 mg dose lasts about 45 minutes and that of 20 mg lasts between 2 and 3 hours. Increased rate of stomach emptying has been observed with single oral doses of 10 mg.

The antiemetic properties of metoclopramide appear to be a result of its antagonism of central and peripheral dopamine receptors. Dopamine produces nausea and vomiting by stimulation of the medullary chemoreceptor trigger zone (CTZ), and metoclopramide blocks stimulation of the CTZ by agents like l-dopa or apomorphine which are known to increase dopamine levels or to possess dopamine-like effects. Metoclopramide also abolishes the slowing of gastric emptying caused by apomorphine.

Like the phenothiazines and related drugs, which are also dopamine antagonists, metoclopramide produces sedation and may produce extrapyramidal reactions, although these are comparatively rare (see ). Metoclopramide inhibits the central and peripheral effects of apomorphine, induces release of prolactin and causes a transient increase in circulating aldosterone levels, which may be associated with transient fluid retention.

The onset of pharmacological action of metoclopramide is 1 to 3 minutes following an intravenous dose, 10 to 15 minutes following intramuscular administration, and 30 to 60 minutes following an oral dose; pharmacological effects persist for 1 to 2 hours.

Non-Clinical Toxicology
Metoclopramide should not be used whenever stimulation of gastrointestinal motility might be dangerous, e.g., in the presence of gastrointestinal hemorrhage, mechanical obstruction, or perforation.

Metoclopramide is contraindicated in patients with pheochromocytoma because the drug may cause a hypertensive crisis, probably due to release of catecholamines from the tumor. Such hypertensive crises may be controlled by phentolamine.

Metoclopramide is contraindicated in patients with known sensitivity or intolerance to the drug.

Metoclopramide should not be used in epileptics or patients receiving other drugs which are likely to cause extrapyramidal reactions, since the frequency and severity of seizures or extrapyramidal reactions may be increased.

The effects of metoclopramide on gastrointestinal motility are antagonized by anticholinergic drugs and narcotic analgesics. Additive sedative effects can occur when metoclopramide is given with alcohol, sedatives, hypnotics, narcotics, or tranquilizers.

The finding that metoclopramide releases catecholamines in patients with essential hypertension suggests that it should be used cautiously, if at all, in patients receiving monoamine oxidase inhibitors.

Absorption of drugs from the stomach may be diminished (e.g., digoxin) by metoclopramide, whereas the rate and/or extent of absorption of drugs from the small bowel may be increased (e.g., acetaminophen, tetracycline, levodopa, ethanol, cyclosporine).

Gastroparesis (gastric stasis) may be responsible for poor diabetic control in some patients. Exogenously administered insulin may begin to act before food has left the stomach and lead to hypoglycemia. Because the action of metoclopramide will influence the delivery of food to the intestines and thus the rate of absorption, insulin dosage or timing of dosage may require adjustment.

In one study in hypertensive patients, intravenously administered metoclopramide was shown to release catecholamines; hence, caution should be exercised when metoclopramide is used in patients with hypertension.

Intravenous injections of undiluted metoclopramide should be made slowly allowing 1 to 2 minutes for 10 mg since a transient but intense feeling of anxiety and restlessness, followed by drowsiness, may occur with rapid administration.

Because metoclopramide produces a transient increase in plasma aldosterone, certain patients, especially those with cirrhosis or congestive heart failure, may be at risk of developing fluid retention and volume overload. If these side effects occur at any time during metoclopramide therapy, the drug should be discontinued.

Intravenous administration of metoclopramide injection USP diluted in a parenteral solution should be made slowly over a period of not less than 15 minutes.

Giving a promotility drug such as metoclopramide theoretically could put increased pressure on suture lines following a gut anastomosis or closure. This possibility should be considered and weighed when deciding whether to use metoclopramide or nasogastric suction in the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting.

In general, the incidence of adverse reactions correlates with the dose and duration of metoclopramide administration. The following reactions have been reported, although in most instances, data do not permit an estimate of frequency:

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Reference

This information is obtained from the National Institute of Health's Standard Packaging Label drug database.
"https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/"

While we update our database periodically, we cannot guarantee it is always updated to the latest version.

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Professional

Clonazepam Description Each single-scored tablet, for oral administration, contains 0.5 mg, 1 mg, or 2 mg Clonazepam, USP, a benzodiazepine. Each tablet also contains corn starch, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, and povidone. Clonazepam tablets USP 0.5 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake. Clonazepam tablets USP 1 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake, as well as FD&C Blue No. 1 Aluminum Lake. Chemically, Clonazepam, USP is 5-(o-chlorophenyl)-1,3-dihydro-7-nitro-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one. It is a light yellow crystalline powder. It has the following structural formula: C15H10ClN3O3 M.W. 315.72
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Tips

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Interactions

Interactions

A total of 440 drugs (1549 brand and generic names) are known to interact with Imbruvica (ibrutinib). 228 major drug interactions (854 brand and generic names) 210 moderate drug interactions (691 brand and generic names) 2 minor drug interactions (4 brand and generic names) Show all medications in the database that may interact with Imbruvica (ibrutinib).