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Midodrine Hydrochloride

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Overview

What is Midodrine HCl?

Midodrine hydrochloride is a vasopressor/antihypotensive agent. Midodrine hydrochloride is an odorless, white, crystalline powder, soluble in water and sparingly soluble in methanol having a pKa of 7.8 (0.3% aqueous solution), a pH of 3.5 to 5.5 (5% aqueous solution) and a melting range of 200°C to 203°C. It is chemically described as: (1) Acetamide, 2-amino--[2-(2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-hydroxyethyl]-monohydrochloride, (±)-; or (2) (±)-2-amino--(ß-hydroxy-2,5-dimethoxyphenethyl)acetamide monohydrochloride. Midodrine hydrochloride’s molecular formula is CHNOHCl, its molecular weight is 290.7 and its structural formula is:

Each tablet for oral administration contains 2.5 mg, 5 mg or 10 mg of midodrine hydrochloride and the following inactive ingredients: pregelatinized starch (corn starch), microcrystalline cellulose, colloidal silicon dioxide, magnesium stearate. In addition, the 5 mg tablets contain FD&C yellow No. 6 aluminum lake and FD&C red No. 40 aluminum lake and the 10 mg tablets contain FD&C blue No. 2 aluminum lake.



What does Midodrine HCl look like?



What are the available doses of Midodrine HCl?

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What should I talk to my health care provider before I take Midodrine HCl?

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How should I use Midodrine HCl?

Midodrine hydrochloride tablets, USP are indicated for the treatment of symptomatic orthostatic hypotension (OH). Because midodrine hydrochloride tablets, USP can cause marked elevation of supine blood pressure (BP > 200 mmHg systolic), it should be used in patients whose lives are considerably impaired despite standard clinical care, including non-pharmacologic treatment (such as support stockings), fluid expansion and lifestyle alterations. The indication is based on midodrine hydrochloride tablet, USP's effect on increases in 1-minute standing systolic blood pressure, a surrogate marker considered likely to correspond to a clinical benefit. At present, however, clinical benefits of midodrine hydrochloride tablets, USP principally improved ability to perform life activities, have not been established. Further clinical trials are underway to verify and describe the clinical benefits of midodrine hydrochloride tablets, USP.

After initiation of treatment, midodrine hydrochloride tablets, USP should be continued only for patients who report significant symptomatic improvement.

The recommended dose of midodrine hydrochloride tablets is 10 mg, 3 times daily. Dosing should take place during the daytime hours when the patient needs to be upright, pursuing the activities of daily living. A suggested dosing schedule of approximately 4-hour intervals is as follows: shortly before or upon arising in the morning, midday and late afternoon (not later than 6 P.M.). Doses may be given in 3-hour intervals, if required, to control symptoms, but not more frequently.

Single doses as high as 20 mg have been given to patients, but severe and persistent systolic supine hypertension occurs at a high rate (about 45%) at this dose. In order to reduce the potential for supine hypertension during sleep, midodrine hydrochloride tablets should not be given after the evening meal or less than 4 hours before bedtime. Total daily doses greater than 30 mg have been tolerated by some patients, but their safety and usefulness have not been studied systematically or established. Because of the risk of supine hypertension, midodrine hydrochloride tablets should be continued only in patients who appear to attain symptomatic improvement during initial treatment.

The supine and standing blood pressure should be monitored regularly and the administration of midodrine hydrochloride tablets should be stopped if supine blood pressure increases excessively.

Because desglymidodrine is excreted renally, dosing in patients with abnormal renal function should be cautious; although this has not been systematically studied, it is recommended that treatment of these patients be initiated using 2.5 mg doses.

Dosing in children has not been adequately studied.

Blood levels of midodrine and desglymidodrine were similar when comparing levels in patients 65 or older vs. younger than 65 and when comparing males vs. females, suggesting dose modifications for these groups are not necessary.


What interacts with Midodrine HCl?

Midodrine hydrochloride is contraindicated in patients with severe organic heart disease, acute renal disease, urinary retention, pheochromocytoma or thyrotoxicosis. Midodrine hydrochloride should not be used in patients with persistent and excessive supine hypertension.



What are the warnings of Midodrine HCl?

Supine Hypertension

The most potentially serious adverse reaction associated with midodrine hydrochloride therapy is marked elevation of supine arterial blood pressure (supine hypertension). Systolic pressure of about 200 mmHg was seen overall in about 13.4% of patients given 10 mg of midodrine hydrochloride. Systolic elevations of this degree were most likely to be observed in patients with relatively elevated pre-treatment systolic blood pressures (mean 170 mmHg). There is no experience in patients with initial supine systolic pressure above 180 mmHg, as those patients were excluded from the clinical trials. Use of midodrine hydrochloride in such patients is not recommended. Sitting blood pressures were also elevated by midodrine hydrochloride therapy. It is essential to monitor supine and sitting blood pressures in patients maintained on midodrine hydrochloride. Uncontrolled hypertension increases the risk of cardiovascular events, particularly stroke.


What are the precautions of Midodrine HCl?

General

The potential for supine and sitting hypertension should be evaluated at the beginning of midodrine hydrochloride therapy. Supine hypertension can often be controlled by preventing the patient from becoming fully supine, i.e., sleeping with the head of the bed elevated. The patient should be cautioned to report symptoms of supine hypertension immediately. Symptoms may include cardiac awareness, pounding in the ears, headache, blurred vision, etc.

The patient should be advised to discontinue the medication immediately if supine hypertension persists. Blood pressure should be monitored carefully when midodrine hydrochloride is used concomitantly with other agents that cause vasoconstriction, such as phenylephrine, ephedrine, dihydroergotamine, phenylpropanolamine or pseudoephedrine.

A slight slowing of the heart rate may occur after administration of midodrine hydrochloride, primarily due to vagal reflex. Caution should be exercised when midodrine hydrochloride is used concomitantly with cardiac glycosides (such as digitalis), psychopharmacologic agents, beta blockers or other agents that directly or indirectly reduce heart rate. Patients who experience any signs or symptoms suggesting bradycardia (pulse slowing, increased dizziness, syncope, cardiac awareness) should be advised to discontinue midodrine hydrochloride and should be re-evaluated.

Midodrine hydrochloride should be used cautiously in patients with urinary retention problems, as desglymidodrine acts on the alpha-adrenergic receptors of the bladder neck.

Midodrine hydrochloride should be used with caution in orthostatic hypotensive patients who are also diabetic, as well as those with a history of visual problems who are also taking fludrocortisone acetate, which is known to cause an increase in intraocular pressure and glaucoma.

Midodrine hydrochloride use has not been studied in patients with renal impairment. Because desglymidodrine is eliminated via the kidneys and higher blood levels would be expected in such patients, midodrine hydrochloride should be used with caution in patients with renal impairment, with a starting dose of 2.5 mg (see ). Renal function should be assessed prior to initial use of midodrine hydrochloride.

Midodrine hydrochloride use has not been studied in patients with hepatic impairment. Midodrine hydrochloride should be used with caution in patients with hepatic impairment, as the liver has a role in the metabolism of midodrine.

Information for Patients

Patients should be told that certain agents in over-the-counter products, such as cold remedies and diet aids, can elevate blood pressure and therefore, should be used cautiously with midodrine hydrochloride, as they may enhance or potentiate the pressor effects of midodrine hydrochloride (see ). Patients should also be made aware of the possibility of supine hypertension. They should be told to avoid taking their dose if they are to be supine for any length of time, i.e., they should take their last daily dose of midodrine hydrochloride 3 to 4 hours before bedtime to minimize nighttime supine hypertension.

Laboratory Tests

Since desglymidodrine is eliminated by the kidneys and the liver has a role in its metabolism, evaluation of the patient should include assessment of renal and hepatic function prior to initiating therapy and subsequently, as appropriate.

Drug Interactions

When administered concomitantly with midodrine hydrochloride, cardiac glycosides may enhance or precipitate bradycardia, A.V. block or arrhythmia.

The risk of hypertension increases with concomitant administration of drugs that increase blood pressure (phenylephrine, pseudoephedrine, ephedrine, dihydroergotamine, thyroid hormones, or droxidopa). Avoid concomitant use of drugs that increase blood pressure. If concomitant use cannot be avoided, monitor blood pressure closely.

Avoid use of MAO inhibitors or linezolid with midodrine.

Midodrine hydrochloride has been used in patients concomitantly treated with salt-retaining steroid therapy (i.e., fludrocortisone acetate), with or without salt supplementation. The potential for supine hypertension should be carefully monitored in these patients and may be minimized by either reducing the dose of fludrocortisone acetate or decreasing the salt intake prior to initiation of treatment with midodrine hydrochloride. Alpha-adrenergic blocking agents, such as prazosin, terazosin and doxazosin, can antagonize the effects of midodrine hydrochloride.

Potential for Drug Interactions

It appears possible, although there is no supporting experimental evidence, that the high renal clearance of desyglymidodrine (a base) is due to active tubular secretion by the base-secreting system also responsible for the secretion of such drugs as metformin, cimetidine, ranitidine, procainamide, triamterene, flecainide and quinidine. Thus there may be a potential for drug-drug interaction with these drugs.

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

Long-term studies have been conducted in rats and mice at dosages of 3 to 4 times the maximum recommended daily human dose on a mg/m basis, with no indication of carcinogenic effects related to midodrine hydrochloride. Studies investigating the mutagenic potential of midodrine hydrochloride revealed no evidence of mutagenicity. Other than the dominant lethal assay in male mice, where no impairment of fertility was observed, there have been no studies on the effects of midodrine hydrochloride on fertility.

Pregnancy

Midodrine hydrochloride increased the rate of embryo resorption, reduced fetal body weight in rats and rabbits and decreased fetal survival in rabbits when given in doses 13 (rat) and 7 (rabbit) times the maximum human dose based on body surface area (mg/m). There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Midodrine hydrochloride should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus. No teratogenic effects have been observed in studies in rats and rabbits.

Nursing Mothers

It is not known whether this drug is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when midodrine hydrochloride is administered to a nursing woman.

Pediatric Use

Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established.


What are the side effects of Midodrine HCl?

The most frequent adverse reactions seen in controlled trials were supine and sitting hypertension; paresthesia and pruritus, mainly of the scalp; goosebumps; chills; urinary urge; urinary retention and urinary frequency.

The frequency of these events in a 3-week placebo-controlled trial is shown in the following table:

Less frequent adverse reactions were headache; feeling of pressure/fullness in the head; vasodilation/flushing face; confusion/thinking abnormality; dry mouth; nervousness/anxiety and rash. Other adverse reactions that occurred rarely were visual field defect; dizziness; skin hyperesthesia; insomnia; somnolence; erythema multiforme; canker sore; dry skin; dysuria; impaired urination; asthenia; backache; pyrosis; nausea; gastrointestinal distress; flatulence and leg cramps.

The most potentially serious adverse reaction associated with midodrine hydrochloride therapy is supine hypertension. The feelings of paresthesia, pruritus, piloerection and chills are pilomotor reactions associated with the action of midodrine on the alpha-adrenergic receptors of the hair follicles. Feelings of urinary urgency, retention and frequency are associated with the action of midodrine on the alpha-receptors of the bladder neck.

Adverse Events
Total # of reports2277
Paresthesia 44.51518.3
Piloerection001113.4
Dysuria 001113.4
Pruritus 22.31012.2
Supine hypertension 0067.3
Chills0044.9
Pain 0044.9
Rash11.122.4



What should I look out for while using Midodrine HCl?

Midodrine hydrochloride is contraindicated in patients with severe organic heart disease, acute renal disease, urinary retention, pheochromocytoma or thyrotoxicosis. Midodrine hydrochloride should not be used in patients with persistent and excessive supine hypertension.


What might happen if I take too much Midodrine HCl?

Sorry No Records found


How should I store and handle Midodrine HCl?

Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F); excursions permitted between 15° and 30°C (59° and 86°F). [See USP Controlled Room Temperature.]Do not freeze.Protect from light.Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F); excursions permitted between 15° and 30°C (59° and 86°F). [See USP Controlled Room Temperature.]Do not freeze.Protect from light.Product: 63739-556NDC: 63739-556-10 10 TABLET in a BLISTER PACK / 10 in a BOX, UNIT-DOSE Product: 63739-556NDC: 63739-556-10 10 TABLET in a BLISTER PACK / 10 in a BOX, UNIT-DOSE


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Clinical Information

Chemical Structure

No Image found
Clinical Pharmacology

Midodrine hydrochloride forms an active metabolite, desglymidodrine, that is an alpha-agonist and exerts its actions via activation of the alpha-adrenergic receptors of the arteriolar and venous vasculature, producing an increase in vascular tone and elevation of blood pressure. Desglymidodrine does not stimulate cardiac beta-adrenergic receptors. Desglymidodrine diffuses poorly across the blood-brain barrier and is therefore not associated with effects on the central nervous system.

Administration of midodrine hydrochloride results in a rise in standing, sitting and supine systolic and diastolic blood pressure in patients with orthostatic hypotension of various etiologies. Standing systolic blood pressure is elevated by approximately 15 mmHg to 30 mmHg at 1 hour after a 10 mg dose of midodrine, with some effect persisting for 2 to 3 hours. Midodrine hydrochloride has no clinically significant effect on standing or supine pulse rates in patients with autonomic failure.

Non-Clinical Toxicology
Midodrine hydrochloride is contraindicated in patients with severe organic heart disease, acute renal disease, urinary retention, pheochromocytoma or thyrotoxicosis. Midodrine hydrochloride should not be used in patients with persistent and excessive supine hypertension.

When administered concomitantly with midodrine hydrochloride, cardiac glycosides may enhance or precipitate bradycardia, A.V. block or arrhythmia.

The risk of hypertension increases with concomitant administration of drugs that increase blood pressure (phenylephrine, pseudoephedrine, ephedrine, dihydroergotamine, thyroid hormones, or droxidopa). Avoid concomitant use of drugs that increase blood pressure. If concomitant use cannot be avoided, monitor blood pressure closely.

Avoid use of MAO inhibitors or linezolid with midodrine.

Midodrine hydrochloride has been used in patients concomitantly treated with salt-retaining steroid therapy (i.e., fludrocortisone acetate), with or without salt supplementation. The potential for supine hypertension should be carefully monitored in these patients and may be minimized by either reducing the dose of fludrocortisone acetate or decreasing the salt intake prior to initiation of treatment with midodrine hydrochloride. Alpha-adrenergic blocking agents, such as prazosin, terazosin and doxazosin, can antagonize the effects of midodrine hydrochloride.

The potential for supine and sitting hypertension should be evaluated at the beginning of midodrine hydrochloride therapy. Supine hypertension can often be controlled by preventing the patient from becoming fully supine, i.e., sleeping with the head of the bed elevated. The patient should be cautioned to report symptoms of supine hypertension immediately. Symptoms may include cardiac awareness, pounding in the ears, headache, blurred vision, etc.

The patient should be advised to discontinue the medication immediately if supine hypertension persists. Blood pressure should be monitored carefully when midodrine hydrochloride is used concomitantly with other agents that cause vasoconstriction, such as phenylephrine, ephedrine, dihydroergotamine, phenylpropanolamine or pseudoephedrine.

A slight slowing of the heart rate may occur after administration of midodrine hydrochloride, primarily due to vagal reflex. Caution should be exercised when midodrine hydrochloride is used concomitantly with cardiac glycosides (such as digitalis), psychopharmacologic agents, beta blockers or other agents that directly or indirectly reduce heart rate. Patients who experience any signs or symptoms suggesting bradycardia (pulse slowing, increased dizziness, syncope, cardiac awareness) should be advised to discontinue midodrine hydrochloride and should be re-evaluated.

Midodrine hydrochloride should be used cautiously in patients with urinary retention problems, as desglymidodrine acts on the alpha-adrenergic receptors of the bladder neck.

Midodrine hydrochloride should be used with caution in orthostatic hypotensive patients who are also diabetic, as well as those with a history of visual problems who are also taking fludrocortisone acetate, which is known to cause an increase in intraocular pressure and glaucoma.

Midodrine hydrochloride use has not been studied in patients with renal impairment. Because desglymidodrine is eliminated via the kidneys and higher blood levels would be expected in such patients, midodrine hydrochloride should be used with caution in patients with renal impairment, with a starting dose of 2.5 mg (see ). Renal function should be assessed prior to initial use of midodrine hydrochloride.

Midodrine hydrochloride use has not been studied in patients with hepatic impairment. Midodrine hydrochloride should be used with caution in patients with hepatic impairment, as the liver has a role in the metabolism of midodrine.

The most frequent adverse reactions seen in controlled trials were supine and sitting hypertension; paresthesia and pruritus, mainly of the scalp; goosebumps; chills; urinary urge; urinary retention and urinary frequency.

The frequency of these events in a 3-week placebo-controlled trial is shown in the following table:

Less frequent adverse reactions were headache; feeling of pressure/fullness in the head; vasodilation/flushing face; confusion/thinking abnormality; dry mouth; nervousness/anxiety and rash. Other adverse reactions that occurred rarely were visual field defect; dizziness; skin hyperesthesia; insomnia; somnolence; erythema multiforme; canker sore; dry skin; dysuria; impaired urination; asthenia; backache; pyrosis; nausea; gastrointestinal distress; flatulence and leg cramps.

The most potentially serious adverse reaction associated with midodrine hydrochloride therapy is supine hypertension. The feelings of paresthesia, pruritus, piloerection and chills are pilomotor reactions associated with the action of midodrine on the alpha-adrenergic receptors of the hair follicles. Feelings of urinary urgency, retention and frequency are associated with the action of midodrine on the alpha-receptors of the bladder neck.

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Reference

This information is obtained from the National Institute of Health's Standard Packaging Label drug database.
"https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/"

While we update our database periodically, we cannot guarantee it is always updated to the latest version.

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Professional

Clonazepam Description Each single-scored tablet, for oral administration, contains 0.5 mg, 1 mg, or 2 mg Clonazepam, USP, a benzodiazepine. Each tablet also contains corn starch, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, and povidone. Clonazepam tablets USP 0.5 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake. Clonazepam tablets USP 1 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake, as well as FD&C Blue No. 1 Aluminum Lake. Chemically, Clonazepam, USP is 5-(o-chlorophenyl)-1,3-dihydro-7-nitro-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one. It is a light yellow crystalline powder. It has the following structural formula: C15H10ClN3O3 M.W. 315.72
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Tips

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Interactions

Interactions

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