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Minocycline

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Overview

What is Minocycline?

Minocycline hydrochloride, is a semisynthetic derivative of tetracycline, 4,7-Bis (dimethylamino)-1,4,4a,5,5a,6,11,12a-octahydro-3,10,12,12a-tetrahydroxy-1,11-dioxo-2-naphthacenecarboxamide monohydrochloride. Its structural formula is:

Minocycline hydrochloride tablets for oral administration contain minocycline HCl equivalent to 50 mg, 75 mg or 100 mg of minocycline. In addition, 50 mg, 75 mg and 100 mg tablets contain the following inactive ingredients: Microcrystalline Cellulose NF, Lactose Anhydrous NF, Povidone USP, Colloidal Silicon Dioxide NF, Magnesium Stearate NF, and Sodium Starch Glycolate NF. The 50 mg, 75 mg and 100 mg tablets also contain Opadry White which contains: Titanium Dioxide USP, Hypromellose Type 2910 USP, Polyethylene Glycol 400 NF, and Polysorbate 80 NF.



What does Minocycline look like?



What are the available doses of Minocycline?

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What should I talk to my health care provider before I take Minocycline?

Sorry No records found

How should I use Minocycline?

Minocycline hydrochloride tablets are indicated in the treatment of the following infections due to susceptible strains of the designated microorganisms:

Minocycline is indicated for treatment of infections caused by the following gram-negative microorganisms when bacteriologic testing indicates appropriate susceptibility to the drug:

Minocycline hydrochloride tablets are indicated for the treatment of infections caused by the following gram-positive microorganisms when bacteriologic testing indicates appropriate susceptibility to the drug:

When penicillin is contraindicated, minocycline is an alternative drug in the treatment of the following infections:

In , minocycline may be a useful adjunct to amebicides.

In severe , minocycline may be useful adjunctive therapy.

Oral minocycline is indicated in the treatment of asymptomatic carriers of to eliminate the meningococci from the nasopharynx. In order to preserve the usefulness of minocycline in the treatment of asymptomatic meningococcal carriers, diagnostic laboratory procedures, including serotyping and susceptibility testing, should be performed to establish the carrier state and the correct treatment. It is recommended that the prophylactic use of minocycline be reserved for situations in which the risk of meningococcal meningitis is high.

Oral minocycline is not indicated for the treatment of meningococcal infection.

Although no controlled clinical efficacy studies have been conducted, limited clinical data show that oral minocycline hydrochloride has been used successfully in the treatment of infections caused by .

To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of, minocycline hydrochloride tablets and other antibacterial drugs, minocycline hydrochloride tablets should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.

THE USUAL DOSAGE AND FREQUENCY OF ADMINISTRATION OF MINOCYCLINE DIFFERS FROM THAT OF THE OTHER TETRACYCLINES. EXCEEDING THE RECOMMENDED DOSAGE MAY RESULT IN AN INCREASED INCIDENCE OF SIDE EFFECTS.

Minocycline hydrochloride tablets may be taken with or without food (see ).

Ingestion of adequate amounts of fluids along with capsule and tablet forms of drugs in the tetracycline-class is recommended to reduce the risk of esophageal irritation and ulceration. The tablets should be swallowed whole.

For Pediatric Patients Above 8 Years of Age

Usual pediatric dose: 4 mg/kg initially followed by 2 mg/kg every 12 hours, not to exceed the usual adult dose.

Adults

The usual dosage of minocycline hydrochloride tablets is 200 mg initially followed by 100 mg every 12 hours. Alternatively, if more frequent doses are preferred, two or four 50 mg tablets may be given initially followed by one 50 mg tablet four times daily.

Uncomplicated gonococcal infections other than urethritis and anorectal infections in men: 200 mg initially, followed by 100 mg every 12 hours for a minimum of four days, with post-therapy cultures within 2 to 3 days.

In the treatment of uncomplicated gonococcal urethritis in men, 100 mg every 12 hours for 5 days is recommended.

For the treatment of syphilis, the usual dosage of minocycline hydrochloride should be administered over a period of 10 to 15 days. Close follow-up, including laboratory tests, is recommended.

In the treatment of meningococcal carrier state, the recommended dosage is 100 mg every 12 hours for five days.

Mycobacterium marinum

Uncomplicated urethral, endocervical, or rectal infection in adults caused by or : 100 mg orally, every 12 hours for at least seven days.

Ingestion of adequate amounts of fluids along with capsule and tablet forms of drugs in the tetracycline-class is recommended to reduce the risk of esophageal irritation and ulceration.

The pharmacokinetics of minocycline in patients with renal impairment (CL


What interacts with Minocycline?

This drug is contraindicated in persons who have shown hypersensitivity to any of the tetracyclines or to any of the components of the product formulation.



What are the warnings of Minocycline?

MINOCYCLINE HYDROCHLORIDE TABLETS, LIKE OTHER TETRACYCLINE-CLASS ANTIBIOTICS, CAN CAUSE FETAL HARM WHEN ADMINISTERED TO A PREGNANT WOMAN. IF ANY TETRACYCLINE IS USED DURING PREGNANCY OR IF THE PATIENT BECOMES PREGNANT WHILE TAKING THESE DRUGS, THE PATIENT SHOULD BE APPRISED OF THE POTENTIAL HAZARD TO THE FETUS. THE USE OF DRUGS OF THE TETRACYCLINE CLASS DURING TOOTH DEVELOPMENT (LAST HALF OF PREGNANCY, INFANCY, AND CHILDHOOD TO THE AGE OF 8 YEARS) MAY CAUSE PERMANENT DISCOLORATION OF THE TEETH (YELLOW-GRAY-BROWN).

This adverse reaction is more common during long-term use of the drug but has been observed following repeated short-term courses. Enamel hypoplasia has also been reported.

All tetracyclines form a stable calcium complex in any bone-forming tissue. A decrease in the fibula growth rate has been observed in premature human infants given oral tetracycline in doses of 25 mg/kg every six hours. This reaction was shown to be reversible when the drug was discontinued.

Results of animal studies indicate that tetracyclines cross the placenta, are found in fetal tissues, and can have toxic effects on the developing fetus (often related to retardation of skeletal development). Evidence of embryotoxicity has been noted in animals treated early in pregnancy.

Drug Rash with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS) including fetal cases have been reported with minocycline use. If this syndrome is recognized, the drug should be discontinued immediately.

The anti-anabolic action of the tetracyclines may cause an increase in BUN. While this is not a problem in those with normal renal function, in patients with significantly impaired function, higher serum levels of tetracycline may lead to azotemia, hyperphosphatemia, and acidosis. Under such conditions, monitoring of creatinine and BUN is recommended, and the total daily dosage should not exceed 200 mg in 24 hours (see ). If renal impairment exists, even usual oral or parenteral doses may lead to systemic accumulation of the drug and possible liver toxicity.

Photosensitivity manifested by an exaggerated sunburn reaction has been observed in some individuals taking tetracyclines. This has been reported with minocycline.

Central nervous system side effects including light-headedness, dizziness, or vertigo have been reported with minocycline therapy. Patients who experience these symptoms should be cautioned about driving vehicles or using hazardous machinery while on minocycline therapy. These symptoms may disappear during therapy and usually disappear rapidly when the drug is discontinued.

If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibiotic use not directed against may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibiotic treatment of , and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.


What are the precautions of Minocycline?

General

As with other antibiotic preparations, use of this drug may result in overgrowth of non-susceptible organisms, including fungi. If superinfection occurs, the antibiotic should be discontinued and appropriate therapy instituted.

Pseudotumor cerebri (benign intracranial hypertension) in adults has been associated with the use of tetracyclines. The usual clinical manifestations are headache and blurred vision. Bulging fontanels have been associated with the use of tetracyclines in infants. While both of these conditions and related symptoms usually resolve after discontinuation of the tetracycline, the possibility for permanent sequelae exists.

Hepatotoxicity has been reported with minocycline; therefore, minocycline should be used with caution in patients with hepatic dysfunction and in conjunction with other hepatotoxic drugs.

Incision and drainage or other surgical procedures should be performed in conjunction

with antibiotic therapy when indicated.

Prescribing minocycline hydrochloride tablets in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug resistant bacteria.

Information For Patients

Diarrhea is a common problem caused by antibiotics which usually ends when the antibiotic is discontinued. Sometimes after starting treatment with antibiotics, patients can develop watery and bloody stools (with or without stomach cramps and fever) even as late as two or more months after having taken the last dose of the antibiotic. If this occurs, patients should contact their physician as soon as possible.

Photosensitivity manifested by an exaggerated sunburn reaction has been observed in some individuals taking tetracyclines. Patients apt to be exposed to direct sunlight or ultraviolet light should be advised that this reaction can occur with tetracycline drugs, and treatment should be discontinued at the first evidence of skin erythema. This reaction has been reported with use of minocycline.

Patients who experience central nervous system symptoms should be cautioned about driving vehicles or using hazardous machinery while on minocycline therapy (see ).

Concurrent use of tetracycline with oral contraceptives may render oral contraceptives less effective (see ).

Patients should be counseled that antibacterial drugs including minocycline hydrochloride tablets should only be used to treat bacterial infections. They do not treat viral infections (e.g., the common cold). When minocycline hydrochloride tablets are prescribed to treat a bacterial infection, patients should be told that although it is common to feel better early in the course of therapy, the medication should be taken exactly as directed. Skipping doses or not completing the full course of therapy may: (1) decrease the effectiveness of the immediate treatment and (2) increase the likelihood that bacteria will develop resistance and will not be treatable by minocycline hydrochloride tablets or other antibacterial drugs in the future.

Unused supplies of tetracycline antibiotics should be discarded by the expiration date.

Laboratory Tests

In venereal disease when coexistent syphilis is suspected, a dark-field examination should be done before treatment is started and the blood serology repeated monthly for at least four months.

Periodic laboratory evaluations of organ systems, including hematopoietic, renal, and hepatic, should be performed.

Drug Interactions

Because tetracyclines have been shown to depress plasma prothrombin activity, patients who are on anticoagulant therapy may require downward adjustment of their anticoagulant dosage.

Since bacteriostatic drugs may interfere with the bactericidal action of penicillin, it is advisable to avoid giving tetracycline-class drugs in conjunction with penicillin.

Absorption of tetracyclines is impaired by antacids containing aluminum, calcium, or magnesium, and iron-containing preparations.

The concurrent use of tetracycline and methoxyflurane has been reported to result in fatal renal toxicity.

Concurrent use of tetracyclines with oral contraceptives may render oral contraceptives less effective.

Administration of isotretinoin should be avoided shortly before, during, and shortly after minocycline therapy. Each drug alone has been associated with pseudotumor cerebri (see ).

Increased risk of ergotism when ergot alkaloids or their derivatives are given with tetracyclines.

Drug/Laboratory Test Interactions

False elevations of urinary catecholamine levels may occur due to interference with the fluorescence test.

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

Dietary administration of minocycline in long term tumorigenicity studies in rats resulted in evidence of thyroid tumor production. Minocycline has also been found to produce thyroid hyperplasia in rats and dogs. In addition, there has been evidence of oncogenic activity in rats in studies with a related antibiotic, oxytetracycline (i.e., adrenal and pituitary tumors). Likewise, although mutagenicity studies of minocycline have not been conducted, positive results in mammalian cell assays (i.e., mouse lymphoma and Chinese hamster lung cells) have been reported for related antibiotics (tetracycline hydrochloride and oxytetracycline). Segment I (fertility and general reproduction) studies have provided evidence that minocycline impairs fertility in male rats.

Pregnancy

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All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defects, loss, or other adverse outcome regardless of drug exposure. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies on the use of minocycline in pregnant women. Minocycline, like other tetracycline-class antibiotics, crosses the placenta and may cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Rare spontaneous reports of congenital anomalies including limb reduction have been reported in post-marketing experience. Only limited information is available regarding these reports; therefore, no conclusion on causal association can be established. If minocycline is used during pregnancy or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking this drug, the patient should be apprised of the potential hazard to the fetus.

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Labor and Delivery

The effect of tetracyclines on labor and delivery is unknown.

Nursing Mothers

Tetracyclines are excreted in human milk. Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from the tetracyclines, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother (see ).

Pediatric Use

Minocycline is not recommended for use in children below 8 years of age unless the expected benefits of therapy outweigh the risks (see ).

Geriatric Use

Clinical studies of oral minocycline did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy (see , ).


What are the side effects of Minocycline?

Due to oral minocycline’s virtually complete absorption, side effects to the lower bowel, particularly diarrhea, have been infrequent. The following adverse reactions have been observed in patients receiving tetracyclines.

Body as a whole:

Gastrointestinal

DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

Genitourinary:

Hepatic toxicity:

PRECAUTIONS

Skin:

WARNINGS

Respiratory:

Renal toxicity:

WARNINGS

Musculoskeletal:

Hypersensitivity reactions:

Blood:

Central Nervous System:

PRECAUTIONS-General

Other:

Tooth discoloration in children less than 8 years of age, and also in adults has been reported (see ).

Oral cavity discoloration (including tongue, lip, and gum) have been reported.

Tinnitus and decreased hearing have been reported in patients on minocycline hydrochloride.

The following syndromes have been reported. In some cases involving these syndromes, death has been reported. As with other serious adverse reactions, if any of these syndromes are recognized, the drug should be discontinued immediately:

Hypersensitivity syndrome consisting of cutaneous reaction (such as rash or exfoliative dermatitis), eosinophilia, and one or more of the following: hepatitis, pneumonitis, nephritis, myocarditis, and pericarditis. Fever and lymphadenopathy may be present.

Lupus-like syndrome consisting of positive antinuclear antibody; arthralgia, arthritis, joint stiffness, or joint swelling; and one or more of the following: fever, myalgia, hepatitis, rash, and vasculitis.

Serum sickness-like syndrome consisting of fever; urticaria or rash; and arthralgia, arthritis, joint stiffness, or joint swelling. Eosinophilia may be present.


What should I look out for while using Minocycline?

This drug is contraindicated in persons who have shown hypersensitivity to any of the tetracyclines or to any of the components of the product formulation.

MINOCYCLINE HYDROCHLORIDE TABLETS, LIKE OTHER TETRACYCLINE-CLASS ANTIBIOTICS, CAN CAUSE FETAL HARM WHEN ADMINISTERED TO A PREGNANT WOMAN. IF ANY TETRACYCLINE IS USED DURING PREGNANCY OR IF THE PATIENT BECOMES PREGNANT WHILE TAKING THESE DRUGS, THE PATIENT SHOULD BE APPRISED OF THE POTENTIAL HAZARD TO THE FETUS. THE USE OF DRUGS OF THE TETRACYCLINE CLASS DURING TOOTH DEVELOPMENT (LAST HALF OF PREGNANCY, INFANCY, AND CHILDHOOD TO THE AGE OF 8 YEARS) MAY CAUSE PERMANENT DISCOLORATION OF THE TEETH (YELLOW-GRAY-BROWN).

This adverse reaction is more common during long-term use of the drug but has been observed following repeated short-term courses. Enamel hypoplasia has also been reported.

All tetracyclines form a stable calcium complex in any bone-forming tissue. A decrease in the fibula growth rate has been observed in premature human infants given oral tetracycline in doses of 25 mg/kg every six hours. This reaction was shown to be reversible when the drug was discontinued.

Results of animal studies indicate that tetracyclines cross the placenta, are found in fetal tissues, and can have toxic effects on the developing fetus (often related to retardation of skeletal development). Evidence of embryotoxicity has been noted in animals treated early in pregnancy.

Drug Rash with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS) including fetal cases have been reported with minocycline use. If this syndrome is recognized, the drug should be discontinued immediately.

The anti-anabolic action of the tetracyclines may cause an increase in BUN. While this is not a problem in those with normal renal function, in patients with significantly impaired function, higher serum levels of tetracycline may lead to azotemia, hyperphosphatemia, and acidosis. Under such conditions, monitoring of creatinine and BUN is recommended, and the total daily dosage should not exceed 200 mg in 24 hours (see ). If renal impairment exists, even usual oral or parenteral doses may lead to systemic accumulation of the drug and possible liver toxicity.

Photosensitivity manifested by an exaggerated sunburn reaction has been observed in some individuals taking tetracyclines. This has been reported with minocycline.

Central nervous system side effects including light-headedness, dizziness, or vertigo have been reported with minocycline therapy. Patients who experience these symptoms should be cautioned about driving vehicles or using hazardous machinery while on minocycline therapy. These symptoms may disappear during therapy and usually disappear rapidly when the drug is discontinued.

Clostridium difficile

C. difficile

C. difficile

C. difficile

If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibiotic use not directed against may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibiotic treatment of , and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.


What might happen if I take too much Minocycline?

The adverse events more commonly seen in overdose are dizziness, nausea, and vomiting.

No specific antidote for minocycline is known.

In case of overdosage, discontinue medication, treat symptomatically and institute supportive measures. Minocycline is not removed in significant quantities by hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis.


How should I store and handle Minocycline?

As with other potentially toxic anticancer agents, care should be exercised in the handling and preparation of infusion solutions prepared from oxaliplatin. The use of gloves is recommended. If a solution of oxaliplatin contacts the skin, wash the skin immediately and thoroughly with soap and water. If oxaliplatin contacts the mucous membranes, flush thoroughly with water.Procedures for the handling and disposal of anticancer drugs should be considered. Several guidelines on the subject have been published . There is no general agreement that all of the procedures recommended in the guidelines are necessary or appropriate.As with other potentially toxic anticancer agents, care should be exercised in the handling and preparation of infusion solutions prepared from oxaliplatin. The use of gloves is recommended. If a solution of oxaliplatin contacts the skin, wash the skin immediately and thoroughly with soap and water. If oxaliplatin contacts the mucous membranes, flush thoroughly with water.Procedures for the handling and disposal of anticancer drugs should be considered. Several guidelines on the subject have been published . There is no general agreement that all of the procedures recommended in the guidelines are necessary or appropriate.Minocycline hydrochloride tablets are supplied as aqueous film coated tablets containing minocycline hydrochloride equivalent to 50 mg, 75 mg and 100 mg minocycline. The 50 mg tablets are white, unscored, modified capsule shaped, coated tablet debossed “Par” on one side and “511" on the other. Each tablet contains minocycline hydrochloride equivalent to 50 mg minocycline, supplied as follows: NDC  42291-589-90   Bottles of 90The 75 mg tablets are white, unscored, modified capsule shaped, coated tablet debossed “Par" on one side and “512" on the other. Each tablet contains minocycline hydrochloride equivalent to 75 mg minocycline. The 100 mg tablets are white, unscored, modified capsule shaped, coated tablet debossed “Par" on one side and “513" on the other. Each tablet contains minocycline hydrochloride equivalent to 100 mg minocycline, supplied as follows: NDC 42291-591-60  Bottle of 60Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Protect from light, moisture and excessive heat. Dispense in a tight, light-resistant container as defined in the USP.Minocycline hydrochloride tablets are supplied as aqueous film coated tablets containing minocycline hydrochloride equivalent to 50 mg, 75 mg and 100 mg minocycline. The 50 mg tablets are white, unscored, modified capsule shaped, coated tablet debossed “Par” on one side and “511" on the other. Each tablet contains minocycline hydrochloride equivalent to 50 mg minocycline, supplied as follows: NDC  42291-589-90   Bottles of 90The 75 mg tablets are white, unscored, modified capsule shaped, coated tablet debossed “Par" on one side and “512" on the other. Each tablet contains minocycline hydrochloride equivalent to 75 mg minocycline. The 100 mg tablets are white, unscored, modified capsule shaped, coated tablet debossed “Par" on one side and “513" on the other. Each tablet contains minocycline hydrochloride equivalent to 100 mg minocycline, supplied as follows: NDC 42291-591-60  Bottle of 60Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Protect from light, moisture and excessive heat. Dispense in a tight, light-resistant container as defined in the USP.Minocycline hydrochloride tablets are supplied as aqueous film coated tablets containing minocycline hydrochloride equivalent to 50 mg, 75 mg and 100 mg minocycline. The 50 mg tablets are white, unscored, modified capsule shaped, coated tablet debossed “Par” on one side and “511" on the other. Each tablet contains minocycline hydrochloride equivalent to 50 mg minocycline, supplied as follows: NDC  42291-589-90   Bottles of 90The 75 mg tablets are white, unscored, modified capsule shaped, coated tablet debossed “Par" on one side and “512" on the other. Each tablet contains minocycline hydrochloride equivalent to 75 mg minocycline. The 100 mg tablets are white, unscored, modified capsule shaped, coated tablet debossed “Par" on one side and “513" on the other. Each tablet contains minocycline hydrochloride equivalent to 100 mg minocycline, supplied as follows: NDC 42291-591-60  Bottle of 60Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Protect from light, moisture and excessive heat. Dispense in a tight, light-resistant container as defined in the USP.Minocycline hydrochloride tablets are supplied as aqueous film coated tablets containing minocycline hydrochloride equivalent to 50 mg, 75 mg and 100 mg minocycline. The 50 mg tablets are white, unscored, modified capsule shaped, coated tablet debossed “Par” on one side and “511" on the other. Each tablet contains minocycline hydrochloride equivalent to 50 mg minocycline, supplied as follows: NDC  42291-589-90   Bottles of 90The 75 mg tablets are white, unscored, modified capsule shaped, coated tablet debossed “Par" on one side and “512" on the other. Each tablet contains minocycline hydrochloride equivalent to 75 mg minocycline. The 100 mg tablets are white, unscored, modified capsule shaped, coated tablet debossed “Par" on one side and “513" on the other. Each tablet contains minocycline hydrochloride equivalent to 100 mg minocycline, supplied as follows: NDC 42291-591-60  Bottle of 60Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Protect from light, moisture and excessive heat. Dispense in a tight, light-resistant container as defined in the USP.Minocycline hydrochloride tablets are supplied as aqueous film coated tablets containing minocycline hydrochloride equivalent to 50 mg, 75 mg and 100 mg minocycline. The 50 mg tablets are white, unscored, modified capsule shaped, coated tablet debossed “Par” on one side and “511" on the other. Each tablet contains minocycline hydrochloride equivalent to 50 mg minocycline, supplied as follows: NDC  42291-589-90   Bottles of 90The 75 mg tablets are white, unscored, modified capsule shaped, coated tablet debossed “Par" on one side and “512" on the other. Each tablet contains minocycline hydrochloride equivalent to 75 mg minocycline. The 100 mg tablets are white, unscored, modified capsule shaped, coated tablet debossed “Par" on one side and “513" on the other. Each tablet contains minocycline hydrochloride equivalent to 100 mg minocycline, supplied as follows: NDC 42291-591-60  Bottle of 60Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Protect from light, moisture and excessive heat. Dispense in a tight, light-resistant container as defined in the USP.Minocycline hydrochloride tablets are supplied as aqueous film coated tablets containing minocycline hydrochloride equivalent to 50 mg, 75 mg and 100 mg minocycline. The 50 mg tablets are white, unscored, modified capsule shaped, coated tablet debossed “Par” on one side and “511" on the other. Each tablet contains minocycline hydrochloride equivalent to 50 mg minocycline, supplied as follows: NDC  42291-589-90   Bottles of 90The 75 mg tablets are white, unscored, modified capsule shaped, coated tablet debossed “Par" on one side and “512" on the other. Each tablet contains minocycline hydrochloride equivalent to 75 mg minocycline. The 100 mg tablets are white, unscored, modified capsule shaped, coated tablet debossed “Par" on one side and “513" on the other. Each tablet contains minocycline hydrochloride equivalent to 100 mg minocycline, supplied as follows: NDC 42291-591-60  Bottle of 60Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Protect from light, moisture and excessive heat. Dispense in a tight, light-resistant container as defined in the USP.Minocycline hydrochloride tablets are supplied as aqueous film coated tablets containing minocycline hydrochloride equivalent to 50 mg, 75 mg and 100 mg minocycline. The 50 mg tablets are white, unscored, modified capsule shaped, coated tablet debossed “Par” on one side and “511" on the other. Each tablet contains minocycline hydrochloride equivalent to 50 mg minocycline, supplied as follows: NDC  42291-589-90   Bottles of 90The 75 mg tablets are white, unscored, modified capsule shaped, coated tablet debossed “Par" on one side and “512" on the other. Each tablet contains minocycline hydrochloride equivalent to 75 mg minocycline. The 100 mg tablets are white, unscored, modified capsule shaped, coated tablet debossed “Par" on one side and “513" on the other. Each tablet contains minocycline hydrochloride equivalent to 100 mg minocycline, supplied as follows: NDC 42291-591-60  Bottle of 60Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Protect from light, moisture and excessive heat. Dispense in a tight, light-resistant container as defined in the USP.Minocycline hydrochloride tablets are supplied as aqueous film coated tablets containing minocycline hydrochloride equivalent to 50 mg, 75 mg and 100 mg minocycline. The 50 mg tablets are white, unscored, modified capsule shaped, coated tablet debossed “Par” on one side and “511" on the other. Each tablet contains minocycline hydrochloride equivalent to 50 mg minocycline, supplied as follows: NDC  42291-589-90   Bottles of 90The 75 mg tablets are white, unscored, modified capsule shaped, coated tablet debossed “Par" on one side and “512" on the other. Each tablet contains minocycline hydrochloride equivalent to 75 mg minocycline. The 100 mg tablets are white, unscored, modified capsule shaped, coated tablet debossed “Par" on one side and “513" on the other. Each tablet contains minocycline hydrochloride equivalent to 100 mg minocycline, supplied as follows: NDC 42291-591-60  Bottle of 60Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Protect from light, moisture and excessive heat. Dispense in a tight, light-resistant container as defined in the USP.Minocycline hydrochloride tablets are supplied as aqueous film coated tablets containing minocycline hydrochloride equivalent to 50 mg, 75 mg and 100 mg minocycline. The 50 mg tablets are white, unscored, modified capsule shaped, coated tablet debossed “Par” on one side and “511" on the other. Each tablet contains minocycline hydrochloride equivalent to 50 mg minocycline, supplied as follows: NDC  42291-589-90   Bottles of 90The 75 mg tablets are white, unscored, modified capsule shaped, coated tablet debossed “Par" on one side and “512" on the other. Each tablet contains minocycline hydrochloride equivalent to 75 mg minocycline. The 100 mg tablets are white, unscored, modified capsule shaped, coated tablet debossed “Par" on one side and “513" on the other. Each tablet contains minocycline hydrochloride equivalent to 100 mg minocycline, supplied as follows: NDC 42291-591-60  Bottle of 60Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Protect from light, moisture and excessive heat. Dispense in a tight, light-resistant container as defined in the USP.


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Clinical Information

Chemical Structure

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Clinical Pharmacology

Following a single dose of one 100 mg tablet of minocycline hydrochloride administered to 28 normal fasting adult volunteers, maximum serum concentrations were attained in 1 to 3 hours (average 1.71 hours) and ranged from 491.71 to 1292.70 ng/mL (average 758.29 ng/mL). The serum half-life in the normal volunteers ranged from 11.38 to 24.31 hours (average 17.03 hours).

When minocycline hydrochloride tablets were given concomitantly with a meal, which included dairy products, the extent of absorption of minocycline hydrochloride tablets was slightly decreased (6%). The peak plasma concentrations were slightly decreased (12%) and delayed by 1.09 hours when administered with food, compared to dosing under fasting conditions. Minocycline HCl may be administered with or without food.

In previous studies with other minocycline dosage forms, the minocycline serum half-life ranged from 11 to 16 hours in 7 patients with hepatic dysfunction, and from 18 to 69 hours in 5 patients with renal dysfunction. The urinary and fecal recovery of minocycline when administered to 12 normal volunteers was one-half to one-third that of other tetracyclines.

Microbiology

The tetracyclines are primarily bacteriostatic and are thought to exert their antimicrobial effect by the inhibition of protein synthesis. The tetracyclines, including minocycline, have similar antimicrobial spectra of activity against a wide range of gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. Cross-resistance of these organisms to tetracyclines is common.

Minocycline has been shown to be active against most strains of the following microorganisms, both and in clinical infections as described in the section:

AEROBIC GRAM-POSITIVE MICROORGANISMS:

Because many strains of the following gram-positive microorganisms have been shown to be resistant to tetracyclines, culture and susceptibility testing are especially recommended. Tetracycline antibiotics should not be used for streptococcal diseases unless the organism has been demonstrated to be susceptible. Tetracyclines are not the drug of choice in the treatment of any type of staphylococcal infection.

Bacillus anthracis

Listeria monocytogenes

Staphylococcus aureus

Streptococcus pneumoniae

AEROBIC GRAM-NEGATIVE MICROORGANISMS

Bartonella bacilliformis

Brucella

Calymmatobacterium granulomatis

Campylobacter fetus

Francisella tularensis

Haemophilus ducreyi

Vibrio cholerae

Yersinia pestis

Because many strains of the following groups of gram-negative microorganisms have been shown to be resistant to tetracyclines, culture and susceptibility tests are especially recommended.

Acinetobacter

Enterobacter aerogenes

Escherichia col

i

Haemophilus influenzae

Klebsiella

Neisseria gonorrhoeae

Neisseria meningitidis

Shigella

“OTHER” MICROORGANISMS

Actinomyces

Borrelia recurrentis

Chlamydia psittaci

Chlamydia trachomatis

Clostridium

Entamoeba

Fusobacterium nucleatum subspecies

Mycobacterium marinu

m

Mycoplasma pneumoniae

Propionibacterium acnes

Rickettsia

e

Treponema pallidum

pallidum

Treponema pallidum

pertenue

Ureaplasma urealyticum

a

Susceptibility Tests

Susceptibility testing should be performed with tetracycline since it predicts susceptibility to minocycline. However, certain organisms (e.g., some staphylococci, and species) may be more susceptible to minocycline and doxycycline than tetracycline.

Dilution techniques:

Quantitative methods are used to determine antimicrobial minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs). These MICs provide estimates of the susceptibility of bacteria to antimicrobial compounds. The MICs should be determined using a standardized procedure. Standardized procedures are based on a dilution method (broth or agar) or equivalent with standardized inoculum concentrations and standardized concentrations of tetracycline powder. The MIC values should be interpreted according to the following criteria:

For testing aerobic gram-negative microorganisms (Enterobacteriaceae), species and

For testing and :

Haemophilus influenzae

Haemophilus

For testing :

A report of “Susceptible” indicates that the pathogen is likely to be inhibited if the antimicrobial compound in the blood reaches the concentrations usually achievable. A report of “Intermediate” indicates that the result should be considered equivocal, and, if the microorganism is not fully susceptible to alternative, clinically feasible drugs, the test should be repeated. This category implies possible clinical applicability in body sites where the drug is physiologically concentrated or in situations where high dosage of drug can be used. This category also provides a buffer zone which prevents small uncontrolled technical factors from causing major discrepancies in interpretation. A report of “Resistant” indicates that the pathogen is not likely to be inhibited if the antimicrobial compound in the blood reaches the concentrations usually achievable; other therapy should be selected.

Standardized susceptibility test procedures require the use of laboratory control microorganisms to control the technical aspects of the laboratory procedures. Standard tetracycline powder should provide the following MIC values:

Diffusion techniques:

Quantitative methods that require measurement of zone diameters also provide reproducible estimates of the susceptibility of bacteria to antimicrobial compounds. One such standardized procedure requires the use of standardized inoculum concentrations. This procedure uses paper disks impregnated with 30 mcg tetracycline (class disk) or 30 mcg minocycline to test the susceptibility of microorganisms to minocycline.

Reports from the laboratory providing results of the standard single-disk susceptibility test with a 30 mcg tetracycline or minocycline disk should be interpreted according to the following criteria:

For testing aerobic gram-negative microorganisms (Enterobacteriaceae), species and :

For testing :

Haemophilus influenzae

Haemophilus

For testing :

For testing :

For testing :

Interpretation should be as stated above for results using dilution techniques. Interpretation involves correlation of the diameter obtained in the disk test with the MIC for tetracycline.

As with standardized dilution techniques, diffusion methods require the use of laboratory control microorganisms that are used to control the technical aspects of the laboratory procedures. For the diffusion technique, the 30 mcg tetracycline or minocycline disk should provide the following zone diameters in these laboratory test quality control strains:

Non-Clinical Toxicology
This drug is contraindicated in persons who have shown hypersensitivity to any of the tetracyclines or to any of the components of the product formulation.

MINOCYCLINE HYDROCHLORIDE TABLETS, LIKE OTHER TETRACYCLINE-CLASS ANTIBIOTICS, CAN CAUSE FETAL HARM WHEN ADMINISTERED TO A PREGNANT WOMAN. IF ANY TETRACYCLINE IS USED DURING PREGNANCY OR IF THE PATIENT BECOMES PREGNANT WHILE TAKING THESE DRUGS, THE PATIENT SHOULD BE APPRISED OF THE POTENTIAL HAZARD TO THE FETUS. THE USE OF DRUGS OF THE TETRACYCLINE CLASS DURING TOOTH DEVELOPMENT (LAST HALF OF PREGNANCY, INFANCY, AND CHILDHOOD TO THE AGE OF 8 YEARS) MAY CAUSE PERMANENT DISCOLORATION OF THE TEETH (YELLOW-GRAY-BROWN).

This adverse reaction is more common during long-term use of the drug but has been observed following repeated short-term courses. Enamel hypoplasia has also been reported.

All tetracyclines form a stable calcium complex in any bone-forming tissue. A decrease in the fibula growth rate has been observed in premature human infants given oral tetracycline in doses of 25 mg/kg every six hours. This reaction was shown to be reversible when the drug was discontinued.

Results of animal studies indicate that tetracyclines cross the placenta, are found in fetal tissues, and can have toxic effects on the developing fetus (often related to retardation of skeletal development). Evidence of embryotoxicity has been noted in animals treated early in pregnancy.

Drug Rash with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS) including fetal cases have been reported with minocycline use. If this syndrome is recognized, the drug should be discontinued immediately.

The anti-anabolic action of the tetracyclines may cause an increase in BUN. While this is not a problem in those with normal renal function, in patients with significantly impaired function, higher serum levels of tetracycline may lead to azotemia, hyperphosphatemia, and acidosis. Under such conditions, monitoring of creatinine and BUN is recommended, and the total daily dosage should not exceed 200 mg in 24 hours (see ). If renal impairment exists, even usual oral or parenteral doses may lead to systemic accumulation of the drug and possible liver toxicity.

Photosensitivity manifested by an exaggerated sunburn reaction has been observed in some individuals taking tetracyclines. This has been reported with minocycline.

Central nervous system side effects including light-headedness, dizziness, or vertigo have been reported with minocycline therapy. Patients who experience these symptoms should be cautioned about driving vehicles or using hazardous machinery while on minocycline therapy. These symptoms may disappear during therapy and usually disappear rapidly when the drug is discontinued.

Clostridium difficile

C. difficile

C. difficile

C. difficile

If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibiotic use not directed against may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibiotic treatment of , and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.

Because tetracyclines have been shown to depress plasma prothrombin activity, patients who are on anticoagulant therapy may require downward adjustment of their anticoagulant dosage.

Since bacteriostatic drugs may interfere with the bactericidal action of penicillin, it is advisable to avoid giving tetracycline-class drugs in conjunction with penicillin.

Absorption of tetracyclines is impaired by antacids containing aluminum, calcium, or magnesium, and iron-containing preparations.

The concurrent use of tetracycline and methoxyflurane has been reported to result in fatal renal toxicity.

Concurrent use of tetracyclines with oral contraceptives may render oral contraceptives less effective.

Administration of isotretinoin should be avoided shortly before, during, and shortly after minocycline therapy. Each drug alone has been associated with pseudotumor cerebri (see ).

Increased risk of ergotism when ergot alkaloids or their derivatives are given with tetracyclines.

General

As with other antibiotic preparations, use of this drug may result in overgrowth of non-susceptible organisms, including fungi. If superinfection occurs, the antibiotic should be discontinued and appropriate therapy instituted.

Pseudotumor cerebri (benign intracranial hypertension) in adults has been associated with the use of tetracyclines. The usual clinical manifestations are headache and blurred vision. Bulging fontanels have been associated with the use of tetracyclines in infants. While both of these conditions and related symptoms usually resolve after discontinuation of the tetracycline, the possibility for permanent sequelae exists.

Hepatotoxicity has been reported with minocycline; therefore, minocycline should be used with caution in patients with hepatic dysfunction and in conjunction with other hepatotoxic drugs.

Incision and drainage or other surgical procedures should be performed in conjunction

with antibiotic therapy when indicated.

Prescribing minocycline hydrochloride tablets in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug resistant bacteria.

Due to oral minocycline’s virtually complete absorption, side effects to the lower bowel, particularly diarrhea, have been infrequent. The following adverse reactions have been observed in patients receiving tetracyclines.

Body as a whole:

Gastrointestinal

DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

Genitourinary:

Hepatic toxicity:

PRECAUTIONS

Skin:

WARNINGS

Respiratory:

Renal toxicity:

WARNINGS

Musculoskeletal:

Hypersensitivity reactions:

Blood:

Central Nervous System:

PRECAUTIONS-General

Other:

Tooth discoloration in children less than 8 years of age, and also in adults has been reported (see ).

Oral cavity discoloration (including tongue, lip, and gum) have been reported.

Tinnitus and decreased hearing have been reported in patients on minocycline hydrochloride.

The following syndromes have been reported. In some cases involving these syndromes, death has been reported. As with other serious adverse reactions, if any of these syndromes are recognized, the drug should be discontinued immediately:

Hypersensitivity syndrome consisting of cutaneous reaction (such as rash or exfoliative dermatitis), eosinophilia, and one or more of the following: hepatitis, pneumonitis, nephritis, myocarditis, and pericarditis. Fever and lymphadenopathy may be present.

Lupus-like syndrome consisting of positive antinuclear antibody; arthralgia, arthritis, joint stiffness, or joint swelling; and one or more of the following: fever, myalgia, hepatitis, rash, and vasculitis.

Serum sickness-like syndrome consisting of fever; urticaria or rash; and arthralgia, arthritis, joint stiffness, or joint swelling. Eosinophilia may be present.

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Reference

This information is obtained from the National Institute of Health's Standard Packaging Label drug database.
"https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/"

While we update our database periodically, we cannot guarantee it is always updated to the latest version.

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Clonazepam Description Each single-scored tablet, for oral administration, contains 0.5 mg, 1 mg, or 2 mg Clonazepam, USP, a benzodiazepine. Each tablet also contains corn starch, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, and povidone. Clonazepam tablets USP 0.5 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake. Clonazepam tablets USP 1 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake, as well as FD&C Blue No. 1 Aluminum Lake. Chemically, Clonazepam, USP is 5-(o-chlorophenyl)-1,3-dihydro-7-nitro-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one. It is a light yellow crystalline powder. It has the following structural formula: C15H10ClN3O3 M.W. 315.72
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Interactions

Interactions

A total of 440 drugs (1549 brand and generic names) are known to interact with Imbruvica (ibrutinib). 228 major drug interactions (854 brand and generic names) 210 moderate drug interactions (691 brand and generic names) 2 minor drug interactions (4 brand and generic names) Show all medications in the database that may interact with Imbruvica (ibrutinib).