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misoprostol

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Overview

What is misoprostol?

Misoprostol oral tablets contain either 100 mcg or 200 mcg of misoprostol, a synthetic prostaglandin E analog.

Misoprostol contains approximately equal amounts of the two diastereomers presented below with their enantiomers indicated by (±):

Misoprostol is a water-soluble, viscous liquid.

Inactive ingredients of tablets are hydrogenated castor oil, hypromellose, microcrystalline cellulose, and sodium starch glycolate.



What does misoprostol look like?



What are the available doses of misoprostol?

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What should I talk to my health care provider before I take misoprostol?

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How should I use misoprostol?

Misoprostol is indicated for reducing the risk of NSAID (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, including aspirin)–induced gastric ulcers in patients at high risk of complications from gastric ulcer, e.g., the elderly and patients with concomitant debilitating disease, as well as patients at high risk of developing gastric ulceration, such as patients with a history of ulcer. Misoprostol has not been shown to reduce the risk of duodenal ulcers in patients taking NSAIDs. Misoprostol should be taken for the duration of NSAID therapy. Misoprostol has been shown to reduce the risk of gastric ulcers in controlled studies of 3 months' duration. It had no effect, compared to placebo, on gastrointestinal pain or discomfort associated with NSAID use.

The recommended adult oral dose of misoprostol for reducing the risk of NSAID-induced gastric ulcers is 200 mcg four times daily with food. If this dose cannot be tolerated, a dose of 100 mcg can be used (see ). Misoprostol should be taken for the duration of NSAID therapy as prescribed by the physician. Misoprostol should be taken with a meal, and the last dose of the day should be at bedtime.


What interacts with misoprostol?

See


Misoprostol should not be taken by pregnant women to reduce the risk of ulcers induced by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).


Misoprostol should not be taken by anyone with a history of allergy to prostaglandins.



What are the warnings of misoprostol?

If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibacterial use not directed against may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibacterial treatment of , and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.

See

For hospital use only if misoprostol were to be used for cervical ripening, induction of labor, or for the treatment of serious post-partum hemorrhage, which are outside of the approved indication.


What are the precautions of misoprostol?

Caution should be employed when administering misoprostol to patients with pre-existing cardiovascular disease.

Information for patients

Women of childbearing potential using misoprostol to decrease the risk of NSAID-induced ulcers should be told that they must not be pregnant when misoprostol therapy is initiated, and that they must use an effective contraception method while taking misoprostol.

See

Misoprostol is intended for administration along with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), including aspirin, to decrease the chance of developing an NSAID-induced gastric ulcer.

Misoprostol should be taken only according to the directions given by a physician.

If the patient has questions about or problems with misoprostol, the physician should be contacted promptly.

THE PATIENT SHOULD NOT GIVE MISOPROSTOL TO ANYONE ELSE.

The misoprostol package the patient receives from the pharmacist will include a leaflet containing patient information. The patient should read the leaflet before taking misoprostol and each time the prescription is renewed because the leaflet may have been revised.

Keep misoprostol out of the reach of children.

SPECIAL NOTE FOR WOMEN: Misoprostol may cause birth defects, abortion (sometimes incomplete), premature labor or rupture of the uterus if given to pregnant women.

Misoprostol is available only as a unit-of-use package that includes a leaflet containing patient information. See at the end of this labeling.

Drug interactions

See Misoprostol has not been shown to interfere with the beneficial effects of aspirin on signs and symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis. Misoprostol does not exert clinically significant effects on the absorption, blood levels, and antiplatelet effects of therapeutic doses of aspirin. Misoprostol has no clinically significant effect on the kinetics of diclofenac or ibuprofen.

Prostaglandins such as misoprostol may augment the activity of oxytocic agents, especially when given less than 4 hours prior to initiating oxytocin treatment. Concomitant use is not recommended.

Animal toxicology

A reversible increase in the number of normal surface gastric epithelial cells occurred in the dog, rat, and mouse. No such increase has been observed in humans administered misoprostol for up to 1 year.

An apparent response of the female mouse to misoprostol in long-term studies at 100 to 1000 times the human dose was hyperostosis, mainly of the medulla of sternebrae. Hyperostosis did not occur in long-term studies in the dog and rat and has not been seen in humans treated with misoprostol.

Carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, impairment of fertility

There was no evidence of an effect of misoprostol on tumor occurrence or incidence in rats receiving daily doses up to 150 times the human dose for 24 months. Similarly, there was no effect of misoprostol on tumor occurrence or incidence in mice receiving daily doses up to 1000 times the human dose for 21 months. The mutagenic potential of misoprostol was tested in several assays, all of which were negative.

Misoprostol, when administered to breeding male and female rats at doses 6.25 times to 625 times the maximum recommended human therapeutic dose, produced dose-related pre- and post-implantation losses and a significant decrease in the number of live pups born at the highest dose. These findings suggest the possibility of a general adverse effect on fertility in males and females.

Pregnancy

Teratogenic effects

See Congenital anomalies sometimes associated with fetal death have been reported subsequent to the unsuccessful use of misoprostol as an abortifacient, but the drug's teratogenic mechanism has not been demonstrated. Several reports in the literature associate the use of misoprostol during the first trimester of pregnancy with skull defects, cranial nerve palsies, facial malformations, and limb defects.

Misoprostol is not fetotoxic or teratogenic in rats and rabbits at doses 625 and 63 times the human dose, respectively.

Nonteratogenic effects

See . Misoprostol may endanger pregnancy (may cause abortion) and thereby cause harm to the fetus when administered to a pregnant woman. Misoprostol may produce uterine contractions, uterine bleeding, and expulsion of the products of conception. Abortions caused by misoprostol may be incomplete. If a woman is or becomes pregnant while taking this drug to reduce the risk of NSAID-induced ulcers, the drug should be discontinued and the patient apprised of the potential hazard to the fetus.

Labor and delivery

Misoprostol can induce or augment uterine contractions. Vaginal administration of misoprostol, outside of its approved indication, has been used as a cervical ripening agent, for the induction of labor and for treatment of serious postpartum hemorrhage in the presence of uterine atony. A major adverse effect of the obstetrical use of misoprostol is uterine tachysystole which may progress to uterine tetany with marked impairment of uteroplacental blood flow, uterine rupture (requiring surgical repair, hysterectomy, and/or salpingo-oophorectomy), or amniotic fluid embolism and lead to adverse fetal heart changes. Uterine activity and fetal status should be monitored by trained obstetrical personnel in a hospital setting.

The risk of uterine rupture associated with misoprostol use in pregnancy increases with advancing gestational ages and prior uterine surgery, including Cesarean delivery. Grand multiparity also appears to be a risk factor for uterine rupture.

The use of misoprostol outside of its approved indication may also be associated with meconium passage, meconium staining of amniotic fluid, and Cesarean delivery. Maternal shock, maternal death, fetal bradycardia, and fetal death have also been reported with the use of misoprostol.

Misoprostol should not be used in the third trimester in women with a history of Cesarean section or major uterine surgery because of an increased risk of uterine rupture.

Misoprostol should not be used in cases where uterotonic drugs are generally contraindicated or where hyperstimulation of the uterus is considered inappropriate, such as cephalopelvic disproportion, grand multiparity, hypertonic or hyperactive uterine patterns, or fetal distress where delivery is not imminent, or when surgical intervention is more appropriate.

The effect of misoprostol on later growth, development, and functional maturation of the child when misoprostol is used for cervical ripening or induction of labor has not been established. Information on misoprostol's effect on the need for forceps delivery or other intervention is unknown.

The use of misoprostol for the management of postpartum hemorrhage has been associated with reports of high fevers (greater than 40 degrees Celsius or 104 degrees Fahrenheit), accompanied by autonomic and central nervous system effects, such as tachycardia, disorientation, agitation, and convulsions. These fevers were transient in nature. Supportive therapy should be dictated by the patient's clinical presentation.

Nursing mothers

Misoprostol is rapidly metabolized in the mother to misoprostol acid, which is biologically active and is excreted in breast milk. There are no published reports of adverse effects of misoprostol in breast-feeding infants of mothers taking misoprostol. Caution should be exercised when misoprostol is administered to a nursing woman.

Pediatric use

Safety and effectiveness of misoprostol in pediatric patients have not been established.


What are the side effects of misoprostol?

The following have been reported as adverse events in subjects receiving misoprostol:

Gastrointestinal

In subjects receiving misoprostol 400 or 800 mcg daily in clinical trials, the most frequent gastrointestinal adverse events were diarrhea and abdominal pain. The incidence of diarrhea at 800 mcg in controlled trials in patients on NSAIDs ranged from 14–40% and in all studies (over 5,000 patients) averaged 13%. Abdominal pain occurred in 13–20% of patients in NSAID trials and about 7% in all studies, but there was no consistent difference from placebo.

Diarrhea was dose-related and usually developed early in the course of therapy (after 13 days), usually was self-limiting (often resolving after 8 days), but sometimes required discontinuation of misoprostol (2% of the patients). Rare instances of profound diarrhea leading to severe dehydration have been reported. Patients with an underlying condition such as inflammatory bowel disease, or those in whom dehydration, were it to occur, would be dangerous, should be monitored carefully if misoprostol is prescribed. The incidence of diarrhea can be minimized by administering after meals and at bedtime, and by avoiding coadministration of misoprostol with magnesium-containing antacids.

Gynecological

Women who received misoprostol during clinical trials reported the following gynecological disorders: spotting (0.7%), cramps (0.6%), hypermenorrhea (0.5%), menstrual disorder (0.3%) and dysmenorrhea (0.1%). Postmenopausal vaginal bleeding may be related to misoprostol administration. If it occurs, diagnostic workup should be undertaken to rule out gynecological pathology (see ).

Elderly

There were no significant differences in the safety profile of misoprostol in approximately 500 ulcer patients who were 65 years of age or older compared with younger patients.

Additional adverse events which were reported are categorized as follows:

Incidence greater than 1%

In clinical trials, the following adverse reactions were reported by more than 1% of the subjects receiving misoprostol and may be causally related to the drug: nausea (3.2%), flatulence (2.9%), headache (2.4%), dyspepsia (2.0%), vomiting (1.3%), and constipation (1.1%). However, there were no significant differences between the incidences of these events for misoprostol and placebo.

Causal relationship unknown

The following adverse events were infrequently reported. Causal relationships between misoprostol and these events have not been established but cannot be excluded:

Body as a whole:

Skin:

Special senses:

Respiratory:

Cardiovascular:

Gastrointestinal:

Hypersensitivity:

Metabolic:

Genitourinary:

Nervous system/Psychiatric:

Musculoskeletal:

Blood/Coagulation:


What should I look out for while using misoprostol?

See

Misoprostol should not be taken by pregnant women to reduce the risk of ulcers induced by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).

Misoprostol should not be taken by anyone with a history of allergy to prostaglandins.

See

For hospital use only if misoprostol were to be used for cervical ripening, induction of labor, or for the treatment of serious post-partum hemorrhage, which are outside of the approved indication.


What might happen if I take too much misoprostol?

The toxic dose of misoprostol in humans has not been determined. Cumulative total daily doses of 1600 mcg have been tolerated, with only symptoms of gastrointestinal discomfort being reported. In animals, the acute toxic effects are diarrhea, gastrointestinal lesions, focal cardiac necrosis, hepatic necrosis, renal tubular necrosis, testicular atrophy, respiratory difficulties, and depression of the central nervous system. Clinical signs that may indicate an overdose are sedation, tremor, convulsions, dyspnea, abdominal pain, diarrhea, fever, palpitations, hypotension, or bradycardia. Symptoms should be treated with supportive therapy.

It is not known if misoprostol acid is dialyzable. However, because misoprostol is metabolized like a fatty acid, it is unlikely that dialysis would be appropriate treatment for overdosage.


How should I store and handle misoprostol?

Store at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted to 15°C to 30°C (59°F to 86°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Keep tightly closed (protect from moisture). Protect from light.Misoprostol 100-mcg tablets are white, round, with G and 5007 debossed on one side; supplied as:Misoprostol 200-mcg tablets are white, hexagonal, with G debossed above and 5008 debossed below the line on one side; supplied as:Misoprostol 100-mcg tablets are white, round, with G and 5007 debossed on one side; supplied as:Misoprostol 200-mcg tablets are white, hexagonal, with G debossed above and 5008 debossed below the line on one side; supplied as:


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Clinical Information

Chemical Structure

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Clinical Pharmacology

Misoprostol is extensively absorbed, and undergoes rapid de-esterification to its free acid, which is responsible for its clinical activity and, unlike the parent compound, is detectable in plasma. The alpha side chain undergoes beta oxidation and the beta side chain undergoes omega oxidation followed by reduction of the ketone to give prostaglandin F analogs.

In normal volunteers, misoprostol is rapidly absorbed after oral administration with a T of misoprostol acid of 12 ± 3 minutes and a terminal half-life of 20–40 minutes.

There is high variability of plasma levels of misoprostol acid between and within studies but mean values after single doses show a linear relationship with dose over the range of 200–400 mcg. No accumulation of misoprostol acid was noted in multiple dose studies; plasma steady state was achieved within two days.

Maximum plasma concentrations of misoprostol acid are diminished when the dose is taken with food and total availability of misoprostol acid is reduced by use of concomitant antacid. Clinical trials were conducted with concomitant antacid, however, so this effect does not appear to be clinically important.

After oral administration of radiolabeled misoprostol, about 80% of detected radioactivity appears in urine. Pharmacokinetic studies in patients with varying degrees of renal impairment showed an approximate doubling of T, C, and AUC compared to normals, but no clear correlation between the degree of impairment and AUC. In subjects over 64 years of age, the AUC for misoprostol acid is increased. No routine dosage adjustment is recommended in older patients or patients with renal impairment, but dosage may need to be reduced if the usual dose is not tolerated.

Drug interaction studies between misoprostol and several nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs showed no effect on the kinetics of ibuprofen or diclofenac, and a 20% decrease in aspirin AUC, not thought to be clinically significant.

Pharmacokinetic studies also showed a lack of drug interaction with antipyrine and propranolol when these drugs were given with misoprostol. Misoprostol given for 1 week had no effect on the steady state pharmacokinetics of diazepam when the two drugs were administered 2 hours apart.

The serum protein binding of misoprostol acid is less than 90% and is concentration-independent in the therapeutic range.

After a single oral dose of misoprostol to nursing mothers, misoprostol acid was excreted in breast milk. The maximum concentration of misoprostol acid in expressed breast milk was achieved within 1 hour after dosing and was 7.6 pg/ml (CV 37%) and 20.9 pg/ml (CV 62%) after single 200 µg and 600 µg misoprostol administration, respectively. The misoprostol acid concentrations in breast milk declined to

Non-Clinical Toxicology
See

Misoprostol should not be taken by pregnant women to reduce the risk of ulcers induced by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).

Misoprostol should not be taken by anyone with a history of allergy to prostaglandins.

See

For hospital use only if misoprostol were to be used for cervical ripening, induction of labor, or for the treatment of serious post-partum hemorrhage, which are outside of the approved indication.

See Misoprostol has not been shown to interfere with the beneficial effects of aspirin on signs and symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis. Misoprostol does not exert clinically significant effects on the absorption, blood levels, and antiplatelet effects of therapeutic doses of aspirin. Misoprostol has no clinically significant effect on the kinetics of diclofenac or ibuprofen.

Prostaglandins such as misoprostol may augment the activity of oxytocic agents, especially when given less than 4 hours prior to initiating oxytocin treatment. Concomitant use is not recommended.

Caution should be employed when administering misoprostol to patients with pre-existing cardiovascular disease.

The following have been reported as adverse events in subjects receiving misoprostol:

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Reference

This information is obtained from the National Institute of Health's Standard Packaging Label drug database.
"https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/"

While we update our database periodically, we cannot guarantee it is always updated to the latest version.

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Professional

Clonazepam Description Each single-scored tablet, for oral administration, contains 0.5 mg, 1 mg, or 2 mg Clonazepam, USP, a benzodiazepine. Each tablet also contains corn starch, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, and povidone. Clonazepam tablets USP 0.5 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake. Clonazepam tablets USP 1 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake, as well as FD&C Blue No. 1 Aluminum Lake. Chemically, Clonazepam, USP is 5-(o-chlorophenyl)-1,3-dihydro-7-nitro-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one. It is a light yellow crystalline powder. It has the following structural formula: C15H10ClN3O3 M.W. 315.72
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Tips

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Interactions

Interactions

A total of 440 drugs (1549 brand and generic names) are known to interact with Imbruvica (ibrutinib). 228 major drug interactions (854 brand and generic names) 210 moderate drug interactions (691 brand and generic names) 2 minor drug interactions (4 brand and generic names) Show all medications in the database that may interact with Imbruvica (ibrutinib).