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What is Modafinil?
Modafinil tablets, USP are a wakefulness-promoting agent for oral administration. Modafinil is a racemic compound. The chemical name for modafinil is 2-[(diphenylmethyl)sulfinyl]acetamide. The molecular formula is CHNOS and the molecular weight is 273.35.
The chemical structure is:
Modafinil USP is a white to off-white, crystalline powder that is practically insoluble in water and cyclohexane. It is sparingly to slightly soluble in methanol and acetone.
Modafinil tablets, USP contain 100 mg or 200 mg of modafinil USP and the following inactive ingredients: croscarmellose sodium, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, and povidone.
What does Modafinil look like?
What are the available doses of Modafinil?
Tablets: 100 mg and 200 mg.
What should I talk to my health care provider before I take Modafinil?
Pregnancy: Based on animal data, may cause fetal harm.
How should I use Modafinil?
Modafinil tablets, USP are indicated to improve wakefulness in adult patients with excessive sleepiness associated with narcolepsy, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), or shift work disorder (SWD).
In OSA, modafinil tablets, USP are indicated to treat excessive sleepiness and not as treatment for the underlying obstruction. If continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the treatment of choice for a patient, a maximal effort to treat with CPAP for an adequate period of time should be made prior to initiating and during treatment with modafinil tablets, USP for excessive sleepiness.
The recommended dosage of modafinil tablets for patients with narcolepsy or OSA is 200 mg taken orally once a day as a single dose in the morning. Doses up to 400 mg/day, given as a single dose, have been well tolerated, but there is no consistent evidence that this dose confers additional benefit beyond that of the 200 mg/day dose .
What interacts with Modafinil?
Sorry No Records found
What are the warnings of Modafinil?
Sorry No Records found
What are the precautions of Modafinil?
Sorry No Records found
What are the side effects of Modafinil?
Sorry No records found
What should I look out for while using Modafinil?
Modafinil tablets are contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to modafinil or armodafinil or its inactive ingredients .
What might happen if I take too much Modafinil?
In clinical trials, a total of 151 protocol-specified doses ranging from 1000 to 1600 mg/day (5 to 8 times the recommended daily dose of modafinil) have been administered to 32 subjects, including 13 subjects who received doses of 1000 or 1200 mg/day for 7 to 21 consecutive days.
In addition, several intentional acute overdoses occurred; the two largest being 4500 mg and 4000 mg taken by two subjects participating in foreign depression studies. None of these study subjects experienced any unexpected or life-threatening effects. Adverse reactions that were reported at these doses included excitation or agitation, insomnia, and slight or moderate elevations in hemodynamic parameters. Other observed high-dose effects in clinical studies have included anxiety, irritability, aggressiveness, confusion, nervousness, tremor, palpitations, sleep disturbances, nausea, diarrhea, and decreased prothrombin time.
From postmarketing experience, there have been reports of fatal overdoses involving modafinil alone or in combination with other drugs. Symptoms most often accompanying modafinil overdose, alone or in combination with other drugs have included insomnia; central nervous system symptoms such as restlessness, disorientation, confusion, agitation, anxiety, excitation, and hallucination; digestive changes such as nausea and diarrhea; and cardiovascular changes such as tachycardia, bradycardia, hypertension, and chest pain.
Cases of accidental ingestion/overdose have been reported in children as young as 11 months of age. The highest reported accidental ingestion on a mg/kg basis occurred in a three-year-old boy who ingested 800 to 1000 mg (50 to 63 mg/kg) of modafinil. The child remained stable. The symptoms associated with overdose in children were similar to those observed in adults.
No specific antidote exists for the toxic effects of a modafinil overdose. Such overdoses should be managed with primarily supportive care, including cardiovascular monitoring.
How should I store and handle Modafinil?
Store at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted to 15 to 30°C (59 to 86°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature].Alfuzosin Hydrochloride Extended-Release Tablets USP, 10 mg
Chemical StructureNo Image found
The mechanism(s) through which modafinil promotes wakefulness is unknown. Modafinil has wake-promoting actions similar to sympathomimetic agents including amphetamine and methylphenidate, although the pharmacologic profile is not identical to that of the sympathomimetic amines.
Modafinil-induced wakefulness can be attenuated by the α-adrenergic receptor antagonist, prazosin; however, modafinil is inactive in other assay systems known to be responsive to α-adrenergic agonists such as the rat vas deferens preparation.
Modafinil is not a direct- or indirect-acting dopamine receptor agonist. However, , modafinil binds to the dopamine transporter and inhibits dopamine reuptake. This activity has been associated with increased extracellular dopamine levels in some brain regions of animals. In genetically engineered mice lacking the dopamine transporter (DAT), modafinil lacked wake-promoting activity, suggesting that this activity was DAT-dependent. However, the wake-promoting effects of modafinil, unlike those of amphetamine, were not antagonized by the dopamine receptor antagonist haloperidol in rats. In addition, alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine, a dopamine synthesis inhibitor, blocks the action of amphetamine, but does not block locomotor activity induced by modafinil.
In the cat, equal wakefulness-promoting doses of methylphenidate and amphetamine increased neuronal activation throughout the brain. Modafinil at an equivalent wakefulness-promoting dose selectively and prominently increased neuronal activation in more discrete regions of the brain. The relationship of this finding in cats to the effects of modafinil in humans is unknown.
In addition to its wake-promoting effects and ability to increase locomotor activity in animals, modafinil produces psychoactive and euphoric effects, alterations in mood, perception, thinking, and feelings typical of other CNS stimulants in humans. Modafinil has reinforcing properties, as evidenced by its self-administration in monkeys previously trained to self-administer cocaine; modafinil was also partially discriminated as stimulant-like.
The optical enantiomers of modafinil have similar pharmacological actions in animals. Two major metabolites of modafinil, modafinil acid and modafinil sulfone, do not appear to contribute to the CNS-activating properties of modafinil.
Non-Clinical ToxicologyModafinil tablets are contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to modafinil or armodafinil or its inactive ingredients .
When administered concurrently, the following drugs may interact with adrenal corticosteroids.
Barbiturates, phenytoin, or rifampin—
Serious rash requiring hospitalization and discontinuation of treatment has been reported in association with the use of modafinil. In clinical trials of modafinil, the incidence of rash resulting in discontinuation was approximately 0.8% (13 per 1,585) in pediatric patients (age <17 years); these rashes included 1 case of possible Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and 1 case of apparent multi-organ hypersensitivity reaction. Several of the cases were associated with fever and other abnormalities (e.g., vomiting, leukopenia). The median time to rash that resulted in discontinuation was 13 days. No such cases were observed among 380 pediatric patients who received placebo. Modafinil is not approved for use in pediatric patients for any indication . Rare cases of serious or life-threatening rash, including SJS, Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis (TEN), and Drug Rash with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS) have been reported in adults and children in worldwide postmarketing experience. The reporting rate of TEN and SJS associated with modafinil use, which is generally accepted to be an underestimate due to underreporting, exceeds the background incidence rate. Estimates of the background incidence rate for these serious skin reactions in the general population range between 1 to 2 cases per million-person years. There are no factors that are known to predict the risk of occurrence or the severity of rash associated with modafinil. Nearly all cases of serious rash associated with modafinil occurred within 1 to 5 weeks after treatment initiation. However, isolated cases have been reported after prolonged treatment (e.g., 3 months). Accordingly, duration of therapy cannot be relied upon as a means to predict the potential risk heralded by the first appearance of a rash. Although benign rashes also occur with modafinil, it is not possible to reliably predict which rashes will prove to be serious. Accordingly, modafinil should be discontinued at the first sign of rash, unless the rash is clearly not drug-related. Discontinuation of treatment may not prevent a rash from becoming life-threatening or permanently disabling or disfiguring.
The following serious adverse reactions are described elsewhere in the labeling:
This information is obtained from the National Institute of Health's Standard Packaging Label drug database.
While we update our database periodically, we cannot guarantee it is always updated to the latest version.
ProfessionalClonazepam Description Each single-scored tablet, for oral administration, contains 0.5 mg, 1 mg, or 2 mg Clonazepam, USP, a benzodiazepine. Each tablet also contains corn starch, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, and povidone. Clonazepam tablets USP 0.5 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake. Clonazepam tablets USP 1 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake, as well as FD&C Blue No. 1 Aluminum Lake. Chemically, Clonazepam, USP is 5-(o-chlorophenyl)-1,3-dihydro-7-nitro-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one. It is a light yellow crystalline powder. It has the following structural formula: C15H10ClN3O3 M.W. 315.72
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