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NAFCILLIN

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Overview

What is NAFCILLIN?

Nafcillin Injection, USP is a sterile injectable product containing nafcillin which is added as Nafcillin Sodium, USP, a semisynthetic penicillin derived from the penicillin nucleus, 6-aminopenicillanic acid. The chemical name of nafcillin sodium is Monosodium (2,5,6)-6-(2-ethoxy-1-naphthamido)-3,3-dimethyl-7-oxo-4-thia-1- azabicyclo[3.2.0]heptane-2-carboxylate monohydrate. It is resistant to inactivation by the enzyme penicillinase (beta-lactamase). The molecular formula of Nafcillin Sodium, USP is CHNNaOS·HO. The molecular weight is 454.48. The structural formula of nafcillin sodium is as follows:

Nafcillin Injection, USP is a frozen, iso-osmotic, sterile, nonpyrogenic premixed 50 mL or 100 mL solution containing 1 g or 2 g of nafcillin, respectively, added as Nafcillin Sodium, USP. Dextrose, USP has been added to the above dosages to adjust osmolality (approximately 1.8 g and 3.6 g as dextrose hydrous to the 1 g and 2 g dosages, respectively). Sodium Citrate Hydrous, USP has been added as a buffer (approximately 90 mg and 180 mg to the 1 g and 2 g dosages, respectively). The pH has been adjusted with hydrochloric acid and may have been adjusted with sodium hydroxide. The pH is 6.5 (6.0 to 8.5). The solution is intended for intravenous use after thawing to room temperature.

This GALAXY container is fabricated from a specially designed multilayer plastic (PL 2040). Solutions are in contact with the polyethylene layer of this container and can leach out certain chemical components of the plastic in very small amounts within the expiration period. The suitability of the plastic has been confirmed in tests in animals according to the USP biological tests for plastic containers, as well as by tissue culture toxicity studies.



What does NAFCILLIN look like?



What are the available doses of NAFCILLIN?

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What should I talk to my health care provider before I take NAFCILLIN?

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How should I use NAFCILLIN?

Nafcillin is indicated in the treatment of infections caused by penicillinase-producing staphylococci which have demonstrated susceptibility to the drug. Culture and susceptibility tests should be performed initially to determine the causative organism and its susceptibility to the drug (see ).

Nafcillin should not be used in infections caused by organisms susceptible to penicillin G. If the susceptibility tests indicate that the infection is due to methicillin-resistant species, therapy with Nafcillin Injection, USP should be discontinued and alternative therapy provided.

To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of Nafcillin Injection, USP and other antibacterial drugs, Nafcillin Injection, USP should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.

Nafcillin Injection, USP supplied as a premixed frozen solution is to be administered as an intravenous infusion. The usual I.V. dosage for adults is 500 mg every 4 hours. For severe infections, 1 g every 4 hours is recommended. Administer slowly over at least 30 to 60 minutes to minimize the risk of vein irritation and extravasation. Bacteriologic studies to determine the causative organisms and their susceptibility to nafcillin should always be performed. Duration of therapy varies with the type and severity of infection as well as the overall condition of the patient; therefore, it should be determined by the clinical and bacteriological response of the patient. In severe staphylococcal infections, therapy with nafcillin should be continued for at least 14 days. The treatment of endocarditis and osteomyelitis may require a longer duration of therapy.

No dosage alterations are necessary for patients with renal dysfunction, including those on hemodialysis. Hemodialysis does not accelerate nafcillin clearance from the blood.

With intravenous administration, particularly in elderly patients, care should be taken because of the possibility of thrombophlebitis.

Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration whenever solution and container permit.

Do not add supplementary medication to Nafcillin Injection, USP.

Store in a freezer capable of maintaining a temperature of -20°C (-4°F) or less.


What interacts with NAFCILLIN?

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What are the warnings of NAFCILLIN?

Accidental Ingestion and Death in Children Keep benzonatate capsules out of reach of children. Accidental ingestion of benzonatate resulting in death has been reported in children below age 10. Signs and symptoms of overdose have been reported within 15-20 minutes and death has been reported within one hour of ingestion. If accidental ingestion occurs, seek medical attention immediately (see OVERDOSAGE).

Serious and occasionally fatal hypersensitivity (anaphylactic) reactions have been reported in patients receiving beta-lactam antibacterial drugs. These reactions are more likely to occur in individuals with a history of penicillin hypersensitivity and/or a history of sensitivity to multiple allergens. Before initiating therapy with Nafcillin, inquire about previous hypersensitivity reactions to penicillins, cephalosporins, or other allergens. If an allergic reaction occurs, discontinue Nafcillin and institute appropriate therapy.

If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibiotic use not directed against may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibiotic treatment of , and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.


What are the precautions of NAFCILLIN?

General

Nafcillin should generally not be administered to patients with a history of sensitivity to any penicillin.

Penicillin should be used with caution in individuals with histories of significant allergies and/or asthma. Whenever allergic reactions occur, penicillin should be withdrawn unless, in the opinion of the physician, the condition being treated is life-threatening and amenable only to penicillin therapy. The use of antibiotics may result in overgrowth of nonsusceptible organisms. If new infections due to bacteria or fungi occur, the drug should be discontinued and appropriate measures taken.

The liver/biliary tract is the primary route of nafcillin clearance. Caution should be exercised when patients with concomitant hepatic insufficiency and renal dysfunction are treated with nafcillin.

Prescribing Nafcillin Injection, USP in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria.

Laboratory Tests

Bacteriologic studies to determine the causative organisms and their susceptibility to the penicillinase-resistant penicillins should be performed (see ). In the treatment of suspected staphylococcal infections, therapy should be changed to another active agent if culture tests fail to demonstrate the presence of staphylococci.

Periodic assessment of organ system function including renal, hepatic, and hematopoietic should be made during prolonged therapy with nafcillin. White blood cell and differential cell counts should be obtained prior to initiation of therapy and periodically during therapy with nafcillin. Urinalysis, serum blood urea nitrogen, and creatinine determinations should be performed at baseline and periodically during therapy with nafcillin. Serum bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase, and gamma glutamyl transferase should be obtained at baseline and periodically during therapy, especially when using high nafcillin doses. In patients with worsening hepatic function, the risk versus benefit of continued Nafcillin use should be re-evaluated.

Drug Interactions

Tetracycline, a bacteriostatic antibiotic, may antagonize the bactericidal effect of penicillin, and concurrent use of these drugs should be avoided.

Nafcillin in high dosage regimens, 2 grams every 4 hours, has been reported to decrease the effects of warfarin. When nafcillin and warfarin are used concomitantly, the prothrombin time should be closely monitored and the dose of warfarin adjusted as necessary. This effect may persist for up to 30 days after nafcillin has been discontinued.

Nafcillin when administered concomitantly with cyclosporine has been reported to result in subtherapeutic cyclosporine levels. The nafcillin-cyclosporine interaction was documented in a patient during two separate courses of therapy. When cyclosporine and nafcillin are used concomitantly in organ transplant patients, the cyclosporine levels should be monitored.

Drug/Laboratory Test Interactions

Nafcillin in the urine can cause a false-positive urine reaction for protein when the sulfosalicyclic acid test is used, but not with the dipstick.

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

No long term animal studies have been conducted with these drugs. Studies on reproduction (nafcillin) in rats and mice reveal no fetal or maternal abnormalities before conception and continuously through weaning (one generation).

Pregnancy

Reproduction studies have been performed in the mouse with oral doses up to 20 times the human dose and orally in the rat at doses up to 40 times the human dose and have revealed no evidence of impaired fertility or harm to the rodent fetus due to nafcillin. There are, however, no adequate or well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, nafcillin should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.

Nursing Mothers

Penicillins are excreted in human milk. Caution should be exercised when penicillins are administered to a nursing woman.

Pediatric Use

The liver/biliary tract is the principal route of nafcillin elimination. Because of immature hepatic and renal function in pediatric patients, nafcillin excretion may be impaired. Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established for the use of intravenous nafcillin.

The potential for toxic effects in pediatric patients from chemicals that may leach from the single dose premixed intravenous preparation in plastic containers has not been determined.

Geriatric Use

Clinical studies of Nafcillin Injection, USP did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.

Nafcillin Injection, USP contains 76.6 mg (3.33 mEq) of sodium per gram. At the usual recommended doses, patients would receive between 230 and 460 mg/day (10.0 and 20.0 mEq) of sodium. The geriatric population may respond with a blunted natriuresis to salt loading. This may be clinically important with regard to such diseases as congestive heart failure.

Information for Patients

Patients should be counseled that antibacterial drugs including Nafcillin Injection, USP should only be used to treat bacterial infections. They do not treat viral infections ( the common cold). When Nafcillin Injection, USP is prescribed to treat a bacterial infection, patients should be told that although it is common to feel better early in the course of therapy, the medication should be taken exactly as directed. Skipping doses or not completing the full course of therapy may (1) decrease the effectiveness of the immediate treatment and (2) increase the likelihood that bacteria will develop resistance and will not be treatable by Nafcillin Injection, USP or other antibacterial drugs in the future.

Diarrhea is a common problem caused by antibiotics which usually ends when the antibiotic is discontinued. Sometimes after starting treatment with antibiotics, patients can develop watery and bloody stools (with or without stomach cramps and fever) even as late as two or more months after having taken the last dose of the antibiotic. If this occurs, patients should contact their physician as soon as possible.


What are the side effects of NAFCILLIN?

Body as a Whole

The reported incidence of allergic reactions to penicillin ranges from 0.7 to 10 percent (see ). Sensitization is usually the result of treatment, but some individuals have had immediate reactions to penicillin when first treated. In such cases, it is thought that the patients may have had prior exposure to the drug via trace amounts present in milk or vaccines. Two types of allergic reactions to penicillins are noted clinically, immediate and delayed.

Immediate reactions usually occur within 20 minutes of administration and range in severity from urticaria and pruritus to angioedema, laryngospasm, bronchospasm, hypotension, vascular collapse, and death. Such immediate anaphylactic reactions are very rare (see ) and usually occur after parenteral therapy but have occurred in patients receiving oral therapy. Another type of immediate reaction, an accelerated reaction, may occur between 20 minutes and 48 hours after administration and may include urticaria, pruritus, and fever.

Although laryngeal edema, laryngospasm, and hypotension occasionally occur, fatality is uncommon. Delayed allergic reactions to penicillin therapy usually occur after 48 hours and sometimes as late as 2 to 4 weeks after initiation of therapy. Manifestations of this type of reaction include serum sickness-like symptoms ( fever, malaise, urticaria, myalgia, arthralgia, abdominal pain) and various skin rashes. Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, stomatitis, black or hairy tongue, and other symptoms of gastrointestinal irritation may occur, especially during oral penicillin therapy.

Local Reactions

Pain, swelling, inflammation, phlebitis, thrombophlebitis, and occasional skin sloughing at the injection site have occurred with intravenous administration of nafcillin (see ). Severe tissue necrosis with sloughing secondary to subcutaneous extravasation of nafcillin has been reported.

Nervous System Reactions

Neurotoxic reactions similar to those observed with penicillin G could occur with large intravenous or intraventricular doses of nafcillin especially in patients with concomitant hepatic insufficiency and renal dysfunction (see ).

Nephrotoxicity

Renal tubular damage and interstitial nephritis have been associated with the administration of nafcillin. Manifestations of nephrotoxicity are hematuria, proteinuria, and acute kidney injury, and may be associated with rash, fever, and eosinophilia. The majority of cases resolve upon discontinuation of nafcillin. Some patients, however, may require dialysis treatment and may develop permanent renal damage.

Hepatic Reactions

Elevation of liver transaminases and/or cholestasis may occur, specifically with administration of high doses of nafcillin.

Gastrointestinal Reactions

Pseudomembranous colitis has been reported with the use of nafcillin. The onset of pseudomembranous colitis symptoms may occur during or after antibiotic treatment (see ).

Metabolic Reactions

Agranulocytosis, neutropenia, and bone marrow depression have been associated with the use of nafcillin.


What should I look out for while using NAFCILLIN?

A history of a hypersensitivity (anaphylactic) reaction to any penicillin is a contraindication.

Solutions containing dextrose may be contraindicated in patients with known allergy to corn or corn products.

Serious and occasionally fatal hypersensitivity (anaphylactic) reactions have been reported in patients receiving beta-lactam antibacterial drugs. These reactions are more likely to occur in individuals with a history of penicillin hypersensitivity and/or a history of sensitivity to multiple allergens. Before initiating therapy with Nafcillin, inquire about previous hypersensitivity reactions to penicillins, cephalosporins, or other allergens. If an allergic reaction occurs, discontinue Nafcillin and institute appropriate therapy.

Clostridium difficile

C. difficile

C. difficile

C. difficile

If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibiotic use not directed against may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibiotic treatment of , and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.


What might happen if I take too much NAFCILLIN?

Neurotoxic reactions similar to those observed with penicillin G may arise with intravenous doses of nafcillin especially in patients with concomitant hepatic insufficiency and renal dysfunction (see ).

In the case of overdosage, discontinue nafcillin, treat symptomatically and institute supportive measures as required. Hemodialysis does not increase the rate of clearance of nafcillin from the blood.


How should I store and handle NAFCILLIN?

Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Dispense in a tight container.Half-tablets (scored ursodiol 500 mg tablets broken in half) maintain acceptable quality for up to 28 days when stored in the current packaging (bottles) at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F). Due to the bitter taste, the halved segments should be stored separately from the whole tablets [].Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Dispense in a tight container.Half-tablets (scored ursodiol 500 mg tablets broken in half) maintain acceptable quality for up to 28 days when stored in the current packaging (bottles) at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F). Due to the bitter taste, the halved segments should be stored separately from the whole tablets [].Nafcillin Injection, USP is supplied as a premixed frozen iso-osmotic solution in 50 mL and 100 mL single dose GALAXY containers (PL 2040 Plastic) as follows:2G3540 NDC 0338-1017-41 1 gram nafcillin in 50 mL 2G3556 NDC 0338-1019-48 2 grams nafcillin in 100 mLStore at or below -20°C/-4°F. See Handle frozen product containers with care. Product containers may be fragile in the frozen state.Nafcillin Injection, USP is supplied as a premixed frozen iso-osmotic solution in 50 mL and 100 mL single dose GALAXY containers (PL 2040 Plastic) as follows:2G3540 NDC 0338-1017-41 1 gram nafcillin in 50 mL 2G3556 NDC 0338-1019-48 2 grams nafcillin in 100 mLStore at or below -20°C/-4°F. See Handle frozen product containers with care. Product containers may be fragile in the frozen state.Nafcillin Injection, USP is supplied as a premixed frozen iso-osmotic solution in 50 mL and 100 mL single dose GALAXY containers (PL 2040 Plastic) as follows:2G3540 NDC 0338-1017-41 1 gram nafcillin in 50 mL 2G3556 NDC 0338-1019-48 2 grams nafcillin in 100 mLStore at or below -20°C/-4°F. See Handle frozen product containers with care. Product containers may be fragile in the frozen state.Nafcillin Injection, USP is supplied as a premixed frozen iso-osmotic solution in 50 mL and 100 mL single dose GALAXY containers (PL 2040 Plastic) as follows:2G3540 NDC 0338-1017-41 1 gram nafcillin in 50 mL 2G3556 NDC 0338-1019-48 2 grams nafcillin in 100 mLStore at or below -20°C/-4°F. See Handle frozen product containers with care. Product containers may be fragile in the frozen state.


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Clinical Information

Chemical Structure

No Image found
Clinical Pharmacology

Penicillinase-resistant penicillins exert a bactericidal action against penicillin-susceptible microorganisms during the state of active multiplication. All penicillins inhibit the biosynthesis of the bacterial cell wall. Nafcillin sodium has been shown to be active against most isolates of the following microorganism, both and in clinical infections as described in the INDICATIONS AND USAGE section.

Gram-Positive Bacteria

Staphylococcus aureus

Non-Clinical Toxicology
A history of a hypersensitivity (anaphylactic) reaction to any penicillin is a contraindication.

Solutions containing dextrose may be contraindicated in patients with known allergy to corn or corn products.

Serious and occasionally fatal hypersensitivity (anaphylactic) reactions have been reported in patients receiving beta-lactam antibacterial drugs. These reactions are more likely to occur in individuals with a history of penicillin hypersensitivity and/or a history of sensitivity to multiple allergens. Before initiating therapy with Nafcillin, inquire about previous hypersensitivity reactions to penicillins, cephalosporins, or other allergens. If an allergic reaction occurs, discontinue Nafcillin and institute appropriate therapy.

Clostridium difficile

C. difficile

C. difficile

C. difficile

If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibiotic use not directed against may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibiotic treatment of , and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.

Tetracycline, a bacteriostatic antibiotic, may antagonize the bactericidal effect of penicillin, and concurrent use of these drugs should be avoided.

Nafcillin in high dosage regimens, 2 grams every 4 hours, has been reported to decrease the effects of warfarin. When nafcillin and warfarin are used concomitantly, the prothrombin time should be closely monitored and the dose of warfarin adjusted as necessary. This effect may persist for up to 30 days after nafcillin has been discontinued.

Nafcillin when administered concomitantly with cyclosporine has been reported to result in subtherapeutic cyclosporine levels. The nafcillin-cyclosporine interaction was documented in a patient during two separate courses of therapy. When cyclosporine and nafcillin are used concomitantly in organ transplant patients, the cyclosporine levels should be monitored.

Nafcillin should generally not be administered to patients with a history of sensitivity to any penicillin.

Penicillin should be used with caution in individuals with histories of significant allergies and/or asthma. Whenever allergic reactions occur, penicillin should be withdrawn unless, in the opinion of the physician, the condition being treated is life-threatening and amenable only to penicillin therapy. The use of antibiotics may result in overgrowth of nonsusceptible organisms. If new infections due to bacteria or fungi occur, the drug should be discontinued and appropriate measures taken.

The liver/biliary tract is the primary route of nafcillin clearance. Caution should be exercised when patients with concomitant hepatic insufficiency and renal dysfunction are treated with nafcillin.

Prescribing Nafcillin Injection, USP in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria.

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Reference

This information is obtained from the National Institute of Health's Standard Packaging Label drug database.
"https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/"

While we update our database periodically, we cannot guarantee it is always updated to the latest version.

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Professional

Clonazepam Description Each single-scored tablet, for oral administration, contains 0.5 mg, 1 mg, or 2 mg Clonazepam, USP, a benzodiazepine. Each tablet also contains corn starch, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, and povidone. Clonazepam tablets USP 0.5 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake. Clonazepam tablets USP 1 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake, as well as FD&C Blue No. 1 Aluminum Lake. Chemically, Clonazepam, USP is 5-(o-chlorophenyl)-1,3-dihydro-7-nitro-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one. It is a light yellow crystalline powder. It has the following structural formula: C15H10ClN3O3 M.W. 315.72
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Tips

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Interactions

Interactions

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