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Nisoldipine

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Overview

What is Nisoldipine?

Nisoldipine is an extended release tablet dosage form of the dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker. Nisoldipine is 3,5-pyridinedicarboxylic acid, 1,4-dihydro-2,6-dimethyl-4-(2-nitrophenyl)-, methyl 2-methyl-propyl ester, C20H24N2O6, and has the structural formula:

Nisoldipine is a yellow crystalline substance, practically insoluble in water but soluble in ethanol. It has a molecular weight of 388.4. Nisoldipine tablets comprise three layers: a top barrier layer, a middle layer containing nisoldipine, and a bottom barrier layer. The erodible barrier layers and the hydrogel middle layer provide for the controlled release of the drug. Nisoldipine tablets contain either 8.5, 17, 25.5, or 34 mg of nisoldipine for once-a-day oral administration.

Inactive ingredients in the formulation include: Hypromellose, hypromellose phthalate, lactose, glyceryl behenate, povidone, magnesium stearate, silicon dioxide, methacrylic acid copolymer, and sodium lauryl sulfate. Inactive ingredients in the film coating include: polydextrose, titanium dioxide, hypromellose, polyethylene glycol, iron oxide, and carnauba wax. Additionally, the 17 mg formulation contains FD&C Yellow #5.



What does Nisoldipine look like?



What are the available doses of Nisoldipine?

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What should I talk to my health care provider before I take Nisoldipine?

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How should I use Nisoldipine?

Nisoldipine is indicated for the treatment of hypertension. It maybe used alone or in combination with other antihypertensive agents.

The dosage of Nisoldipine must be adjusted to each patient's needs. Therapy usually should be initiated with 17 mg orally once daily, then increased by 8.5 mg per week or longer intervals, to attain adequate control of blood pressure. Usual maintenance dosage is 17 to 34 mg once daily. Blood pressure response increases over the 8.5 - 34 mg daily dose range but adverse event rates also increase. Doses beyond 34 mg once daily are not recommended. Nisoldipine has been used safely with diuretics, ACE inhibitors, and beta-blocking agents. Patients over age 65, or patients with impaired liver function, are expected to develop higher plasma concentrations of nisoldipine. Their blood pressure should be monitored closely during any dosage adjustment. A starting dose not exceeding 8.5mg daily is recommended in these patient groups. Nisoldipine tablets should be administered orally once daily. Nisoldipine should be taken on an empty stomach (1 hour before or 2 hours after a meal). Grapefruit products should be avoided before and after dosing. Nisoldipine is an extended release dosage form and tablets should be swallowed whole, not bitten, divided, or crushed.


What interacts with Nisoldipine?

Nisoldipine is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers.



What are the warnings of Nisoldipine?

The management of NMS should include: 1) intensive symptomatic treatment and medical monitoring and 2) treatment of any concomitant serious medical problems for which specific treatments are available. Dopamine agonists, such as bromocriptine, and muscle relaxants, such as dantrolene, are often used in the treatment of NMS, however, their effectiveness has not been demonstrated in controlled studies.


What are the precautions of Nisoldipine?

General

Because nisoldipine, like other vasodilators, decreases peripheral vascular resistance, careful monitoring of blood pressure during the initial administration and titration of Nisoldipine is recommended. Close observation is especially important for patients already taking medications that are known to lower blood pressure. Although in most patients the hypotensive effect of Nisoldipine is modest and well tolerated, occasional patients have had excessive and poorly tolerated hypotension. These responses have usually occurred during initial titration or at the time of subsequent upward dosage adjustment.

Although acute hemodynamic studies of nisoldipine in patients with NYHA Class II-IV heart failure have not demonstrated negative inotropic effects, safety of Nisoldipine in patients with heart failure has not been established. Caution therefore should be exercised when using Nisoldipine in patients with heart failure or compromised ventricular function, particularly in combination with a beta-blocker.

Because nisoldipine is extensively metabolized by the liver and, in patients with cirrhosis, it reaches blood concentrations about 5 times those in normals, Nisoldipine should be administered cautiously in patients with severe hepatic dysfunction (See ).

Information for Patients

Nisoldipine is an extended release tablet and should be swallowed whole. Tablets should not be chewed, divided or crushed. Nisoldipine should be taken on an empty stomach (1 hour before or 2 hours after a meal). Grapefruit juice, which has been shown to increase significantly the bioavailability of nisoldipine and other dihydropyridine type calcium channel blockers, should not be taken with Nisoldipine. This product contains FD&C Yellow No. 5 (tartrazine) which may cause allergic-type reactions (including bronchial asthma) in certain susceptible persons. Although the overall incidence of FD&C Yellow No. 5 (tartrazine) sensitivity in the general population is low, it is frequently seen in patients who also have aspirin hypersensitivity.

Laboratory Tests

Nisoldipine is not known to interfere with the interpretation of laboratory tests.

Drug Interactions

A 30 to 45% increase in AUC and Cmax of nisoldipine was observed with concomitant administration of cimetidine 400 mg twice daily. Ranitidine 150 mg twice daily did not interact significantly with nisoldipine (AUC was decreased by 15-20%). No pharmacodynamic effects of either histamine H2 receptor antagonist were observed. CYP3A4 inhibitors and inducers: Nisoldipine is a substrate of CYP3A4 and coadministration should be avoided in general. Coadministration of phenytoin with a dose bioequivalent to 34 mg Nisoldipine tablets in epileptic patients lowered the nisoldipine plasma concentrations to undetectable levels. Coadministration of Nisoldipine with phenytoin should be avoided and alternative antihypertensive therapy should be considered. Pharmacokinetic interactions between nisoldipine and beta-blockers (atenolol, propranolol) were variable and not significant. Propranolol attenuated the heart rate increase following administration of immediate release nisoldipine. The blood pressure effect of Nisoldipine tended to be greater in patients on atenolol than in patients on no other antihypertensive therapy. Quinidine at 648 mg bid decreased the bioavailability (AUC) of nisoldipine by 26%, but not the peak concentration. Immediate release nisoldipine increased plasma quinidine concentrations by about 20%. This interaction was not accompanied by ECG changes and its clinical significance is not known. No significant interactions were found between nisoldipine and warfarin or digoxin.

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

Dietary administration of nisoldipine to male and female rats for up to 24 months (mean doses up to 82 and 111 mg/kg/day, 16 and 19 times the maximum recommended human dose {MRHD} on a mg/m2 basis, respectively) and female mice for up to 21 months (mean doses of up to 217 mg/kg/day, 20 times the MRHD on a mg/m2 basis) revealed no evidence of tumorigenic effect of nisoldipine. In male mice receiving a mean dose of 163 mg nisoldipine/kg/day (16 times the MRHD of 60 mg/day on a mg/m2 basis), an increased frequency of stomach papilloma, but still within the historical range, was observed. No evidence of stomach neoplasia was observed at lower doses (up to 58 mg/kg/day). Nisoldipine was negative when tested in a battery of genotoxicity assays including the Ames test and the CHO/HGRPT assay for mutagenicity and the in vivo mouse micronucleus test and in vitro CHO cell test for clastogenicity. When administered to male and female rats at doses of up to 30 mg/kg/day (about 5 times the MRHD on a mg/m2 basis) nisoldipine had no effect on fertility.

Pregnancy Category C

Nisoldipine was neither teratogenic nor fetotoxic at doses that were not maternally toxic. Nisoldipine was fetotoxic but not teratogenic in rats and rabbits at doses resulting in maternal toxicity (reduced maternal body weight gain). In pregnant rats, increased fetal resorption (postimplantation loss) was observed at 100 mg/kg/day and decreased fetal weight was observed at both 30 and 100 mg/kg/day. These doses are, respectively, about 5 and 16 times the MRHD when compared on a mg/m2 basis. In pregnant rabbits, decreased fetal and placental weights were observed at a dose of 30 mg/kg/day, about 10 times the MRHD when compared on a mg/m2 basis. In a study in which pregnant monkeys (both treated and control) had high rates of abortion and mortality, the only surviving fetus from a group exposed to a maternal dose of 100 mg nisoldipine/kg/day (about 30 times the MRHD when compared on a mg/m2 basis) presented with forelimb and vertebral abnormalities not previously seen in control monkeys of the same strain. There are no adequate and well controlled studies in pregnant women. Nisoldipine should be used in pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.

Nursing Mothers

It is not known whether nisoldipine is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, a decision should be made to discontinue nursing, or to discontinue Nisoldipine, taking in to account the importance of the drug to the mother.

Pediatric Use

Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established.

Geriatric Use

Clinical studies of nisoldipine did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. Patients over 65 are expected to develop higher plasma concentrations of nisoldipine. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.


What are the side effects of Nisoldipine?

Sorry No records found


What should I look out for while using Nisoldipine?

Nisoldipine is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers.

Increased angina and/or myocardial infarction in patients with coronary artery disease: Rarely, patients, particularly those with severe obstructive coronary artery disease, have developed increased frequency, duration and/or severity of angina, or acute myocardial infarction on starting calcium channel blocker therapy or at the time of dosage increase. The mechanism of this effect has not been established. In controlled studies of Nisoldipine in patients with angina this was seen about 1.5% of the time in patients given nisoldipine, compared with 0.9% in patients given placebo.


What might happen if I take too much Nisoldipine?

There is no experience with nisoldipine overdosage. Generally, overdosage with other dihydropyridines leading to pronounced hypotension calls for active cardiovascular support including monitoring of cardiovascular and respiratory function, elevation of extremities, judicious use of calcium infusion, pressor agents and fluids. Clearance of nisoldipine would be expected to be slowed in patients with impaired liver function. Since nisoldipine is highly protein bound, dialysis is not likely to be of any benefit; however, plasmapheresis may be beneficial.


How should I store and handle Nisoldipine?

Store at controlled room temperature 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [see USP] .Nisoldipine extended release tablets are supplied as 8.5 mg and 17 mg round film coated tablets and 25.5 mg and 34 mg elliptic film coated tablets. The different strengths can be identified as follows: Nisoldipine tablets are supplied in:Nisoldipine extended release tablets are supplied as 8.5 mg and 17 mg round film coated tablets and 25.5 mg and 34 mg elliptic film coated tablets. The different strengths can be identified as follows: Nisoldipine tablets are supplied in:


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Clinical Information

Chemical Structure

No Image found
Clinical Pharmacology

Nisoldipine is a member of the dihydropyridine class of calcium channel antagonists (calcium ion antagonists or slow channel blockers) that inhibit the transmembrane influx of calcium into vascular smooth muscle and cardiac muscle. It reversibly competes with other dihydropyridines for binding to the calcium channel. Because the contractile process of vascular smooth muscle is dependent upon the movement of extracellular calcium into the muscle through specific ion channels, inhibition of the calcium channel results in dilation of the arterioles. In vitro studies show that the effects of nisoldipine on contractile processes are selective, with greater potency on vascular smooth muscle than on cardiac muscle. Although, like other dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers, nisoldipine has negative inotropic effects in vitro, studies conducted in intact anesthetized animals have shown that the vasodilating effect occurs as doses lower than those that affect cardiac contractility.

The effect of nisoldipine on blood pressure is principally a consequence of a dose-related decrease of peripheral vascular resistance. While nisoldipine, like other dihydropyridines, exhibits a mild diuretic effect, most of the antihypertensive activity is attributed to its effect on peripheral vascular resistance.

Non-Clinical Toxicology
Nisoldipine is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers.

Increased angina and/or myocardial infarction in patients with coronary artery disease: Rarely, patients, particularly those with severe obstructive coronary artery disease, have developed increased frequency, duration and/or severity of angina, or acute myocardial infarction on starting calcium channel blocker therapy or at the time of dosage increase. The mechanism of this effect has not been established. In controlled studies of Nisoldipine in patients with angina this was seen about 1.5% of the time in patients given nisoldipine, compared with 0.9% in patients given placebo.

A 30 to 45% increase in AUC and Cmax of nisoldipine was observed with concomitant administration of cimetidine 400 mg twice daily. Ranitidine 150 mg twice daily did not interact significantly with nisoldipine (AUC was decreased by 15-20%). No pharmacodynamic effects of either histamine H2 receptor antagonist were observed. CYP3A4 inhibitors and inducers: Nisoldipine is a substrate of CYP3A4 and coadministration should be avoided in general. Coadministration of phenytoin with a dose bioequivalent to 34 mg Nisoldipine tablets in epileptic patients lowered the nisoldipine plasma concentrations to undetectable levels. Coadministration of Nisoldipine with phenytoin should be avoided and alternative antihypertensive therapy should be considered. Pharmacokinetic interactions between nisoldipine and beta-blockers (atenolol, propranolol) were variable and not significant. Propranolol attenuated the heart rate increase following administration of immediate release nisoldipine. The blood pressure effect of Nisoldipine tended to be greater in patients on atenolol than in patients on no other antihypertensive therapy. Quinidine at 648 mg bid decreased the bioavailability (AUC) of nisoldipine by 26%, but not the peak concentration. Immediate release nisoldipine increased plasma quinidine concentrations by about 20%. This interaction was not accompanied by ECG changes and its clinical significance is not known. No significant interactions were found between nisoldipine and warfarin or digoxin.

More that 6000 patients world-wide have received nisoldipine in clinical trials for the treatment of hypertension, either as the immediate release or the Nisoldipine extended release formulation. Of about 1,500 patients who received Nisoldipine in hypertension studies, about 55% were exposed for at least 2 months and about one third were exposed for over 6 months, the great majority at doses equivalent to 17 mg and above.

Nisoldipine is generally well-tolerated. In the U.S. clinical trials of Nisoldipine in hypertension, 10.9% of the 921 Nisoldipine patients discontinued treatment due to adverse events compared with 2.9% of 280 placebo patients. The frequency of discontinuations due to adverse experiences was related to dose, with a 5.4% and 10.9% discontinuation rate at the lowest and highest daily dose, respectively.

The most frequently occurring adverse experiences with Nisoldipine are those related to its vasodilator properties; these are generally mild and only occasionally lead to patient withdrawal from treatment. The table below, from U.S. placebo-controlled parallel dose response trials of Nisoldipine using doses across the clinical dosage range in patients with hypertension, lists all of the adverse events, regardless of the causal relationship to Nisoldipine, for which the overall incidence on Nisoldipine was both >1% and greater with Nisoldipine than with placebo.

The common adverse events occurred at about the same rate in men as in women, and at a similar rate in patients over age 65 as in those in under that age, except that headache was much less common in older patients. Except for peripheral edema and vasodilation, which were more common in whites, adverse event rates were similar in blacks and whites.

The following adverse events occurred in <1% of all patients treated for hypertension in U.S. and foreign clinical trials, or with unspecified incidence in other studies. Although a causal relationship of Nisoldipine to these events cannot be established, they are listed to alert the physician to a possible relationship with Nisoldipine treatment.

Body As A Whole: cellulitis, chills, facial edema, fever, flu syndrome, malaise

Cardiovascular: atrial fibrillation, cerebrovascular accident, congestive heart failure, first degree AV block, hypertension, hypotension, jugular venous distension, migraine, myocardial infarction, postural hypotension, ventricular extrasystoles, supraventricular tachycardia, syncope, systolic ejection murmur, T wave abnormalities on ECG (flattening, inversion, nonspecific changes), venous insufficiency

Digestive: abnormal liver function tests, anorexia, colitis, diarrhea, dry mouth, dyspepsia, dysphagia, flatulence, gastritis, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, gingival hyperplasia, glossitis, hepatomegaly, increased appetite, melena, mouth ulceration.

Endocrine: diabetes mellitus, thyroiditis

Hemic and Lymphatic: anemia, ecchymoses, leukopenia, petechiae

Metabolic and Nutritional: gout, hypokalemia, increased serum creatine kinase, increased nonprotein nitrogen, weight gain, weight loss

Musculoskeletal: arthralgia, arthritis, leg cramps, myalgia, myasthenia, myositis, tenosynovitis

Nervous: abnormal dreams, abnormal thinking and confusion, amnesia, anxiety, ataxia, cerebral ischemia, decreased libido, depression, hypesthesia, hypertonia, insomnia, nervousness, paresthesia, somnolence, tremor, vertigo

Respiratory: asthma, dyspnea, end inspiratory wheeze and fine rales, epistaxis, increased cough, laryngitis, pharyngitis, pleural effusion, rhinitis, sinusitis

Skin and Appendages: acne, alopecia, dry skin, exfoliative dermatitis, fungal dermatitis, herpes simplex, herpes zoster, maculopapular rash, pruritus, pustular rash, skin discoloration, skin ulcer, sweating, urticaria

Special Senses: abnormal vision, amblyopia, blepharitis, conjunctivitis, ear pain, glaucoma, itchy eyes, keratoconjunctivitis, otitis media, retinal detachment, tinnitus, watery eyes, taste disturbance, temporary unilateral loss of vision, vitreous floater

Urogenital: dysuria, hematuria, nocturia, urinary frequency, increased BUN and serum creatinine, vaginal hemorrhage, vaginitis.

The following postmarketing event has been reported very rarely in patients receiving Nisoldipine: systemic hypersensitivity reaction, which may include one or more of the following: angioedema, shortness of breath, tachycardia, chest tightness, hypotension, and rash. A definite causal relationship with Nisoldipine has not been established. An unusual event observed with immediate release nisoldipine but not observed with Nisoldipine extended release was one case of photosensitivity. Gynecomastia has been associated with the use of calcium channel blockers.

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Reference

This information is obtained from the National Institute of Health's Standard Packaging Label drug database.
"https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/"

While we update our database periodically, we cannot guarantee it is always updated to the latest version.

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Professional

Clonazepam Description Each single-scored tablet, for oral administration, contains 0.5 mg, 1 mg, or 2 mg Clonazepam, USP, a benzodiazepine. Each tablet also contains corn starch, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, and povidone. Clonazepam tablets USP 0.5 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake. Clonazepam tablets USP 1 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake, as well as FD&C Blue No. 1 Aluminum Lake. Chemically, Clonazepam, USP is 5-(o-chlorophenyl)-1,3-dihydro-7-nitro-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one. It is a light yellow crystalline powder. It has the following structural formula: C15H10ClN3O3 M.W. 315.72
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Tips

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Interactions

Interactions

A total of 440 drugs (1549 brand and generic names) are known to interact with Imbruvica (ibrutinib). 228 major drug interactions (854 brand and generic names) 210 moderate drug interactions (691 brand and generic names) 2 minor drug interactions (4 brand and generic names) Show all medications in the database that may interact with Imbruvica (ibrutinib).