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Nitrofurantoin Macrocrystals

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Overview

What is Nitrofurantoin Macrocrystals?

Nitrofurantoin Capsules USP (Macrocrystals) are a synthetic chemical of controlled crystal size. It is a stable, yellow, crystalline compound. Nitrofurantoin Capsules USP (Macrocrystals) are an antibacterial agent for specific urinary tract infections.

Nitrofurantoin, USP (macrocrystals) is chemically designated as 2,4-Imidazolidinedione, 1-[[(5-nitro-2-furanyl)methylene]amino]- and has the following structural formula:

CHNO(anhydrous) M.W. 238.16

Each capsule, for oral administration, contains 50 mg or 100 mg of nitrofurantoin, USP (macrocrystals). In addition, each capsule contains the following inactive ingredients: corn starch, edible black ink (black iron oxide, D&C Yellow No. 10 Aluminum Lake, FD&C Blue No. 1 Aluminum Lake, FD&C Blue No. 2 Aluminum Lake, FD&C Red No. 40 Aluminum Lake, propylene glycol, shellac glaze), gelatin, lactose monohydrate, talc, titanium dioxide and colorant D&C Red No. 33.



What does Nitrofurantoin Macrocrystals look like?



What are the available doses of Nitrofurantoin Macrocrystals?

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What should I talk to my health care provider before I take Nitrofurantoin Macrocrystals?

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How should I use Nitrofurantoin Macrocrystals?

Nitrofurantoin Capsules USP (Macrocrystals) are specifically indicated for the treatment of urinary tract infections when due to susceptible strains of , enterococci, , and certain susceptible strains of and species.

Nitrofurantoin is not indicated for the treatment of pyelonephritis or perinephric abscesses. To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of Nitrofurantoin Capsules USP (Macrocrystals) and other antibacterial drugs, Nitrofurantoin Capsules USP (Macrocrystals) should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.

Nitrofurantoins lack the broader tissue distribution of other therapeutic agents approved for urinary tract infections. Consequently, many patients who are treated with Nitrofurantoin Capsules USP (Macrocrystals) are predisposed to persistence or reappearance of bacteriuria. Urine specimens for culture and susceptibility testing should be obtained before and after completion of therapy. If persistence or reappearance of bacteriuria occurs after treatment with Nitrofurantoin Capsules USP (Macrocrystals), other therapeutic agents with broader tissue distribution should be selected. In considering the use of Nitrofurantoin Capsules USP (Macrocrystals), lower eradication rates should be balanced against the increased potential for systemic toxicity and for the development of antimicrobial resistance when agents with broader tissue distribution are utilized.

Nitrofurantoin capsules (macrocrystals) should be given with food to improve drug absorption and, in some patients, tolerance.


What interacts with Nitrofurantoin Macrocrystals?

Anuria, oliguria, or significant impairment of renal function (creatinine clearance under 60 mL per minute or clinically significant elevated serum creatinine) are contraindications. Treatment of this type of patient carries an increased risk of toxicity because of impaired excretion of the drug.


Because of the possibility of hemolytic anemia due to immature erythrocyte enzyme systems (glutathione instability), the drug is contraindicated in pregnant patients at term (38 to 42 weeks’ gestation), during labor and delivery, or when the onset of labor is imminent. For the same reason, the drug is contraindicated in neonates under one month of age.


Nitrofurantoin macrocrystals are contraindicated in patients with a previous history of cholestatic jaundice/hepatic dysfunction associated with nitrofurantoin.


Nitrofurantoin macrocrystals are also contraindicated in those patients with known hypersensitivity to nitrofurantoin.



What are the warnings of Nitrofurantoin Macrocrystals?

Pulmonary Reactions

ACUTE, SUBACUTE, OR CHRONIC PULMONARY REACTIONS HAVE BEEN OBSERVED IN PATIENTS TREATED WITH NITROFURANTOIN. IF THESE REACTIONS OCCUR, NITROFURANTOIN MACROCRYSTALS SHOULD BE DISCONTINUED AND APPROPRIATE MEASURES TAKEN. REPORTS HAVE CITED PULMONARY REACTIONS AS A CONTRIBUTING CAUSE OF DEATH.

CHRONIC PULMONARY REACTIONS (DIFFUSE INTERSTITIAL PNEUMONITIS OR PULMONARY FIBROSIS, OR BOTH) CAN DEVELOP INSIDIOUSLY. THESE REACTIONS OCCUR RARELY AND GENERALLY IN PATIENTS RECEIVING THERAPY FOR SIX MONTHS OR LONGER. CLOSE MONITORING OF THE PULMONARY CONDITION OF PATIENTS RECEIVING LONG-TERM THERAPY IS WARRANTED AND REQUIRES THAT THE BENEFITS OF THERAPY BE WEIGHED AGAINST POTENTIAL RISKS (SEE ).

Hepatotoxicity

Hepatic reactions, including hepatitis, cholestatic jaundice, chronic active hepatitis, and hepatic necrosis, occur rarely. Fatalities have been reported. The onset of chronic active hepatitis may be insidious, and patients should be monitored periodically for changes in biochemical tests that would indicate liver injury. If hepatitis occurs, the drug should be withdrawn immediately and appropriate measures should be taken.

Neuropathy

Peripheral neuropathy, which may become severe or irreversible, has occurred. Fatalities have been reported. Conditions such as renal impairment (creatinine clearance under 60 mL per minute or clinically significant elevated serum creatinine), anemia, diabetes mellitus, electrolyte imbalance, vitamin B deficiency, and debilitating disease may enhance the occurrence of peripheral neuropathy. Patients receiving long-term therapy should be monitored periodically for changes in renal function.

Optic neuritis has been reported rarely in postmarketing experience with nitrofurantoin formulations.

Hemolytic Anemia

Cases of hemolytic anemia of the primaquine-sensitivity type have been induced by nitrofurantoin. Hemolysis appears to be linked to a glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in the red blood cells of the affected patients. This deficiency is found in 10 percent of Blacks and a small percentage of ethnic groups of Mediterranean and Near-Eastern origin. Hemolysis is an indication for discontinuing nitrofurantoin macrocrystals; hemolysis ceases when the drug is withdrawn.

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If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibiotic use not directed against may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibiotic treatment of , and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.


What are the precautions of Nitrofurantoin Macrocrystals?

Information for Patients

Patients should be advised to take nitrofurantoin macrocrystals with food to further enhance tolerance and improve drug absorption. Patients should be instructed to complete the full course of therapy; however, they should be advised to contact their physician if any unusual symptoms occur during therapy.

Many patients who cannot tolerate microcrystalline nitrofurantoin are able to take nitrofurantoin macrocrystals without nausea.

Patients should be advised not to use antacid preparations containing magnesium trisilicate while taking nitrofurantoin macrocrystals.

Patients should be counseled that antibacterial drugs including nitrofurantoin macrocrystals should only be used to treat bacterial infections. They do not treat viral infections (e.g., the common cold). When nitrofurantoin macrocrystals are prescribed to treat a bacterial infection, patients should be told that although it is common to feel better early in the course of therapy, the medication should be taken exactly as directed. Skipping doses or not completing the full course of therapy may (1) decrease the effectiveness of the immediate treatment and (2) increase the likelihood that bacteria will develop resistance and will not be treatable by nitrofurantoin macrocrystals or other antibacterial drugs in the future.

Diarrhea is a common problem caused by antibiotics which usually ends when the antibiotic is discontinued. Sometimes after starting treatment with antibiotics, patients can develop watery and bloody stools (with or without stomach cramps and fever) even as late as two or more months after having taken the last dose of the antibiotic. If this occurs, patients should contact their physician as soon as possible.

General

Prescribing nitrofurantoin macrocrystals in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria.

Drug Interactions

Antacids containing magnesium trisilicate, when administered concomitantly with nitrofurantoin, reduce both the rate and extent of absorption. The mechanism for this interaction probably is adsorption of nitrofurantoin onto the surface of magnesium trisilicate.

Uricosuric drugs, such as probenecid and sulfinpyrazone, can inhibit renal tubular secretion of nitrofurantoin. The resulting increase in nitrofurantoin serum levels may increase toxicity, and the decreased urinary levels could lessen its efficacy as a urinary tract antibacterial.

Drug/Laboratory Test Interactions

As a result of the presence of nitrofurantoin, a false-positive reaction for glucose in the urine may occur. This has been observed with Benedict's and Fehling's solutions but not with the glucose enzymatic test.

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

Nitrofurantoin was not carcinogenic when fed to female Holtzman rats for 44.5 weeks or to female Sprague-Dawley rats for 75 weeks. Two chronic rodent bioassays utilizing male and female Sprague-Dawley rats and two chronic bioassays in Swiss mice and in BDF mice revealed no evidence of carcinogenicity.

Nitrofurantoin presented evidence of carcinogenic activity in female B6C3F mice as shown by increased incidences of tubular adenomas, benign mixed tumors, and granulosa cell tumors of the ovary. In male F344/N rats, there were increased incidences of uncommon kidney tubular cell neoplasms, osteosarcomas of the bone, and neoplasms of the subcutaneous tissue. In one study involving subcutaneous administration of 75 mg/kg nitrofurantoin to pregnant female mice, lung papillary adenomas of unknown significance were observed in the F1 generation.

Nitrofurantoin has been shown to induce point mutations in certain strains of and forward mutations in L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells. Nitrofurantoin induced increased numbers of sister chromatid exchanges and chromosomal aberrations in Chinese hamster ovary cells but not in human cells in culture. Results of the sex-linked recessive lethal assay in Drosophila were negative after administration of nitrofurantoin by feeding or by injection. Nitrofurantoin did not induce heritable mutation in the rodent models examined.

The significance of the carcinogenicity and mutagenicity findings relative to the therapeutic use of nitrofurantoin in humans is unknown.

The administration of high doses of nitrofurantoin to rats causes temporary spermatogenic arrest; this is reversible on discontinuing the drug. Doses of 10 mg/kg/day or greater in healthy human males may, in certain unpredictable instances, produce a slight to moderate spermatogenic arrest with a decrease in sperm count.

Pregnancy

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Nitrofurantoin has been shown in one published transplacental carcinogenicity study to induce lung papillary adenomas in the F1 generation mice at doses 19 times the human dose on a mg/kg basis. The relationship of this finding to potential human carcinogenesis is presently unknown. Because of the uncertainty regarding the human implications of these animal data, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.

Labor and Delivery

See .

Nursing Mothers

Nitrofurantoin has been detected in human breast milk in trace amounts. Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions from nitrofurantoin in nursing infants under one month of age, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother (see ).

Pediatric Use

Nitrofurantoin macrocrystals are contraindicated in infants below the age of one month (see ).

Geriatric Use

Clinical studies of nitrofurantoin macrocrystals did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. Spontaneous reports suggest a higher proportion of pulmonary reactions, including fatalities, in elderly patients; these differences appear to be related to the higher proportion of elderly patients receiving long-term nitrofurantoin therapy. As in younger patients, chronic pulmonary reactions generally are observed in patients receiving therapy for six months or longer (see ). Spontaneous reports also suggest an increased proportion of severe hepatic reactions, including fatalities, in elderly patients (see ).

In general, the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy should be considered when prescribing nitrofurantoin macrocrystals. This drug is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of toxic reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Anuria, oliguria, or significant impairment of renal function (creatinine clearance under 60 mL per minute or clinically significant elevated serum creatinine) are contraindications (see ). Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function.


What are the side effects of Nitrofurantoin Macrocrystals?

Respiratory

CHRONIC, SUBACUTE, OR ACUTE PULMONARY HYPERSENSITIVITY REACTIONS MAY OCCUR.

CHRONIC PULMONARY REACTIONS OCCUR GENERALLY IN PATIENTS WHO HAVE RECEIVED CONTINUOUS TREATMENT FOR SIX MONTHS OR LONGER. MALAISE, DYSPNEA ON EXERTION, COUGH, AND ALTERED PULMONARY FUNCTION ARE COMMON MANIFESTATIONS WHICH CAN OCCUR INSIDIOUSLY. RADIOLOGIC AND HISTOLOGIC FINDINGS OF DIFFUSE INTERSTITIAL PNEUMONITIS OR FIBROSIS, OR BOTH, ARE ALSO COMMON MANIFESTATIONS OF THE CHRONIC PULMONARY REACTION. FEVER IS RARELY PROMINENT.

THE SEVERITY OF CHRONIC PULMONARY REACTIONS AND THEIR DEGREE OF RESOLUTION APPEAR TO BE RELATED TO THE DURATION OF THERAPY AFTER THE FIRST CLINICAL SIGNS APPEAR. PULMONARY FUNCTION MAY BE IMPAIRED PERMANENTLY, EVEN AFTER CESSATION OF THERAPY. THE RISK IS GREATER WHEN CHRONIC PULMONARY REACTIONS ARE NOT RECOGNIZED EARLY.

In subacute pulmonary reactions, fever and eosinophilia occur less often than in the acute form. Upon cessation of therapy, recovery may require several months. If the symptoms are not recognized as being drug-related and nitrofurantoin therapy is not stopped, the symptoms may become more severe.

Acute pulmonary reactions are commonly manifested by fever, chills, cough, chest pain, dyspnea, pulmonary infiltration with consolidation or pleural effusion on x-ray, and eosinophilia. Acute reactions usually occur within the first week of treatment and are reversible with cessation of therapy. Resolution often is dramatic (see ).

Changes in EKG (e.g., non-specific ST/T wave changes, bundle branch block) have been reported in association with pulmonary reactions.

Cyanosis has been reported rarely.

Hepatic

Hepatic reactions, including hepatitis, cholestatic jaundice, chronic active hepatitis, and hepatic necrosis, occur rarely (see ).

Neurologic

Peripheral neuropathy, which may become severe or irreversible, has occurred. Fatalities have been reported. Conditions such as renal impairment (creatinine clearance under 60 mL per minute or clinically significant elevated serum creatinine), anemia, diabetes mellitus, electrolyte imbalance, vitamin B deficiency, and debilitating diseases may increase the possibility of peripheral neuropathy (see ).

Asthenia, vertigo, nystagmus, dizziness, headache, and drowsiness also have been reported with the use of nitrofurantoin.

Benign intracranial hypertension (pseudotumor cerebri), confusion, depression, optic neuritis, and psychotic reactions have been reported rarely. Bulging fontanels, as a sign of benign intracranial hypertension in infants, have been reported rarely.

Dermatologic

Exfoliative dermatitis and erythema multiforme (including Stevens-Johnson syndrome) have been reported rarely. Transient alopecia also has been reported.

Allergic

A lupus-like syndrome associated with pulmonary reactions to nitrofurantoin has been reported. Also, angioedema; maculopapular, erythematous, or eczematous eruptions; pruritus; urticaria; anaphylaxis; arthralgia; myalgia; drug fever; chills; and vasculitis (sometimes associated with pulmonary reactions) have been reported. Hypersensitivity reactions represent the most frequent spontaneously-reported adverse events in worldwide postmarketing experience with nitrofurantoin formulations.

Gastrointestinal

Nausea, emesis, and anorexia occur most often. Abdominal pain and diarrhea are less common gastrointestinal reactions. These dose-related reactions can be minimized by reduction of dosage. Sialadenitis and pancreatitis have been reported. There have been sporadic reports of pseudomembranous colitis with the use of nitrofurantoin. The onset of pseudomembranous colitis symptoms may occur during or after antimicrobial treatment (see ).

Hematologic

Cyanosis secondary to methemoglobinemia has been reported rarely.

Miscellaneous

As with other antimicrobial agents, superinfections caused by resistant organisms, e.g., species or species, can occur.

Laboratory Adverse Events

The following laboratory adverse events have been reported with the use of nitrofurantoin: increased AST (SGOT), increased ALT (SGPT), decreased hemoglobin, increased serum phosphorus, eosinophilia, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency anemia (see ), agranulocytosis, leukopenia, granulocytopenia, hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, megaloblastic anemia. In most cases, these hematologic abnormalities resolved following cessation of therapy. Aplastic anemia has been reported rarely.


What should I look out for while using Nitrofurantoin Macrocrystals?

Anuria, oliguria, or significant impairment of renal function (creatinine clearance under 60 mL per minute or clinically significant elevated serum creatinine) are contraindications. Treatment of this type of patient carries an increased risk of toxicity because of impaired excretion of the drug.

Because of the possibility of hemolytic anemia due to immature erythrocyte enzyme systems (glutathione instability), the drug is contraindicated in pregnant patients at term (38 to 42 weeks’ gestation), during labor and delivery, or when the onset of labor is imminent. For the same reason, the drug is contraindicated in neonates under one month of age.

Nitrofurantoin macrocrystals are contraindicated in patients with a previous history of cholestatic jaundice/hepatic dysfunction associated with nitrofurantoin.

Nitrofurantoin macrocrystals are also contraindicated in those patients with known hypersensitivity to nitrofurantoin.


What might happen if I take too much Nitrofurantoin Macrocrystals?

Occasional incidents of acute overdosage of nitrofurantoin macrocrystals have not resulted in any specific symptoms other than vomiting. Induction of emesis is recommended. There is no specific antidote, but a high fluid intake should be maintained to promote urinary excretion of the drug. It is dialyzable.


How should I store and handle Nitrofurantoin Macrocrystals?

Store between 2-8°C (36°-46°F).Nitrofurantoin Capsules USP (Macrocrystals) are available as pink opaque/white opaque capsules, imprinted with, “Zenith 50 mg” on the cap and “2130”, underlined with a double bar, on the body, in black ink, containing 50 mg nitrofurantoin macrocrystals, packaged in bottles of 100 (0115-1643-01) and 1000 capsules (0115-1643-03).Nitrofurantoin Capsules USP (Macrocrystals) are available as pink opaque capsules, imprinted with, “Zenith 100 mg” on the cap and “2131”, underlined with a triple bar, on the body, in black ink, containing 100 mg nitrofurantoin macrocrystals, packaged in bottles of 100 (0115-1645-01) and 1000 capsules (0115-1645-03).Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature].Dispense in a tight, light-resistant container as defined in the USP, with a child-resistant closure (as required).KEEP THIS AND ALL MEDICATIONS OUT OF THE REACH OF CHILDREN.Nitrofurantoin Capsules USP (Macrocrystals) are available as pink opaque/white opaque capsules, imprinted with, “Zenith 50 mg” on the cap and “2130”, underlined with a double bar, on the body, in black ink, containing 50 mg nitrofurantoin macrocrystals, packaged in bottles of 100 (0115-1643-01) and 1000 capsules (0115-1643-03).Nitrofurantoin Capsules USP (Macrocrystals) are available as pink opaque capsules, imprinted with, “Zenith 100 mg” on the cap and “2131”, underlined with a triple bar, on the body, in black ink, containing 100 mg nitrofurantoin macrocrystals, packaged in bottles of 100 (0115-1645-01) and 1000 capsules (0115-1645-03).Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature].Dispense in a tight, light-resistant container as defined in the USP, with a child-resistant closure (as required).KEEP THIS AND ALL MEDICATIONS OUT OF THE REACH OF CHILDREN.Nitrofurantoin Capsules USP (Macrocrystals) are available as pink opaque/white opaque capsules, imprinted with, “Zenith 50 mg” on the cap and “2130”, underlined with a double bar, on the body, in black ink, containing 50 mg nitrofurantoin macrocrystals, packaged in bottles of 100 (0115-1643-01) and 1000 capsules (0115-1643-03).Nitrofurantoin Capsules USP (Macrocrystals) are available as pink opaque capsules, imprinted with, “Zenith 100 mg” on the cap and “2131”, underlined with a triple bar, on the body, in black ink, containing 100 mg nitrofurantoin macrocrystals, packaged in bottles of 100 (0115-1645-01) and 1000 capsules (0115-1645-03).Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature].Dispense in a tight, light-resistant container as defined in the USP, with a child-resistant closure (as required).KEEP THIS AND ALL MEDICATIONS OUT OF THE REACH OF CHILDREN.Nitrofurantoin Capsules USP (Macrocrystals) are available as pink opaque/white opaque capsules, imprinted with, “Zenith 50 mg” on the cap and “2130”, underlined with a double bar, on the body, in black ink, containing 50 mg nitrofurantoin macrocrystals, packaged in bottles of 100 (0115-1643-01) and 1000 capsules (0115-1643-03).Nitrofurantoin Capsules USP (Macrocrystals) are available as pink opaque capsules, imprinted with, “Zenith 100 mg” on the cap and “2131”, underlined with a triple bar, on the body, in black ink, containing 100 mg nitrofurantoin macrocrystals, packaged in bottles of 100 (0115-1645-01) and 1000 capsules (0115-1645-03).Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature].Dispense in a tight, light-resistant container as defined in the USP, with a child-resistant closure (as required).KEEP THIS AND ALL MEDICATIONS OUT OF THE REACH OF CHILDREN.Nitrofurantoin Capsules USP (Macrocrystals) are available as pink opaque/white opaque capsules, imprinted with, “Zenith 50 mg” on the cap and “2130”, underlined with a double bar, on the body, in black ink, containing 50 mg nitrofurantoin macrocrystals, packaged in bottles of 100 (0115-1643-01) and 1000 capsules (0115-1643-03).Nitrofurantoin Capsules USP (Macrocrystals) are available as pink opaque capsules, imprinted with, “Zenith 100 mg” on the cap and “2131”, underlined with a triple bar, on the body, in black ink, containing 100 mg nitrofurantoin macrocrystals, packaged in bottles of 100 (0115-1645-01) and 1000 capsules (0115-1645-03).Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature].Dispense in a tight, light-resistant container as defined in the USP, with a child-resistant closure (as required).KEEP THIS AND ALL MEDICATIONS OUT OF THE REACH OF CHILDREN.Nitrofurantoin Capsules USP (Macrocrystals) are available as pink opaque/white opaque capsules, imprinted with, “Zenith 50 mg” on the cap and “2130”, underlined with a double bar, on the body, in black ink, containing 50 mg nitrofurantoin macrocrystals, packaged in bottles of 100 (0115-1643-01) and 1000 capsules (0115-1643-03).Nitrofurantoin Capsules USP (Macrocrystals) are available as pink opaque capsules, imprinted with, “Zenith 100 mg” on the cap and “2131”, underlined with a triple bar, on the body, in black ink, containing 100 mg nitrofurantoin macrocrystals, packaged in bottles of 100 (0115-1645-01) and 1000 capsules (0115-1645-03).Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature].Dispense in a tight, light-resistant container as defined in the USP, with a child-resistant closure (as required).KEEP THIS AND ALL MEDICATIONS OUT OF THE REACH OF CHILDREN.Nitrofurantoin Capsules USP (Macrocrystals) are available as pink opaque/white opaque capsules, imprinted with, “Zenith 50 mg” on the cap and “2130”, underlined with a double bar, on the body, in black ink, containing 50 mg nitrofurantoin macrocrystals, packaged in bottles of 100 (0115-1643-01) and 1000 capsules (0115-1643-03).Nitrofurantoin Capsules USP (Macrocrystals) are available as pink opaque capsules, imprinted with, “Zenith 100 mg” on the cap and “2131”, underlined with a triple bar, on the body, in black ink, containing 100 mg nitrofurantoin macrocrystals, packaged in bottles of 100 (0115-1645-01) and 1000 capsules (0115-1645-03).Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature].Dispense in a tight, light-resistant container as defined in the USP, with a child-resistant closure (as required).KEEP THIS AND ALL MEDICATIONS OUT OF THE REACH OF CHILDREN.


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Clinical Information

Chemical Structure

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Clinical Pharmacology

Nitrofurantoin macrocrystals are a larger crystal form of nitrofurantoin. The absorption of nitrofurantoin macrocrystals is slower and its excretion somewhat less when compared to nitrofurantoin. Blood concentrations at therapeutic dosage are usually low. It is highly soluble in urine, to which it may impart a brown color.

Following a dose regimen of 100 mg q.i.d. for 7 days, average urinary drug recoveries (0 to 24 hours) on day 1 and day 7 were 37.9% and 35%.

Unlike many drugs, the presence of food or agents delaying gastric emptying can increase the bioavailability of nitrofurantoin macrocrystals, presumably by allowing better dissolution in gastric juices.

Non-Clinical Toxicology
Anuria, oliguria, or significant impairment of renal function (creatinine clearance under 60 mL per minute or clinically significant elevated serum creatinine) are contraindications. Treatment of this type of patient carries an increased risk of toxicity because of impaired excretion of the drug.

Because of the possibility of hemolytic anemia due to immature erythrocyte enzyme systems (glutathione instability), the drug is contraindicated in pregnant patients at term (38 to 42 weeks’ gestation), during labor and delivery, or when the onset of labor is imminent. For the same reason, the drug is contraindicated in neonates under one month of age.

Nitrofurantoin macrocrystals are contraindicated in patients with a previous history of cholestatic jaundice/hepatic dysfunction associated with nitrofurantoin.

Nitrofurantoin macrocrystals are also contraindicated in those patients with known hypersensitivity to nitrofurantoin.

Antacids containing magnesium trisilicate, when administered concomitantly with nitrofurantoin, reduce both the rate and extent of absorption. The mechanism for this interaction probably is adsorption of nitrofurantoin onto the surface of magnesium trisilicate.

Uricosuric drugs, such as probenecid and sulfinpyrazone, can inhibit renal tubular secretion of nitrofurantoin. The resulting increase in nitrofurantoin serum levels may increase toxicity, and the decreased urinary levels could lessen its efficacy as a urinary tract antibacterial.

Patients should be advised to take nitrofurantoin macrocrystals with food to further enhance tolerance and improve drug absorption. Patients should be instructed to complete the full course of therapy; however, they should be advised to contact their physician if any unusual symptoms occur during therapy.

Many patients who cannot tolerate microcrystalline nitrofurantoin are able to take nitrofurantoin macrocrystals without nausea.

Patients should be advised not to use antacid preparations containing magnesium trisilicate while taking nitrofurantoin macrocrystals.

Patients should be counseled that antibacterial drugs including nitrofurantoin macrocrystals should only be used to treat bacterial infections. They do not treat viral infections (e.g., the common cold). When nitrofurantoin macrocrystals are prescribed to treat a bacterial infection, patients should be told that although it is common to feel better early in the course of therapy, the medication should be taken exactly as directed. Skipping doses or not completing the full course of therapy may (1) decrease the effectiveness of the immediate treatment and (2) increase the likelihood that bacteria will develop resistance and will not be treatable by nitrofurantoin macrocrystals or other antibacterial drugs in the future.

Diarrhea is a common problem caused by antibiotics which usually ends when the antibiotic is discontinued. Sometimes after starting treatment with antibiotics, patients can develop watery and bloody stools (with or without stomach cramps and fever) even as late as two or more months after having taken the last dose of the antibiotic. If this occurs, patients should contact their physician as soon as possible.

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Reference

This information is obtained from the National Institute of Health's Standard Packaging Label drug database.
"https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/"

While we update our database periodically, we cannot guarantee it is always updated to the latest version.

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Clonazepam Description Each single-scored tablet, for oral administration, contains 0.5 mg, 1 mg, or 2 mg Clonazepam, USP, a benzodiazepine. Each tablet also contains corn starch, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, and povidone. Clonazepam tablets USP 0.5 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake. Clonazepam tablets USP 1 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake, as well as FD&C Blue No. 1 Aluminum Lake. Chemically, Clonazepam, USP is 5-(o-chlorophenyl)-1,3-dihydro-7-nitro-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one. It is a light yellow crystalline powder. It has the following structural formula: C15H10ClN3O3 M.W. 315.72
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Interactions

Interactions

A total of 440 drugs (1549 brand and generic names) are known to interact with Imbruvica (ibrutinib). 228 major drug interactions (854 brand and generic names) 210 moderate drug interactions (691 brand and generic names) 2 minor drug interactions (4 brand and generic names) Show all medications in the database that may interact with Imbruvica (ibrutinib).